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ZOOLOGICA 


SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



VOLUME X 

DECEMBER, 1928—1935, NOVEMBER 
Numbers 1-4 Inclusive 


PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 
THE ZOOLOGICAL PARK, NEW YORK 






Nftu fork Znnlngital li’nrii'tg 

General Office: 101 Park Avenue, New Vork City 


Officers 

President, Madison Grant 

Vice-Presidents, W. Redmond Cross and Kermit Roosevelt 
Chairman, Executive Committee, Madison Grant 
Treasurer, Cornelius R. Agnew 
Secretary, Henry Fairfield Osborn, Jr. 

Jioarb of fErust zt* 

Class of 1936 

Madison Grant, Lewis R. Morris, Archer M. Huntington, Cornelius 
R. Agnew, Harrison Williams, Marshall Field, Ogden L. 

Mills, Vincent Astor, C. Suydam Cutting, Childs 
Frick, Alfred Ely, Herbert L. Pratt 


Class of 1937 

George Bird Grinnell, Frederic C. Walcott, George C. Clark, 

W. Redmond Cross, Henry Fairfield Osborn, Jr., George 
Gordon Battle, Bayard Dominick, Robert Gordon 
McKay, Kermit Roosevelt, John M. Schiff, 

Robert L. Gerry, Warren Kinney 

Class of 1938 

Robert S. Brewster, Edward S. Harkness, Irving K. Taylor, Harry 
Payne Bingham, Landon K. Thorne, J. Watson Webb, Oliver 
D. Filley, De Forest Grant, George F. Baker 

Scientific Staff 

W. Reid Blair, Director of the Zoological Park 
William T. Hornaday, Director Emeritus 
Charles H. Townsend, Director of the Aquarium 
C. M. Breder, Jr., Assistant Director, Aquarium 
Raymond L. Ditmars, Curator of Mammals and Reptiles 
William Beebe, Honorary Curator of Birds and Director of Department of 

Tropical Research 

Lee S. Crandall, Curator of Birds 
H. C. Raven, Prosector 
Charles V. Noback, Veterinarian 

Claude W. Leister, Ass’t to the Director and Curator, Educational Activities 
Edward R. Osterndorff, Photographer 
William Bridges, Editor and Curator of Publications 

Cbttorial Committee 

Madison Grant, Chairman 

W. Reid Blair Charles H. Townsend 

William Beebe George Bird Grinnell 

William Bridges 

ii 


Zoologica, Volume X, Numbers 1—J, '+ 


TITLES OF PAPERS 


PAGE 

1 — The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti, with a Summary of the Known 

Species of Marine Fish of the Island of Haiti and Santo Domingo 

Beebe & Tee-Van 1 

2— Cichlid Fishes in the West Indies with Especial Reference to Haiti, 

Including the Description of a New Species of Cichlasoma . Tee-Van 281 

3— An Annotated List of the Cyprinodont Fishes of Hispaniola, with 

Descriptions of Two New Species Myers 301 

4 — Additions to the Fish Fauna of Haiti and Santo Domingo 

Beebe & Tee-Van 317 



Zoologica, Volume X, Numbers 1 -J/. 


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 


THE FISHES OF PORT-AU-PRINCE BAY, HAITI 

PAGE 

Map A. — Haiti in relation to the West Indies. B. — Haiti showing localities 
where collections were made. C. — Eastern end of Port-au- 
Prince Bay showing the localities mentioned in this report .... 4 

Key to Families of Port-au-Prince Bay 17 

Nurse Shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum (Bonnaterre) 26 

Sharp-nosed Shark, Scoliodon terrae-novae (Richardson) 27 

Spot-fin Ground Shark; Caconeta, Carcharinus limbatus (Muller & Henle) 28 

Scythe-shaped Shark, Carcharinus falciformis (Bibron) 28 

Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus) 29 

Round Sting Ray, Urobatis sloani (Blainville) 30 

Eagle Ray, Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen) 31 

Giant Devil Fish; Great Manta, Manta birostris (Walbaum) 32 

Big-eyed Herring, Elops saurus Linnaeus 32 

Tarpon, Tarpon atlanticus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 33 

Bone-fish; Lady Fish, Albula vulpes (Linnaeus) 37 

False Spanish Sardine, Clupanodon pseudohispanicus (Poey) 39 

Sardine, Sardinella sardina (Poey) 40 

Sardine, Sardinella macrophthalmus (Ranzani) 41 

Atlantic Thread Herring, Ophisthonema oglinum (Le Seur) 42 

Spiny-toothed Herringlet, Chirocentrodon taeniatus Gunther 43 

Silver-lined Herringlet, Jenkinsia lamprotaenia Gosse 43 

Bonnaterre’s Anchovy, Anchoviella epsetus (Bonnaterre) 46 

Hog-mouth Fry, Anchoviella choerostoma (Goode) 47 

Spot-cheeked Ghost-Fish, Anchoviella lyolepis (Evermann and Marsh) .... 47 

Long-pectoralled Anchovy, Anchoviella longipinna new species 48 

Whalebone Anchovy, Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier) 49 

Common Eel, Anguilla rostrata (Le Sueur) 50 

Pike-Headed Eel, Muraenesox savanna (Cuvier) 51 

Worm-eel, Ahlia egmontis (Jordan) 51 

Black-spotted Snake Eel, Myrichthys oculatus (Kaup) 52 

Yellow-spotted Snake Eel, Myrichthys acuminatus (Gronow) 53 

Olive-green Moray Eel, Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani 54 

Purple-mouthed Moray Eel, Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau) 54 

Common Spotted Moray Eel; Hamlet, Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier) .... 55 

Leptocephalus microphthalmus sp. nov 58 

Agassiz’s Lizard-fish, Synodus intermedins Agassiz 60 

Lizard-fish; Galliwasp; Lagarto, Synodus foetens (Linnaeus) 60 

Synodus foetens, A. 155 mm. standard length; B. 40 mm. standard length 61 

Snake-fish, Trachinocephalus myops (Forster) 62 

Needlefish; Houndfish; Guardfish, Srongylura raphidoma (Ranzani) 63 

Ribbon Needlefish, Alblennes hians (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 65 


v 


VI 


Illustrations 


PAGE 

Orange-tailed Half-beak; Ballyhoo; Baloa, Hemirhamphus brasiliensis 

(Linnaeus) 66 

Hemirhamphus brasiliensis. Changes in pigmentation of the dorsal surface 

with growth 68 

Half-beak; Balao; Balaju; Bally-hoo, Hyporhamphus unifasciatus (Ranzani) 69 
Hyporhamphus unifasciatus. Changes in growth in the pigmentation of the 

dorsal surface 70 

Flying Half-beak, Euleptorhamphus velox Poey 71 

Short-winged Flyingfish, Parexocoetus mesogaster (Bloch) 72 

Dark- winged Flyingfish, Cypselurus bahiensis (Ranzani) 72 

Unicorn Fish, Bregmaceros atlanticus Goode and Bean 73 

Peacock Flounder, Platophrys lunatus (Linnaeus) 74 

Transparent Turbot, Syacium micrurum Ranzani. 74 

Uhler’s Whiff, Citharichthys uhleri Jordan 75 

Spot-finned Whiff, Citharichthys spilopterus Gunther 76 

Lineated Sole, Achirus lineatus (Linne) 76 

Tongue Fish, Symphurus plagusia (Bloch and Schneider) 77 

Candil; Frere-Jacque, My ripristis jacobus Cuvier and Valenciennes 78 

Common Squirrel-fish; Cartinau, Holocentrus ascensionis (Osbeck) 79 

Shining Squirrel-fish, Holocentrus coruscus Poey 80 

Black-barred Squirrel-fish, Holocentrus vexillarius Poey 82 

Large-mouthed Squirrel-fish; Marian, Flammeo marianus (Cuvier and 

Valenciennes) 82 

Dotted Seahorse, Hippocampus punctulatus Guichenot 83 

Lineated Pipe-fish, Doryrhamphus lineatus (Valenciennes) 84 

Mackay’s Pipefish, Syngnathus mackayi (Swain and Meek) 84 

Rousseau’s Pipefish, Syngnathus rousseau Kaup 85 

Poey’s Pipe-fish, Syngnathus elucens Poey 85 

Trumpet-fish, Aulostomus maculatus Valenciennes 86 

Cornet-fish, Fistularia tabacaria Linnaeus 87 

Broad-headed Silverside, Hepsetia stipes (Muller and Troschel) 88 

Slender Silverside, Atherina harringtonensis araea (Jordan and Gilbert).. . . 89 

White Mullet; Blue-back Mullet; Liza Blanco, Mugil curema Cuvier and 

Valenciennes 90 

Yellow-tailed Fresh-water Mullet, Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft) 91 

Thick-lipped Fresh-water Mullet, Agonostomus microps Gunther 92 

Great Barracuda, Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum) 93 

Guachancho Barracuda, Sphyraena guachancho Cuvier and Valenciennes. . 94 

Picudilla Barracuda, Sphyraena picudilla Poey 95 

Seven-fingered Threadfin; Barbudo, Polynemus virginicus Linnaeus 96 

King Mackerel; Painted Mackerel, Scomberomorus regalis (Bloch) 97 

Spanish Mackerel; Cazard, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill) 97 

Little Tunny, Gymnosarda alletterata (Rafinesque) 99 

Frigate Mackerel, Auxis thazard (Lacepede) 99 

Deep-bodied Tunny, Parathunnus obesus (Lowe) 100 

Cutlass-fish, Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus 100 

Dolphin, Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus 101 

Harvest-fish, Peprilus paru (Linnaeus) 102 


Illustrations 


vii 

PAGE 

Portuguese Man-of-War Fish, Nomeus gronovii (Gmelin) 103 

Round Scad; Round Robin; Cigar-fish; Quia-quia, Decapterus punctatus 

(Agassiz) 104 

Large-eyed Selar; Goggle-eyed Scad, Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch) 105 

Common Jack-fish; Crevalle Toro; Horse Crevalle; Cavally, Caranx 

hippos (Linnaeus) 106 

Yellow Jack, Caranx bartholomaei Cuvier and Valenciennes 107 

Horse-eye Jack, Caranx latus Agassiz 108 

Blue-striped Cavalla; Carbonero; Cibi Mancho, Caranx ruber (Bloch) 109 

Golden Jack; Hard-tailed Jack; Runner; Jurel; Yellow Mackerel, Caranx 

crysos (Mitchill) 109 

Bumper; Casabe, Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus) 110 

Leather Jacket; Kal, Oligoplites saurus (Bloch and Schneider) 112 

Threadfish, Alectis ciliaris (Bloch) 113 

Bristle-finned Moonfish, Vomer setapinnis cubensis Nichols . 114 

Look-down, Selene vomer (Linnaeus) 114 

Round Pampano; Palometa; Kareng-a-plime, Trachinotus falcatus (Lin- 
naeus) 115 

Gaff-topsail; Pampano; Palometa, Trachinotus glaucus (Bloch) 117 

Pilot Fish, Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus) 117 

Two-spotted Cardinal Fish, Amia binotata Poey 118 

Peppered Cardinal Fish, Amia pigmentarius (Poey) 119 

Spot-finned Cardinal Fish, Apogonichthys stellatus Cope 121 

Comb-toothed Snook, Centropomus pectinatus Poey 121 

Common Snook, Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch) 122 

Sword-spined Snook, Centropomus ensiferus Poey 123 

Red Guativere; Outalibi, Cephalopholis fulvus ruber (Bloch and Schneider) 124 
Nigger-fish; Negro-fish; Black Guativere, Cephalopholis fulvus punctatus 

(Linnaeus) 125 

Brown Hind; Petit Negre, Petrometopon cruentatus coronatus (Cuvier and 

Valenciennes) 126 

Bonaci Cardinal, Mycteroperca venenosa apua (Bloch) 127 

Red Grouper; Cherna Americana; Negue coleur rouge, Epinephelus morio 

(Cuvier and Valenciennes) 128 

Nassau Grouper; Hamlet; Negue, Epinephelus striatus (Bloch) 128 

Red Hind; Cabrilla; Grandgele; Grand forte, Epinephelus guttatus (Lin- 
naeus) 129 

Black Jewfish; Black Grouper; Mero de la Alto, Garrupa nigrita (Holbrook) 130 

Spotted Jew-fish, Promicrops itaiara (Lichtenstein) 130 

Guaseta; Cherna, Alphestes afer (Bloch) 13 i 

Haitian Soap-fish, Rupticus bornoi sp. nov 132 

Soap-fish, Rupticus coriaceus (Cope) 133 

Creole Fish; Rabirubia de la Alto, Paranthias furcifer (Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes) 134 

Vaca; Petit Negre, Hypoplectrus unicolor (Walbaum) 135 

Harlequin Serranid, Prionodes tigrinus (Bloch) 139 

Jacome; Tobacco-fish; Bout-de-tabac, Prionodes tabacrius (Cuvier and 
Valenciennes) 141 


Vlll 


Illustrations 


PAGE 

Mottled Sea-basslet, Eudulus dispilurus (Giinther) 142 

Purple and Gold Fairy Bass, Gramma hemichrysos Mowbray 143 

Spineless Big-eye; Juif, Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier and Valenciennes. . . . 144 

Triple-tail; Flasher, Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch) 145 

Mutton Fish; Card Claire, Lutianus analis (Cuvier and Valenciennes) .... 147 

Lane Snapper; Argente, Lutianus synagris (Linnaeus) 148 

Red Snapper; Sard Rouge; Ronde, Lutianus campechanus { Poey) 150 

Dog Snapper; Carde Roulesse, Lutianus jocu (Bloch and Schneider) 150 

Schoolmaster, Lutianus apodus (Walbaum) 151 

Gray Snapper; Carde Gris, Lutianus griseus (Linnaeus) 152 

Yellow-tail; Kola, Ocyurus chrysurus (Bloch) 152 

Golden-red Snapper; Fadate, Rhomboplites aurorubens (Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes) 153 

Large-toothed Conodon Grunt; Bureteado, Conodon nobilis (Linnaeus) .... 154 
Tom Tate; Red-mouthed Grunt, Bathystoma rimator (Jordan and Swain) . . 155 

Striped Grunt, Bathystoma striatum (Linnaeus) 156 

Small-mouthed Golden Grunt, Brachygenys chrysargeus (Giinther) 157 

French Grunt; Open-mouthed Grunt, Haemulon flavolineatum (Desmarest) 158 

Common Grunt; Ronco-ronco, Haemulon plumieri (Lacepede) 158 

Yellow Grunt; Boar Grunt, Haemulon sciurus (Shaw) 159 

Gray Grunt; Striped Grunt; Caco Gris, Haemulon macrostomum Giinther. . 160 
Black Grunt; Ronco Prieto, Haemulon bonariense Cuvier and Valenciennes 160 

Croaker-like Roughcheek, Pomadasys corvinaeformis (Steindachner) 161 

Crocro Roughcheek, Pomadasys crocro (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 161 

Pork Fish, Anisotremus virginicus (Linnaeus) 162 

Saucer-eyed Porgy, Calamus calamus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 163 

Little-head Porgy; Pez de Pluma, Calamus proridens Jordan and Gilbert 164 
Jolt-head Porgy; Diol pas bleu, Calamus bajanado (Bloch and Schneider) 164 

Grass Porgy; Shad Porgy, Calamus arctifrons Goode and Bean 165 

Tropical Sheepshead; Medance, Archosargus unimaculatus (Bloch) 166 

Rudder-fish; Bermuda Chub; Chub; Chopa Blanca, Kyphosus sectatrix 

(Linnaeus) 166 

Silver Mojarra, Eucinostomus gula (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 167 

Common Mojarra, Eucinostomus calif or niensis (Gill) 168 

Lefroy’s Mojarra, Ulaema lefroyi (Goode) 168 

Dark-barred Mojarra, Gerres cinereus (Walbaum) 169 

Rhomboid Mojarra, Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier) 170 

Red Goatfish; Salmonete; Barbaray Rouge, Upeneus maculatus (Bloch).. . 171 
Yellow Goatfish; Salmonete Amarilla; Barbaray Jaune et Gris, Upeneus 

martinicus Cuvier and Valenciennes. 171 

White-mouthed Drummer; Verrugato, Micropogon furnieri (Desmarest).. . 172 

Spongy-headed Croaker, Stellifer colonensis Meek and Hildebrand 173 

Ronco; Ground Drummer, Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) . 174 

Spotted Ribbon-fish, Serrana; Hispana, Eques punctatus Bloch and 

Schneider . . 174 

Lance-shaped Ribbon-fish; Guapena; Serrana, Eques lanceolatus (Linnaeus) 175 
Cabezon, Larimus breviceps Cuvier and Valenciennes 176 


Illustrations 


IX 


PAGE 

Corvina; Brown large-eyed Croaker, Odontoscion dentex Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes 176 

Mongolar Drummer, Cynoscion jamaicensis (Vaillant and Bocourt) 177 

Plumier’s Blanquilla, Malacanthus plumieri (Bloch) 177 

Spade-fish; Karengue a plime, Chaetodipterus faber (Broussonet) 178 

Mariposa; Butterfly-fish, Chaetodon striatus Linnaeus 179 

Mariposa; Parche; Butterfly, Chaetodon capistratus Linnaeus 180 

Mariposa; Black Angel; Chirivita; Portugais, Pomacanthus arcuatus 

(Linnaeus) 181 

Paru; Indian Fish; Flat Fish, Pomacanthus paru (Bloch) 182 

Rock Beauty; Catalineta; Maguerite, Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch) 182 

Angel-fish; Isabelito; Maguerite, Angelichthys ciliaris (Linnaeus) 183 

Barbero; Blue Tang; Blue Surgeon; Sous-ge, Acanthurus caeruleus Bloch 

and Schneider 184 

Crescent-tailed Surgeon Fish; Ocean Tang, Acanthurus bahianus Castelnau 184 
Common Surgeon; Doctor-fish; Lancet-fish, Acanthurus hepatus (Linnaeus) 185 

Plumier’s Scorpion Fish, Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 186 

Small-scaled Scorpion Fish, Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier and Valenciennes 187 
Long-horned Scorpion-Fish, Scorpaena grandicornis Cuvier and Valenciennes 187 
Smooth-cheeked Scorpion Fish, Scorpaena isthmensis Meek and Hildebrand 188 

Haitian Scorpion Fish, Scorpaenodes russelli new species 189 

Spotted Gurnard, Prionotus punctatus Bloch 191 

Flying Gurnard, Cephalacanthus volitans (Linnaeus) 191 

Blue Chromis, Chromis cyaneus (Poey) 193 

Brown Chromis, Chromis marginatus (Castelnau) 194 

Common Demoiselle, Pomacentrus fuscus Cuvier and Valenciennes 195 

Haitian Demoiselle, Pomacentrus freemani new species 196 

Sergeant Major; Cow-Pilot; Cockeye Pilot, Abudefduf saxatilis (Linnaeus) 198 
Yellow-tailed, Soft-toothed Demoiselle, Microspathodon chrysurus (Cuvier 

and Valenciennes) 199 

White-spotted, Soft-toothed Demoiselle, Microspathodon niveatus (Poey) . . 200 

Hogfish, Lachnolaimus maximus (Walbaum) 201 

Lady-fish, Bodianus rufus (Linne) 201 

Purple-tailed Wrasse; Creole, Clepticus parrae (Bloch and Schneider) 202 

Pink-finned Wrasse, Halichoeres caudalis (Poey) 203 

Variegated Wrasse; Pudding Wife, Halichoeres radiatus (Linnaeus) 203 

Coral Wrasse, Halichoeres garnoti (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 204 

Bicolored Wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatus (Bloch) 205 

Shining Wrasse, Thalassoma nitida (Gunther) 205 

Tall-finned Pygmy Wrasse; Baucket, Doratonotus megalepis Giinther 206 

Scorched Parrotfish, Cryptotomus ustus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 207 

Painted-tail Parrotfish, Scarus taeniopterus Desmarest 208 

Punctulated Parrotfish, Scarus punctulatus Cuvier and Valenciennes 209 

Brown Parrotfish, Scarus croicensis Bloch 209 

Green Parrotfish; Guacamai, Pseudoscarus guacamaia (Cuvier) 210 

Blue Parrotfish, Pseudoscarus coelestinus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 211 

Green and Black Parrotfish, Pseudoscarus pleianus (Poey) 211 

Red Parrotfish; Parroquette, Sparisoma abildgaardi (Bloch) 213 


X 


Illustrations 


PAGE 

Blue Parrotfish; Vieja, Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch and Schneider) .... 214 
Vermillion-banded Parrotfish, Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes) 214 

Dark Green Parrotfish, Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre) 215 

Short-snouted Parrotfish, Sparisoma radians (Cuvier and Valenciennes).. . 215 

Gray Parrotfish, Sparisoma squalidum (Poey) 216 

Stocky Parrotfish, Sparisoma flavescens (Bloch and Schneider) 216 

Red-tailed Parrotfish, Sparisoma brachiale (Poey) 217 

Sleeper; Guavina, Gobiomorus dormitor Lacepede 218 

Common Spotted Sleeper; Guavina Mapo, Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) 219 

Many-fanged Goby, Leptophilypnus crocodilus new species 219 

Sleeper, Bathygobius soporator (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 221 

Fringe-shouldered Goby; Guavina; Saga, Chonophorus taiasica (Lichten- 
stein) 221 

Gill’s Banded Goby, Gobius fasciatus (Gill) 222 

Emerald-tongued Goby; Esmerelda, Gobius oceanicus Pallas 222 

Giant-Scaled Sponge Goby, Evermannichthys metzelaari Hubbs 223 

White-lined Sponge Goby, Gobiosoma horsti Metzelaar 224 

Large-toothed Scaleless Goby, Gobiosoma macrodon new species 226 

Short-disked Shark-sucker Echeneis naucrates (Linnaeus) 227 

Rough-scaled Blenny, Gillias jordani Evermann and Marsh 229 

Cope’s Two-spotted Blenny, Malacoctenus biguttatus (Cope) 229 

Fringe-naped Blenny, Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy and Gaimard) 231 

Haitian Spotted Blenny, Labrisomus haitiensis new species 232 

White-cheeked Blenny, Labrisomus albigenys new species 233 

Moore’s Blenny, Acteis moorei (Evermann and Marsh) 235 

Marbled Blenny, Brannerella culebrae (Evermann and Marsh) 236 

Tri-ocellated Blenny, Cremnobates argus new species 238 

Fajardo Blenny, Cremnobates fajardo (Evermann and Marsh) 239 

Green Thalassia Blenny, Auchenistius stahli Evermann and Marsh 240 

Rock-hopping Blenny, Rupiscartes atlanticus (Cuvier and Valenciennes). . 242 

Haitian Snake Blenny, Ophioblennius ferox new species 242 

Bushy-headed Spiny Blenny, Acathemblemaria arborescens new species .... 244 
Variegated Spiny-headed Blenny, Acathemblemaria variegata new species. . 247 

Coral Scaleless Blenny, Stathmonotus corallicola new species 249 

Black-finned Cusk Eel, Lepophidium brevibarbe (Cuvier) 251 

Large-eyed Clingfish, Gobiesox macrophthalmus Gunther 251 

Rock-living Clingfish, Arbaciosa rupestris (Poey) 252 

Queen Trigger-fish; Old Wife; Old Wench; Bouze, Batistes vetula Linnaeus . . 253 

Ocean Trigger-fish; Sobaco, Canthedermis sobaco Poey 254 

Dusky Filefish; Lija Colorado, Cantherines pullus (Ranzani) 255 

Reticulated Filefish, Monacanthus tuckeri Bean 256 

Leather-fish; Lija, Monacanthus ciliatus (Mitchill) 257 

Poey’s File-fish, Monacanthus oppositus Poey 258 

Common File-fish, Ceratacanthus schoepfi (Walbaum) 259 

Scrawled File-fish, Ceratacanthus scripta (Osbeck) 260 

Trunk-fish; Rock Shellfish; Drunken-fish; Chopin; Platefish, Lactophrys 
triqueter (Linnaeus) 261 


Illustrations 


xi 


PAGE 


Chopin; Spotted Trunk-fish; Coffre, Lactophrys bicaudalis (Linnaeus) 262 

Common Trunk-fish; Chopin; Shellfish, Lactophrys trigonus (Linnaeus) .... 262 

Cowfish; Cuckold; Toro, Lactophrys tricornis (Linnaeus) 263 

Smooth Puffer, Lagocephalus laevigatus Linnaeus 263 

Spiny-backed Puffer, Tetraodon marmoratus (Ranzani) 264 

Southern Puffer, Tetraodon spengleri (Bloch) 265 

Turtle-headed Globefish; Foufou sans piquant; Tambor, Tetraodon testu- 

dineus Linnaeus 266 

Sharp-nosed Puffer, Canthigaster rostratus (Bloch) 266 

Short-spined Porcupine-fish; Foufou avec piquant, Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 268 

Long-spined Porcupine-fish, Diodon holacanthus Linnaeus 269 

Cuvier’s Burr-fish, Chilomycterus antennatus (Cuvier) 269 

Common Frog-fish, Histrio gibbus (Mitchill) 270 

Short-tentacled Frogfish, Antennarius inops Poey 271 

Long-snouted Batfish, Ogcocephalus vespertilio (Linnaeus) 272 

Short-snouted Batfish, Ogcocephalus nasutus, (Cuvier and Valenciennes).. . 273 
Reticulated Batfish, Halieuticthys aculeatus (Mitchill) 274 


CICHLID FISHES IN THE WEST INDIES WITH ESPECIAL 
REFERENCE TO HAITI, INCLUDING THE DESCRIPTION 
OF A NEW SPECIES OF CICHLASOMA 

Figures 269 to 272 inclusive 

Fig. 269. Proportions of Cichlasoma haitiensis correlated with growth, 
and comparison of proportions of Cichlasoma tetr acanthus of 

Cuba as recorded by Regan and Eigenmann Face page 288 

Fig. 270. Cichlasoma haitiensis Tee-Van. Type specimen. 108 mm. 

standard length 294 

Fig. 271. Cichlasoma haitiensis. Specimen from Etang Saumatre, Haiti. 

100 mm. standard length 296 

Fig. 272. Cichlasoma. Specimen from Hinche, Gurabo River, Haiti, with 
gibbous forehead, standard length 215 mm. This is the 
largest specimen mentioned in this paper 296 


AN ANNOTATED LIST OF THE CYPRINODONT FISHES OF 
HISPANIOLA, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES 


Figures 273 to 279 inclusive 

Fig. 273. Gambusia beebei Myers. Old female, paratype, 93 mm. total 

length 306 

Fig. 274. Gambusia beebei Myers. Adult male, holotype, 58 mm. total 

length 306 

Fig. 275. Gambusia beebei Myers. Distal end of gonopodium of holotype 308 
Fig. 276. Mollienisia dominicensis (Evermann and Clark). Adult female, 

L’Atalaye Plantation, Haiti. Twice natural size 311 


Xll 


Illustrations 


PAGE 


Fig. 277. Mollienisia dominicensis (Evermann and Clark). Adult male, 

L’Atalaye Plantation, Haiti. Twice natural size 311 

Fig. 278. Limia dominicensis (Cuvier and Valenciennes). Female type 
(cotype) of Poecilia dominicensis Cuvier and Valenciennes. 

2 l /2 times natural size. The cheek and opercular scales have 

fallen off the specimen 313 

Fig. 279. Limia dominicensis (Cuvier and Valenciennes). Male type 
(cotype) of Poecilia dominicensis Cuvier and Valenciennes. 

2}/2 times natural size. The cheek and opercular scales have 
fallen off the specimen 313 


ZOOLOGICA 

SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



VOLUME X. NUMBER 1 


Department of Tropical Research Contribution Number 301 


THE FISHES OF 
PORT-AU-PRINCE BAY, HAITI 

With a Summary of the Known Species of Marine 
Fish of the Island of Haiti and Santo Domingo 

By William Beebe, Sc.D. 
and 

John Tee- Van 


PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 
THE ZOOLOGICAL PARK, NEW YORK 

December 31, 1928 


Nnu fork 2nalngtral jiwtetg 

General Ofl5 ce: 101 Park Avenue, New York City 


President, Madison Grant; 

Honorary President, Henry Fairfield Osborn; 

' Vice-Presidents, Frank K. Sturgis; and Henry D. Whiton; 
Chairman, Executive Committee, Madison Grant; 

Treasurer, Cornelius R. Agnew 
Secretary, William White Niles 

loath of DHatmgTra 
Class of 1929 

Henry Fairfield Osborn, George F» Baker, Robert S. Brewster, Ed- 
ward S. Harkness, William B. Osgood Field, Edwin Thorne, 
Irving K. Taylor, Harry Payne Bingham, Landon 
K. Thorne, J. Watson Webb, Oliver D. 

Filley De Forest Grant 

Class of 1930 

Madison Grant, Wm. White Niles, Frank K. Sturgis, Ogden Mills. 
Lewis R. Morris, Archer M. Huntington, George D. Pratt, 

T. Coleman du Pont, Henry D. Whiton, Cornelius R. 
agnew, Harrison Williams, Marshall Field 

Class of 1931 

Percy R. Pyne, George Bird Grinnell, Anthony R. Kuser, Mortimer L. 
Schiff, Frederic C. Walcott, George C. Clark, Jr., W. Red- 
mond Cross, George Gordon Battle, Henry Fair- 
field Osborn, Jr., Bayard Dominick, Anson 
W. Hard, Robert Gordon McKay 

i>rmxtifir i>taff 

W. Reid Blair, Director of the Zoological Park ; 

Charles H. Townsend, Director of the Aquarium ; 

C. M. Breder, Jr., Research Associate, Aquarium; 

Raymond L. Ditmars, Curator of Mammals and Reptiles; 

William Beebe, Honorary Curator of Birds and Director of Department of 

Tropical Research; 

Lee S. Crandall, Curator of Birds; 

H. C. Raven, Prosector; 

Charles V. Noback, Veterinarian; 

tEhttortal (Emnmitt?? 

Madison Grant, Chairman; 

Charles H. Townsend 
George Bird Grinnell 
Elwin R. Sanborn, Secretary. 


W. Reid Blair 
William Beebe 


Zoologica Vol. X, No. 1. 


THE FISHES OF PORT-AU-PRINCE BAY, HAITI* 

With a Summary of the Known Species of Marine Fish of the Island 
of Haiti and Santo Domingo 

By William Beebe, Sc.D. 
and 

John Tee-Yan 

(Figures 1-268 inclusive and Plate A) 


OUTLINE 

I. — Introduction with Map 1 

II. — Systematic Table of Contents 7 

III. — Key to Families 17 

IV. — Annotated List of Fish of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 26 

Y. — Marine Fish Recorded from Haiti and Santo Domingo 276 


Introduction 

The preparing of this annotated account of the marine fishes of the republic 
of Haiti was the major problem planned on the Tenth Expedition of the Depart- 
ment of Tropical Research of the New York Zoological Society. As described 
elsewhere, we operated from a four-masted schooner “The Lieutenant” anchored 
near shore as a base. 

Having learned on numerous expeditions of the value of effort concentrated 
upon a limited area, we .chose a very definite region. This was the south- 
eastern corner of Port-au-Prince Bay, which body of water in turn forms an 
exceedingly small proximal portion of the great Gulf of Gonave. Even here, 
with the Bizoton shore and the city of Port-au-Prince forming the eastern and 
southern sides of our area, we did not go farther afield than Sand Cay and 
Lamentin Reefs, three miles respectively to the north and the west. The 
exact physical boundaries of this zone may be considered as lying between the 
parallels 18° 32' and 35' north latitude, and the meridians 72° 22' and 27' 
west of Greenwich. While almost all ot the species were obtained within this 
area, a few were purchased at the market from fishermen who had seined them 
in more distant portions of the bay. The limitation of our zone of activities 
necessitated the omission of the fresh-water river and lake fish of the families 
Cichlidae and Poecilidae, which we have reserved for separate consideration. 
This does not apply to the fresh-water representatives occurring within our zone, 
of dominantly marine families such as the gobies and sciaenids, which are in- 
cluded in the list. 

If we roughly estimate the shore line of the republic of Haiti at a minimum of 
eleven hundred miles, we covered in our collecting only one two-hundred-and- 
twentieth of this. Nevertheless within a period of less than one hundred days, 
from February 2nd to May 10th, 1927, we secured 6122 specimens of 270 species 

* Contribution New York Zoological Society Department of Tropical Research No. 301 

1 


2 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

of Haitian fish, comprising 84 families. This may well be considered as repre- 
sentative of the fish fauna of Haiti. 

Until now no adequate list of Haitian fishes has existed. The only comparable 
modern faunal list of West Indian Fishes is “The Fishes of Porto Rico,” by 
Evermann and Marsh. This was published thirty years ago with a list of 
291 species. Dr. Nichols has in preparation a new and up to date list for Porto 
Rico. 

There is no department of fisheries in the present occupational scheme of the 
Americans in Haiti, so duplicate collections were made for the Service Technique 
of the Haitian government, and all possible economical information was gathered 
and put at their disposal. 

There is a small open-air fish market in addition to the main fish market 
at Port-au-Prince, but these cater to only a very small percentage of piscivorous 
natives. In fact the annual importation of dried, pickled, and canned fish 
into Haiti amounts annually to fifteen million pounds. 

In the gathering of our collection we used every available method, from 
hook-and-lines to nets, seines, set-traps; air-rifles, harpoons, poisons, dynamite 
and high explosive bombs dropped from airplanes. On the surface we worked 
with water buckets and glass-bottomed boats, while diving helmets enabled us 
to reach an extreme depth of ten fathoms. 

Although the present paper is concerned with the marine fishes of the republic 
of Haiti, yet in ichthyological literature most references refer vaguely to the 
entire island of Haiti or Santo Domingo. Of this island the Haitian Republic 
occupies only the western third. 

In order to round out the value of our list, we have added a list of all additional 
marine species recorded from the island as a whole. This brings the total 
number of marine fish known from the island of Haiti to 324. All of these will, 
probably, ultimately be taken in the Gulf of Gonave. 

The logic of physical distribution demands that, for a moment, we disregard 
national boundaries and concern ourselves with the location of the island of 
Haiti. With the exception of Cuba it is the largest of the West Indies and lies 
between 17° 39' and 20° north latitude, and 68° 20' and 74° 30' west longitude. 
The Atlantic Ocean bounds it on the north and the Caribbean Sea on the south, 
and it lies almost exactly between Cuba and Porto Rico, separated from them 
respectively by the Windward and Mona Passages. Cuba is less than sixty 
miles distant, with the northern portion of the Bartlett Deep pushing up between 
to a depth of 1983 fathoms. In the other direction Porto Rico is seventy 
miles away, connected to Haiti by a bank averaging 250 to 300 fathoms deep. 

As to the topography of the restricted area of our operations, it lies almost 
wholly on the littoral platform which borders much of the coast. The maximum 
depth of Port-au-Prince Bay is 85 fathoms, but this does not occur nearer than 
forty miles from our station. Our greatest depth was 20 fathoms, but the whole 
locality was very irregular in contour, with numerous cays and coral reefs 
lying awash or occasionally rising above the surface. The senior author, in his 
study of reef ecology, was able to distinguish eight more or less distinct zones 
from the shore outward, the enumeration of which, in the present connection, 
will suffice: 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 3 

1. — Fresh-water streams and springs flowing into the bay. 

2. — High-tidal, land-locked, salt-water lagoons. 

3. — Inter-tidal zone of mangroves and mud. 

4. — Submerged shallows of bare sand and hairy algae. 

5. — Thalassia growth, pure culture and transition. 

6. — Typical coral reef. 

7. — Deeps below coral growth. 

8. — Surface Nekton and Plankton, diurnal and nocturnal. 

In the make-up of this paper we have followed a definite arrangement, one 
which has stood protracted use in the field in connection with the fresh-water 
fishes of British Guiana and the oceanic collections of the Arcturus. The 
following table shows the sequence of treatment: 

Names. 

References (The type reference and a good recent account). 

Field Characters for identification at sight. 

Description, Size and Weight, Color. 

General Range. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay. 

Abundance. Method of Capture. 

Food. Enemies. 

Proportion of Sexes. 

Size at Maturity. 

Spawning Season. 

Eggs. Young. 

General Habits. 

Study Material — Drawings, Photographs, Specimens. 

The republishing of complete descriptions of the species represented in 
Haiti seemed to be needless, and anyone interested can be connected with the 
literature of the species through the second reference mentioned under each 
fish. 

We have gone to considerable trouble in providing illustrations of every 
species, using the same type of outline drawing as Nichols and Breder in their 
“Marine Fishes of New York,” and we have to thank them for the use of 69 
of their electrotypes. These illustrations, with the exception of those of new 
species, are to be regarded as character sketches made as accurately as possible. 
Owing to their size, fin rays are in most cases only indicated, although whenever 
possible the correct number has been shown. 

During our stay in Haiti the American High Commissioner and his wife, 
General and Mrs. John H. Russell lost no opportunity to aid our work, and in 
this they were heartily seconded by President and Madame Borno. A complete 
list of those who rendered valuable assistance would require a roll-call of the 
entire American Force of Occupation — aviators, scientists, officers of the marines 
and heads of all departments. In particular we must mention Commander V. 
Wood and Dr. George Freeman. 

The expedition was made possible by the generosity of the following members 
of the New York Zoological Society: 



4 


Haiti in relation to the West Indies. 

Haiti showing localities where collections were made. The black rectangle shows the position and extent of the large 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 5 


We are indebted to the following institutions for the loan of specimens for 
comparison: — the U. S. National Museum, the Bingham Oceanographical 
Collection of the Peabody Museum through Mr. A. E. Parr, and the American 
Museum of Natural History through Mr. John T. Nichols. We are especially 
grateful to the last named gentleman, to Dr. E. W. Gudger of the American 
Museum and Mr. C. M. Breder, Jr. of the New York Aquarium for advice 
and suggestions. We would also like to thank Dr. S. F. Hildebrand for the 
use of the manuscript and page proof of the third part of “The Marine Fishes 
of Panama. ” 

We are also indebted to Floyd Crosby for photographs of fishes, to Helen 
Tee-Van for colored plates made in the field, to Fritz Maximilian of the Service 
Technique of Haiti, who was assigned to us by Dr. Freeman to assist in making 
drawings, and to Edith Thane for some of the line drawings. 

Additional information as to the general environment, and the activities of 
the Haitian Expedition may be found in the following publications which have 
already appeared: 

“Beneath Tropic Seas,” by William Beebe (Putnams), 1928 

“The Haitian Expedition,” Zoological Society Bulletin, Vol. XXX, No. 5, 


George F. Baker 
John C. Berwind 
Robert Brewster 
Coleman du Pont 
Marshall Field 


Anthony R. Kuser 
Ogden Mills 
Lewis R. Morris 
George D. Pratt 
Mortimer L. Schiff 
Frederic C. Walcott 


Edward S. Harkness 


Harrison Williams 


September, 1927. 


Systematic Table of Contents 


A. Class ELASMOBRANCHII 

I. Order Euselachii Page 

Family I. Orectolobidae 

Ginglymostoma cirratum 26 

Family II. Galeorhinidae 

Galeorhinus sp 26 

Family III. Carcharhinidae 

Scoliodon terrae-novae 27 

Carcharhinus limbatus 28 

Carcharhinus falciformis 28 

Family IV. Sphyrnidae 

Sphyrna zygaena 29 

II. Order Batoidei 

Family V. Dasyatidae 

Urobatis sloani 30 

Family VI. Myliobatidae 

Aetobatus narinari 31 

Family VII. Mobulidae 

Manta birostris 32 

B. Class PISCES 

III. Order Isospondyli 
F amily VIII. Elopidae 

Elops saurus 32 

Family IX. Megalopidae 

Tarpon atlanticus 33 

Family X. Albulidae 

Albula vulpes . , 37 

Family XI. Clupeidae 

Clupanodon pseudohispanicus 39 

Sardinella sardina . 40 

Sardinella macrophthalmus 41 

Opisthonema oglinum 42 

Chirocentrodon taeniatus 43 

Family XII. Dussumieriidae 

Jenkinsia lamprotaenia 43 

Family XIII. Engraulidae 

Anchoviella epsetus 46 

Anchoviella choerostoma 47 

Anchoviella lyolepis . 47 

Anchoviella longipinna 48 

Cetengraulis edentulus 49 


7 


8 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

IV. Order Apodes Page 

Family XIV. Anguillidae 

Anguilla rostrata 50 

Family XV. Muraenesocidae 

Muraenesox savanna 51 

Family XVI. Echelidae 

Ahlia egmontis 51 

Family XVII. Ophichthyidae 

Myrichthys oculatus 52 

Myrichthys acuminatus 53 

Family XVIII. Muraenidae 

Gymnothorax funebris 54 

Gymnothorax vicinus 54 

Gymnothorax moringa 55 

Leptocephalid Larvae 

Leptocephalus latus 56 

Leptocephalus mucronatus 57 

Leptocephalus michael-sarsi 58 

Leptocephalus microphthalmus 58 

Leptocephalus rex 59 

V. Order Iniomi 

Family XIX. Synodontidae 

Synodus intermedius 60 

Synodus foetens 60 

Trachinocephalus my ops 62 

VI. Order Synentognathi 
F amily XX. Belonidae 

Strongylura raphidoma 63 

Ablennes hians 65 

Family XXI. Hemiramphidae 

Hemiramphus brasiliensis 66 

Hyporhamphus unifasciatus 69 

Euleptorhamphus velox 71 

Family XXII. Exocoetidae 

Parexocoetus mesog aster 72 

Cypselurus bahiensis 72 

VII. Order Anacanthini 

Family XXIII. Bregmacerotidae 

Bregmaceros atlanticus 73 

VIII. Order Heterosomata 
F amily XXIV. Bothidae 

Platophrys lunatus 74 

Syacium micrurum 74 

Citharichthys uhleri 75 

Citharichthys spilopterus 76 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


9 


Family XXV. Achiridae Page 

Achirus lineatus 76 

Family XXVI. Cynoglossidae 

Symphurus plagusia 77 

IX. Order Berycoidei 

Family XXVII. Holocentridae 

Myripristis jacobus 78 

Holocentrus ascensionis 79 

Holocentrus coruscus 80 

Holocentrus vexillarius 82 

Flammeo marianus . 82 

X. Order Thoracostei 

Family XXVIII. Syngnathidae 

Hippocampus punctulatus 83 

Doryrhamphus lineatus 84 

Syngnathus mackayi 84 

Syngnathus rousseau 85 

Syngnathus elucens 85 

XI. Order Aulostomi 

Family XXIX. Aulostomidae 

Aulostomus maculatus 86 

Family XXX. Fistulariidae 

Fistularia tabacaria 87 

XII. Order Percomorphi 
F amily XXXI. Atherinidae 

Hepsetia stipes 88 

Atherina harringtonensis area 89 

Family XXXII. Mugilidae 

Mugil curema 90 

Agonostomus monticola. . 91 

Agonostomus microps 92 

Family XXXIII. Sphyraenidae 

Sphyraena barracuda 93 

Sphyraena guachancho 94 

Sphyraena picudilla 95 

Family XXXIV. Polynemidae 

Polynemus virginicus 96 

Family XXXV. Scombridae 

Scomberomorus regalis 97 

Scomberomorus maculatus 97 

Family XXXVI. Thunnidae 

Gymnosarda alletterata 99 

Auxis t hazard 99 

Parathunnus obesus 100 


10 


Zoologica: N. Y . Zoological Society 


Family XXXVII. Trichiuridae 

Trichiurus Upturns 

Family XXXVIII. Coryphaenidae 

Coryphaena hippurus 

Family XXXIX. Stromateidae 

Peprilus paru 

Family XL. Nomeidae 

Nomeus gronovii 

Family XLI. Carangidae 

Decapterus punctatus 

Selar crumenophthalmus 

Caranx hippos 

Caranx bartholamaei 

Caranx latus 

Caranx ruber 

Caranx crysos 

Chloroscombrus chrysurus 

Oligoplites saurus 

Alectis ciliaris 

Vomer setapinnis cubensis 

Selene vomer 

Trachinotus falcatus 

Trachinotus glaucus 

Naucrates ductor 

Family XLII. Amiidae 

Amia binotatus 

Amia pigmentarius 

Apogonichthys stellatus 

Family XLIII. Centropomidae 

Centropomus pectinatus 

Centropomus undecimalis 

Centropomus ensiferus 

Family XLIV. Epinephelidae 

Cephalopholis fulvus ruber 

Cephalopholis fulvus punctatus . . . 
Petrometopon cruentatus coronatus 

Mycteroperca venenosa apua 

Epinephelus mono 

Epinephelus striatus 

Epinephelus guttatus 

Garrupa nigrita 

Promicrops itaiara 

Alphestes afer 

Rypticus bornoi 

Rypticus coriaceus 

Family XLV. Serranidae 

Paranthias furcifer 


[X; 1 


Page 
. 100 

, 101 

. 102 

, 103 

. 104 
. 105 
. 106 
. 107 
. 108 
, 109 
. 109 
. 110 
. 112 

113 

114 

114 

115 
117 

117 

118 
119 
121 

121 

122 

123 

124 

125 

126 

127 

128 
128 

129 

130 

130 

131 

132 

133 

134 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 11 

Page 

Hypoplectrus unicolor 135 

Prionodes tigrinus 139 

Prionodes tabacarius 141 

Eudulus dispilurus 142 

Family XLVI. Pseudochromidae 

Gramma hemigymnos 143 

Family XLVII. Priacanthidae 

Priacanthus arenatus 144 

Family XLVIII. Lobotidae 

Lobotes surinamensis 145 

Family XL -X. Lutianidae. 

Lutianus analis 147 

Lutianus synagris 148 

Lutianus campeachanus 150 

Lutianus jocu 150 

Lutianus apodus 151 

Lutianus griseus 152 

Ocyurus chrysurus 152 

Rhomboplites aurorubens 153 

Family L. Pomadasidae 

Conodon nobilis '. 154 

B athy stoma rimator 155 

Bathy stoma striatum 156 

Brachygenys chrysargeus 157 

H aemulon flavolineatum 158 

Haemulon plumieri 158 

H aemulon sciurus 159 

Haemulon macrostomum 160 

Haemulon bonariense 160 

Pomadasys corvinaeformis 161 

Pomadasys crocro 161 

Anisotremus virginicus 162 

Family LI. Sparidae 

Calamus calamus 163 

Calamus proridens 164 

Calamus bajonado 164 

Calamus arctifrons 165 

Archosargus unimaculatus 166 

Family LII. Kyphosidae 

Kyphosus sectatrix 166 

Family LI II. Gerridae 

Eucinostomus gula 167 

Eucinostomus calif orniensis 168 

Ulaema lefroyi 168 

Gerres cinereus 169 

Diapterus rhombeus 170 

/ ' ' ■ 


12 Zoologica: N.. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Family LIV. Mullidae Page 

U peneus maculatus 171 

Upeneus martinicus 171 

Family LV. Sciaenidae 

M icropogon furnieri 172 

Stellifer colonensis 173 

Bairdiella ronchus 174 

Eques punctatus 174 

Eques lanceolatus • 175 

Larimus breviceps 176 

Odontoscion dentex 176 

Family LVI. Otolithidae 

Cynoscion jamaicensis 177 

Family LVII. Malacanthidae 

Malacanthus plumieri 177 

Family LVI1I. Chaetodipteridae 

Chaetodipterus faber 178 

Family LIX. Chaetodontidae 

Chaetodon striatus 179 

Chaetodon capistratus , 180 

Pomacanthus arcuatus 181 

Pomacanthus paru 182 

Holacanthus tricolor 182 

Angelichthys ciliaris 183 

Family LX. J.canthuridae 

Acanthurus coeruleus 184 

Acanthurus bahianus 184 

Acanthurus hepatus 185 

XIII. Order Cataphracti 
Family LXI. Scorpaenidae 

Scorpaena plumieri , 186 

Scorpaena brasiliensis 187 

Scorpaena grandicornis 187 

Scorpaena isthmensis 188 

Scorpaenodes russelli 189 

Family LXII. Triglidae 

Prionotus punctatus 191 

Family LXIII. Cephalacanthidae 

Cephalacanthus volitans 191 

XIV. Order Chromides 

Family LXIV. Pomacentridae 

Chromis cyaneus 193 

Chromis marginatus 194 

Pomacentrus fuscus 195 

Pomacentrus freemani 196 

Abudefduf saxatilis 198 


1928 ] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 13 

Page 

Microspathodon chrysurus 199 

Microspathodon niveatus . . . . 200 

XV. Order Pharyngognathi 
F amily LXV. Labridae 

Lachnolaimus maximus 201 

Bodianus rufa 201 

Clepticus parrae 202 

Family LX VI. Corid ae 

Halichoeres caudalis 203 

Halichoeres radiatus 203 

Halichoeres garnoti 204 

Thallasoma bifasciatus 205 

Thalassoma nitidus 205 

Doratonotus megalepis 206 

Family LXVII. Scaridae 

Cryptotomus ustus 207 

S earns taeniopterus . 208 

Scarus punctulatus 209 

Scams croicensis. 209 

Pseudoscarus guacamai 210 

Pseudoscarus coelestinus 211 

Pseudoscarus pleianus 211 

Sparisoma abildgaardi 213 

Sparisoma chrysopterum 214 

Sparisoma aurofrenatum 214 

Sparisoma viride 215 

Sparisoma radians 215 

Sparisoma squalidum 216 

Sparisoma flavescens 216 

Sparisoma brachiale 217 

XVI. Order Gobioidea 

Family LXVIII. Eleotridae 

Gobiomorus dormitator 218 

Dormitator maculatus . . 219 

Leptophilypnus crocodilus 219 

Family LXIX. Gobiidae 

Bathygobius soporator 221 

Chonophorus taiasica 221 

Gobius fasciatus v. 222 

Gobius oceanicus 222 

Evermannichthys metzelaari 223 

Gobiosoma horsti 224 

Gobiosoma macrodov 226 


14 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

XVII. Order Discocephali Page 

Family LXX. Echeneididae 

Echeneis naucrates 227 

XVIII. Order Jugulares 

Family LXXI. Clinidae 

Gillias jordani 229 

Malacoctenus biguttatus 229 

Labrisomus nuchipinnis 231 

Labrisomus haitiensis 232 

Labrisomus albigenys 233 

Acteis moorei 235 

Brannerella culebrae 236 

Cremnobates argus 238 

Cremnobates fajardo 239 

Auchenistius stahli 240 

Family LXXII. Blenniidae 

Rupiscartes atlanticus 242 

Ophioblennius ferox 242 

Family LXXII I. Emblemariidae 

Acanthemblemaria arborescens 244 

Acanthemblemaria variegata 247 

Family LXXIV. Chaenopsidae 

Stathmonotus corallicola 249 

Family LXXV. Ophidiidae 

Lepidophidium brevibarbe 251 

XIX. Order Xenopterygii 
F amily LXXVI. Gobiesocidae 

Gobiesox macrophthalmus 251 

Arbaciosa rupestris 252 

Arbaciosa sp r 252 

XX. Order Plectognathi 
F amily LXXVII. Balistidae 

Balistes vetula 253 

Canthidermis sobaco 254 

Family LXXVIII. Monacanthidae 

Cantherines pullus 255 

Monacanthus tuckeri 256 

Monacanthus ciliatus 257 

Monacanthus oppositus 258 

Ceratacanthus schoepfi 259 

Ceratacanthus scripta 260 


Family LXXIX. Ostraciidae 

Lactophrys triqueter 

Lactophrys bicaudalis 


261 

262 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 15 

Page 

Lactophrys trigonus 262 

Lactophrys tricornis 263 

Family LXXX. Tetraodontidae 

Lagocephalus laevigatus 263 

Tetraodon marmoratus 264 

Tetraodon spengleri 265 

Tetraodon testudineus 266 

Family LXXXI. Canthigasteridae 

Canthigaster rostratus 266 

Family LXXXII. Diodontidae 

Diodon hystrix 268 

Diodon holacanthus . 269 

Chilomycterus antennatus 269 

XXI. Order Pediculati 

Family LXXXI II, Antennariidae 

Histrio gibbus 270 

Antennarius inops 271 

Family LXXXIV. Ogcocephalidae 

Ogcocephalus vespertilio 272 

Ogcocephalus nasulus 273 

Halieulichthys aculealus 274 


16 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X 


The following new species are described in this paper: 

Anchoviella longipinna 
Leptocephalus microphthalmus 
Rypticus bornoi 
Scorpaenodes russelli 
Pomacentrus freemani 
Leptophilypnus crocodilus 
Gobiosoma macrodon 
Labrisomus haitiensis 
Labrisomus albigenys 
Cremnobates argus 
Ophioblennius ferox 
Acanthemblemaria arbor escens 
Acanthemblemaria variegata 
Stathmonotus corallicola 


KEY TO FAMILIES OF PORT-AU-PRINCE BAY 


NOTE. — These keys do not attempt to show relationships and are in the widest 
sense artificial. In scope they treat only of the locality and species mentioned in 
this paper, and will not necessarily work in other localities, either for the families 
or species. 

To identify a fish, start at Key A under No. 1 and see which of the two alter- 
natives the specimen fits best. Then go to the number or Key indicated at the 
end of the proper alternative, and continue the process until a family name is reached. 

The keys to the genera and species are slightly different from this key to fam- 
ilies, and in these the alternatives are labelled A, AA; B, BB, etc. With these keys 
choose the alternative A or AA according to which one fits best. Then decide 
between the pair of alternatives immediately under the chosen one, regardless of 
what the letter may be, — thus under BB the next pair of alternatives may be D 
and DD. Continue this until the species is reached. Comparison of the fish with 
the illustration and the field characters ought to determine whether it is actually 
that species or whether it represents a form not found by us. 

The accompanying diagram and notes illustrate most of the characters used in 
identification. 



CIRRI 

NOSTRILS 

BEAK oRj 

BILL"^ / PR $ m^RECTORAL ^ 


FINLETS 

ADIPOSE FIN 


•®3r& 


^CAUDAL 


BARBEL 

OILL 

SUBORBITAL OPENING pr^wir 
STAY r e&VIG 

D,AY ^ or VENTRAL 

BASAL FIN 

PROCESS X. W 

■PRENAXILLARV 
SUPPLEMENTAL 
MAXILLARY 

^•MAXILLARY 


CAUDAL 

PEDUNCLE 


vV 



VOMER 

PALATINES 



ROOF OF MOUTH 


Because a fish continues to grow all during its life and does not reach a definite 
maximum size as a bird or mammal does, absolute measurements as to length, 
size of head, depth, etc., are of very little value. Because of this, dimensions are 
stated in terms of proportion. Thus, Head 3.4 means that the length of the head 
goes into the body length 3.4 times. Depth of body and size of head are compared 
to the body length, while eye, maxillary and smaller measurements are compared 
to the head. 

Actual measurements of a fish are taken in a straight line, as with a pair of di- 
viders. The standard length is taken from the snout to the base of the caudal 
fin. When total length is mentioned it includes the caudal fin. Depth is the 
greatest vertical distance from the upper to the lower contour of the body. The 

17 


18 


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length of the head is from the snout to the most posterior point of the opercle, 
exclusive of spines which may project further backward. The diameter of the 
eye is its greatest diameter. The maxillary is measured from the tip of the snout 
to the posterior edge of the maxillary. The interorbital space is the least distance 
from eye to eye, measured across the top of the head. The snout is measured from 
its tip to the front of the eye. 

The pectoral and the pelvic or ventral fins are paired, while all others are single 
and found only along the midline of the body. The shapes and positions of these 
fins vary tremendously and one or more may be completely lacking. Thus the 
dorsal may be a continuous fin or divided so as to form 2 or 3 fins; it may be followed 
by finlets. The ventral fins occasionally are found beneath the lower jaw. The 
adipose fin is small, placed on the posterior dorsal surface and contains neither 
spines nor rays. 

The supporting elements of the fins are usually quite constant in number, 
and their number is often of importance in classification. These elements are of 
two types — spines, which are rigid, solid and sharp-pointed; and rays, which are 
segmented, flexible and often branched at their tips. In descriptions the spines 
are denoted by a Roman numeral and the rays in Arabic. 

Gill rakers are bony excrescences found regularly placed along the gill arches 
in some fishes. The isthmus is the portion of the body extending forward on the 
ventral side, just between the gill covers. The gill membranes often cover it or 
are attached to it. The nictitating membrane is a membrane which can be drawn 
up over the eye — it is found in some of the Haitian sharks. 

Key A 

1. — Fishes with cartilaginous skeletons and with more than one gill opening 

on each side of the body (Sharks, Rays, Skates, Mantas) 

See Key B, p. 23 

—Fishes with bony skeletons and with a single external gill-opening on 

each side 2 

2. — Bones of the head fused into a tubular snout, with the jaws at the tip. 

See Key C, p. 23 

— No tubular snout 3 

3. — A sucking disk placed either on the dorsal surface of the head, or on the 

belly, the latter formed, partly or entirely by the ventral fins. 

See Key D, p. 24 

—No sucking disk on head or belly 4 

4. — Body enclosed in a hard bony box, only the fins and the caudal peduncle 

freely movable; ventral fins absent; dorsal fin single, of soft rays only. 

Ostraciidae, p. 261 

— Body not enclosed in a bony box and with the above mentioned characters. 


5 

5. — One or both jaws prolonged into a long bill See Key E, p. 24 

— Jaws not prolonged into a bony bill 6 


6. — Pectoral fins enlarged, forming conspicuous “ wings”. . .See Key F, p. 24 

— Pectoral fins not forming wings, not especially enlarged or wide 7 

7. — Eels: Body very elongate, more or less snake-like; premaxillaries rudi- 

mentary or wanting; ventral fins wanting; no spines in the fins; gill 

openings not especially large See Key G, p. 24 

— Without the above characters 8 

8. — Fishes with the carpal bones greatly elongated, forming an arm, which 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


19 


supports the rather broad pectoral fin; gill openings reduced to a small 


opening situated near the base of the arm 9 

— Fishes without the above series of characters 10 

9. — Body more or less compressed, not depressed; mouth large, terminal, 

nearly vertical Antennariidae, p. 270 

— Body depressed, skin sometimes with bony tubercles or spines; mouth 
small, usually inferior Ogcocephalidae, p. 271 

10. — Fishes which lie flat on one side, with both eyes on the other side; upper 

side dark, lower side pale See Key H, p. 25 

— Fishes with one eye on each side of the body . 11 

11. — Ventral fins present. 12 

— Ventral fins absent 53 


12. — Ventral fins placed on. the abdominal portion of the body 13 

—Ventral fins placed on the thoracic or subjugular part of the body, i. e., 

placed below, or in front of the base of the pectoral fins 14 

13. — Dorsal fin single, composed of rays only, or rarely with a very small 

spine just anterior to fin. ..... . See Key I, p. 25 

— Dorsal fins 2, the anterior composed of spines, the posterior chiefly of 
soft rays See Key J, p. 25 

14. — Ventral fins with definitely one spine and five rays 15 

— Ventral fins with number of spines and rays not definitely one spine and 

five rays. (Occasionally the ventral fins may resemble barbels and be 
found near the chin) 46 

15. — Lateral line absent; spinous portion of dorsal fin least developed; caudal 

fin rounded or pointed Eleotridae, p. 217 

— Without the above combination of characters 16 

16. — Suborbital with a bony stay extending across the cheek; cheeks sometimes 

mailed 17 

— No suborbital stay across the cheeks; cheeks not mailed 18 

17. — Lowermost rays of pectoral fin detached; head bony and hard. . Triglidae, 

p. 191 

— Pectoral fins entire, no detached rays; head large, with prominent ridges; 


body and head often with dermal flaps Scorpaenidae, p. 185 

18. — Some or all of the dorsal or anal spines disconnected, the former depressible 
in a groove .19 


— Dorsal spines, if present, all or nearly all connected by membrane .... 20 

19. — Anal fin preceded by two free, rather short spines (sometimes obsolete 

in the very old and joined by membrane in the very young) ; oesophagus 
normal, without teeth; preopercle entire; teeth, if present, moderate; 
caudal fin broadly forked; often with a series of enlarged scales along 

the posterior part of the sides Carangidae, p. 103 

— Anal fin long, not preceded by free spines, with 3 or more connected spines; 
ventral fins sometimes wanting in adults; oesophagus provided with 
lateral sacs which are toothed internally Stromateidae, p. 102 

20. — Dorsal and anal fins followed by a series of detached finlets; anal fin not 

preceded by free spines; caudal peduncle with a prominent lateral keel; 


20 


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caudal fin broadly forked 21* 

— Dorsal and anal fins not followed by finlets 22 


21. — More than 20 gill rakers on the lower limb of the 1st gill arch; rather 

robust fishes with the anterior part of the body in a corselet. 

Thunnidae , p. 98 

—Fewer than 20 gill rakers on the lower limb of the 1st gill arch; teeth in 
jaws rather strong, somewhat compressed, sometimes triangular, 
with sharp cutting edges; no corselet; elongate rather slim fishes. 

Scombridae, p. 97 

22. — Ventral fins broad, very large and black; small fishes growing to 6 or 8 

inches long with very conspicuous vertical dark cross bands; found 
only in the company of Portuguese Man-of-War. . . .Nomeidae, p. 103 
— Without the above combination of characters 23 

23. — Caudal peduncle armed with a strong spine, capable of being turned 

outward A canthuridae, p . 183 

— Caudal peduncle not armed with a strong spine 24 

24. — Two long unbranched barbels on the lower surface of the under jaw. 

Mullidae, p. 171 

— Throat without two long barbels 25 

25. — A single nostril on each side of the head; lateral line ending under the 

soft dorsal fin; anal fin with 2 spines Pomacentridae, p. 192 

— Two nostrils on each side of head 26 

26. — Lateral line extending to tip of middle rays of caudal fin 27 

— Lateral line not extending onto the caudal fin 29 

27. — 3 anal spines, the second usually strong; dorsal fins separate. 

Centropomidae, p. 121 

— One or two anal spines, dorsal fins deeply notched 28 

28. — Preopercular margin with a membranous border, never with bony serrae; 

upper jaw with a pair of very large canines at the tip, these usually 
curved inward and backward, one of them often obsolete. 

Otolithidae, p. 177 

1 — Preopercular margin with bony serrae or at least with one or more spines, 
or membranous without spines and without large canines at the tip 
of the lower jaw .Sciaenidae, p. 172 

29. — Gills Sy 2 (half of the gill-filaments of the last arch missing) the slit behind 

the last arch very small or wanting (Parrot-fish and Wrasses) .... 30 
— Gills 4; a long slit behind the last one 32 

30. — Teeth in jaws coalesced at the sides, usually forming a continuous cutting 

edge, and with an evident median suture between the groups of teeth 

of each side of the jaw Scaridae, p. 207 

— Teeth in the jaws nearly or quite distinct, some of the anterior ones 
enlarged and forming canines 31 

31. — Dorsal fin with 11 to 14 spines Labridae, p. 200 

* Occasionally the dolphins (Coryphaenidae) have the dorsal rays broken up into ‘ ‘finlets.” 
This family may be readily separated from the two families mentioned under 21 by having 
the dorsal fin beginning on the head. Also a few of the Carangidae have finlets; this family 
may be recognized by the two free spines before the anal fin. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


21 


— Dorsal fin with 8 to 9 spines Coridae, p. 202 

32. — Teeth setiform like the teeth of a brush or at least very slender, movable; 

body very short and deep; soft fins completely scaled; gill-membranes 

attached to the isthmus 33 

— Teeth not very slender or bristle-like, usually fixed; gill-membranes 
free from the isthmus or nearly so 34 

33. — Spinous and soft dorsal fins continuous; teeth numerous, slender, bristle-like 

Chaetodontidae, p. 179 

— Dorsal fins deeply notched or divided; teeth slender, but scarcely bristle- 
like Ephippidae, p. 178 

34. — Upper jaw extremely protractile, the basal process of the premaxillary 

very long, entering a groove at top of the cranium just underneath 

the skin; scales large, silvery Gerridae, p. 167 

— Premaxillaries moderately or not at all protractile 35 

35. — Dorsal fin very long, beginning on the head, no definite spines; caudal 

fin widely forked Coryphaenidae, p. 101 

— Dorsal fin shorter, not beginning on the head, the anterior portion with 
spines, either very weak or well developed 36 

36. — Dorsal spines very weak, 6 in number, the spinous dorsal very low and 

forming but a very small portion of the very long dorsal fin; elongate fishes 
with conical head furnished with fairly large curved conical teeth; 
tail crescentic, the tips produced into filaments. .Malacanthidae, p. 177 
— Dorsal spines strong, usually greater in number, in one case less 
than 6 37 

37. — Anal spines 2; dorsal fins well separated; scales large. . . .Amiidae, p. 118 

— Anal spines 3; dorsal fin continuous or rarely divided 38 

38. — Maxillary not or only partly sheathed by the preorbital bone; opercles 

usually ending in one or two flat spines 39 

— Maxillary slipping for the most part under the preorbital and more or 
less completely shielded by the latter; opercle without spines 43 

39. — Vomer without teeth; dorsal fin continuous; soft dorsal and anal fin 

large, almost as large as the caudal fin Lobotidae, p. 145 

-^-Vomer and palatines usually with teeth 40 

40. — Anal fin nearly as long as the dorsal and similar to it; head and body 

everywhere with rough scales; body rather deep, compressed; post- 
ocular part of head shortened; scarlet fish with large eyes. 

Priacanthidae, p. 144 

— Anal fin shorter than dorsal; head not everywhere covered with rough 
scales, body usually quite elongate and generally more or less compressed; 
postocular part of head not shortened 41 

41. — Supplemental maxillary (a small bone found lying along the upper edge 

of the maxillary) present Epinephilidae, p. 124 

— Supplemental maxillary bone absent 42 

42. — Lateral line continuous, parallel more or less with the back. 

Serranidae, p. 133 

— Lateral line running close to the back, interrupted below center of soft 
dorsal fin and continued again lower down on the center of the caudal 
peduncle Pseudochromidae, p. 143 


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43. — Teeth on jaws not all incisors, canines or molars present; alimentary 

canal comparatively short; carnivorous fishes 44 

— Teeth on anterior part of jaws incisors; no molars or canines; alimentary 
canal very long; herbivorous fishes Kyphosidae, p. 166 

44. — Vomer with teeth, these sometimes very small; teeth in jaws usually 

unequal, some of them more or less canine-like .. Lutianidae, p. 146 
— Vomer without teeth 45 

45. — Teeth on sides of jaws not molar-like, all pointed but with no marked 

canines; preopercle usually serrate Haemulidae , p. 154 

— Teeth on sides of jaws molar-like, the anterior teeth conical or more or 
less incisor-like; preopercle entire Sparidae, p. 163 

46. — Ventral fins with more than five rays; body covered with firm, strongly 

serrated scales; anal fin with 4 strong spines Holocentridae, p. 78 

— Ventral fin with fewer than five rays 47 

47. — Dorsal fin with soft rays only 1 48 

— Dorsal fin consisting of spines only, or partly of spines or at least of simple 

unbranched rays 49 

48. — Dorsal fin single, continuous around the caudal with the anal fin. 

Ophidiidae, p. 251 

— Dorsal fin double, the anterior fin a single ray placed on the posterior part 
of the head, widely separated from the second dorsal fin; ventral fins 
long Bregmacerotidae, p. 73 

49. — Pectoral fins divided into two parts, the anterior part nearly as long 

as the head, composed of about six rays, the other part produced, reach- 
ing nearly to base of caudal in adult (shorter in young), used as organs 

of flight . .Cephalacanthidae, p. 191 

— Pectoral fins not divided; dorsal spines usually numerous, gill membranes 
usually more or less united to the isthmus 50 

50. — Body with scales Clinidae, p. 228 

— Body without scales. ... r 51 

51. — Dorsal fin composed of spines only Chaenopsidae, p. 249 

— Dorsal fin composed of rays or of spines and rays 52 

52. — Top of head not covered with short spines Blennidae, p. 241 

— Top of head covered, especially anteriorly, with short, forward pointing 

thick-set spines Emblemariidae, p. 244 

53. — Gill membranes free from the isthmus 54 

— Gill membranes broadly united to the isthmus 55 

54. — Body extremely elongate, band shaped, tapering posteriorly; no scales; 

caudal fin wanting Trichiuridae, p. 100 

— Body compressed, rather short, rounded, with a caudal fin . . Stromateidae, 

p. 102 

55. — Dorsal fins 2, the anterior of 1 to 3 spines and inserted just behind the 

cranium, the posterior one separate and composed of soft rays only; 

body short and deep, much compressed 56 

— Dorsal fin continuous, composed of soft rays only 57 

56. — First dorsal with 3, rarely 2, spines, the first spine very large, the second 

1 The family Emblemariidae under No. 52, may at times be judged to fall under this heading. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


23 


locking it when erected; scales rather large, bony, forming a coat of mail. 

Balistidae, p. 253 

— First dorsal fin with a single spine with a rudiment at the base; scales 
minute, bearing very slender spines making the surface of the body 
rough velvety Monacanthidae, p. 254 

57. — Teeth in each jaw divided by a median suture; body not covered with 

large bony spines, naked or with small prickles. . 58 

— Teeth in each jaw undivided, no median suture; body covered with 
strong bony spines Diodontidae, p. 267 

58. — Nostrils without a distinct tube or tentacle; a single opening on each 

side; back compressed and produced into a short prominence over the 

pectoral fins Canthig aster idae, p. 266 

— Nostrils with a distinct tube or tentacle back rounded, not compressed. 

Tetraodontidae, p. 263 

Key B 


Sharks, Skates, Rays, etc. 


1. — Body fusiform in shape, pectoral fins not attached to the head; gill openings 

at side of body (Sharks) 2 

— Head and body depressed and disk-like; gill-openings on under side of 
body; tail slender, usually with one or more serrated spines (Rays, 
Stingarees, Skates, Mantas) 5 

2. — Nictitating membrane absent; nostrils with a naso-oral groove and with 

a prominent barbel; first dorsal fin inserted over the ventrals. 

Orectolobidae, p. 26 

— Nictitating membrane present 3 

3. — Teeth depressed, paved, several series functioning. . .Galeorhinidae, p. 26 
— Teeth more or less compressed, triangular, one or two series functioning . . 4 

4. — Head normally shaped, not expanded and hammer-shaped. 

Car char inidae, p. 27 

— Head expanded, hammer-shaped; the eyes at the outer extremities of the 


head Sphyrnidae, p. 29 

5. — Disk subcircular, no cephalic appendages Dasyatidae, p. 30 


— Disk broad and angular, the outer tips produced into “wings’’ 6 

6. — Head produced into a rostral process; no cephalic appendages. 

Myliobatidae, p. 31 

— Head with two long, rather broad, horn-like appendages. 

Mobulidae, p. 32 


Key C 


1. — Spinous dorsal fin present; small ctenoid scales present. 

Aulostomidae , p. 86 

— Spinous dorsal fin absent 2 

2. — Middle rays of caudal fin prolonged into a long filament. Body scaleless, 

but with bony plates on various parts of the body mostly covered with 
skin Fistularidae, p. 87 


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— Middle rays of caudal fin, when present, not produced into a long fila- 
ment; body hard, leathery, sometimes tubercular, marked off into 
segments; shaped either slender and with head in line with body (pipe- 
fishes), or robust with head at right angles to body (sea-horses). 

Syngnathidae, p. 83 


Key D 

1. — Sucking disk placed on top of the head and formed of lamellae. 

Echeneididae , p. 227 

— Sucking disk placed on the belly 2 

2. — Sucking disk formed by the ventral fins alone, the fins of the right and 

left sides connected together as one fin, with a velum across their base, 

forming a “cup”: Gobiidae, p. 220 

— Sucking disk formed only partly by the ventral fins, the fins usually con- 
fined to the sides of the disk; dorsal fins composed of soft rays only. 

Gobiesocidae , p. 251 


Key E 1 


1. — Both jaws equally elongated Belonidae , p. 63 

— Lower jaw only elongated, the upper short. Hemirhamphidae, p. 66 


Key F 

1. — Dorsal fin single, composed of soft rays only and situated quite far back 

on the body. Exocoetidae, p. 72 

— Dorsal fin composed of spines and rays, the former sometimes very slender. 

2 

2. — Ventral fins with 1 spine and 5 rays; 3 lowermost rays of the pectoral 

fins free and separate, the remainder of the fin sometimes quite long; 
head bony and rough, but without the exceptionally long spines mentioned 
below. (These fish do not fly, but they have been included here because 
of the size of the pectoral fins, which are sometimes quite long.) 

Triglidae, p. 191 

— Ventral rays fewer than 5; the pectoral fins in two parts, the anterior 
part nearly as long as the head, composed of about 6 rays, the other 
part produced and reaching nearly to the caudal in adult, shorter in 
the young; head bony, a long bony process ending in a sharp spine 
extending from nape to or beyond the dorsal fin; preopercle extending 
backward as a long spine Cephalacanthidae, p. 191 


Key G 

1. — Skin covered with rudimentary scales which are embedded and placed 
at right angles to each other; mouth terminal, the lower jaw somewhat 

projecting; teeth in bands on the jaws and vomer Anguillidae , p. 50 

— Scales absent 2 

1 Some of the flying fishes, Exocoetidae, especially the young, occasionally have elongate 
bills. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 25 


2. — Gill openings well developed; tongue present; pectoral fins usually present. 

3 

— Gill openings very small; pectoral fins absent; tongue absent; skin thick, 
leathery. Muraenidae , p. 53 

3. — Tip of tail with distinct fin rays, the dorsal and anal fins usually confluent 

around it 4 

— Tip of tail without fin rays, the dorsal and anal fins not extending around 
it, the tip ending in a hard, horny point Ophichthyidae, p. 52 

4. — Body fairly robust, not worm-like; posterior nostril situated entirely above 

the upper lip; tongue rather narrow; vomerine teeth well developed; 

head conical, somewhat pike-like Muraenesocidae, p. 5 1 

— Body slim and very long, worm-like; the posterior nostril situated in the 
upper lip Echelidae, p. 51 


Key H 

1. — Eyes large and well separated; preopercular margin usually distinct and 

not hidden by skin and scales .Bothidae, p. 73 

— Eyes small, close together; preopercular margin adnate, hidden by skin 
and scales 2 

2. — Body short and ovate; the eyes and color on the right side . . . Achiridae , p. 76 
— Body elongate, more or less lanceolate; the eyes and color on the left side. 

Cynoglossidae, p. 77 


Key I 


1. — Adipose fin absent; head not lizard-like .2 

— -Adipose fin present; mouth large; head lizard-like in shape; body more or 

less cylindrical, tapering from the head backward. . . Synodontidae, p. 60 

2. — A bony plate between the arms of the lower jaw 3 

— No bony plate between the arms of the lower jaw 4 

3. — Scales very large; lateral line decurved; last ray of the dorsal fin elongate. 

Megalopidae, p. 33 

— Scales small; lateral line straight; last ray of the dorsal fin not elongate. 

Elopidae, p. 32 

4. — Lateral line present; tongue and base of skull inside mouth with patches 

of coarse blunt teeth...... Albulidae, p. 37 

— Lateral line wanting; tongue and base of skull without coarse blunt teeth . . 5 

5. — Mouth moderate in size, terminal, usually more or less oblique 6 

— Mouth large, inferior, usually horizontal, the snout overhanging the mouth; 

mandible long and slender Engraulidae, p. 45 

6. — Belly compressed, usually forming a more or less sharp edge along which are 

serrae Clupeidae, p. 39 

— Belly rounded, without serrae Dussumieridae, p. 43 

Key J 

1. — Lower rays of the pectoral fin free and filamentous Polynemidae, p. 96 

— Lower rays of the pectoral fin not free or filamentous 2 


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2. — Lateral line present; teeth very large, unequal; jaws long and strong; 

head long, pike-like Sphyraenidae, p. 92 

— Lateral line absent; head not pike-like or produced; jaws rather weak. . . .3 

3. — Anal fin with a single weak spine; first dorsal fin with 3 to 9 flexible spines. 

Atherinidae, p. 88 

— Anal fin with 3 stiff spines (2 in very young) ; first dorsal with 4 stiff spines. 

Mugilidae, p. 90 

ANNOTATED LIST OF FISH OF PORT-AU-PRINCE BAY, 

HAITI 

Family Orectolobidae ; Nurse Sharks 
Ginglymostoma Muller and Henle, 1837 

Nurse Shark 

Ginglymostoma cirratum (Bonnaterre) 


References: Squalus cirratus, Bonnaterre, 1788, Tableau Encyclo. Ichth., 
p. 7. 

Ginglymostoma cirratum, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine. 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 29. 

Field Characters: A large, blunt-headed shark; a fleshy flap in front of 
the small mouth with a barbel on each side; two large dorsal fins placed far 
back; brown, the young sometimes spotted. 

Description: A young female measured: Total length 692 mm., length to 
tail notch 496, depth 87, head to last gill-slit 140, eye 6. 

Size and Weight: One young specimen 27.25 inches in total length, weighed 
4.25 pounds. The species grows to 10 feet. 

Color: Uniform olive brown above, fading to olive buff below. 

General Range: Warm seas of the western hemisphere from Carolina to 
southern Brazil, and on the west coast of Mexico. A straggler to Rhode 
Island. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: One young individual taken near 
shore, over shallow bank. 

Method of Capture : Caught in net by native fisherman. 

Food: Two six inch parrot fish ( Sparisoma flavescens ) swallowed entire. 

Study Materials: Specimens, 1; young female, 692 mm., No. 7094. 

Family Galeorhinidae; Dogfish 
Galeorhinus Blainville, 1816 

Haitian Dogfish 

Galeorhinus sp. 

Note: I include this genus in the list of Haitian fish from the careful scrutiny 
I was able to give, on two occasions, to parent sharks of small size swimming 



1928] Beebe and Tee-V am The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


27 


slowly about the schooner. The extremely flattened, elongated head and the 
two large dorsal fins of equal size insure the certainty of generic identification. 

One shark, five feet long, swam past on April 3rd, accompanied by two young, 
each about a third of her length. On May 4th a smaller dogfish circled the 
schooner, well under five feet in length, and had with her two young, certainly 
not over twelve inches in length. (W. B.) 


Family Carcharhinidae ; True Sharks 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Small labial fold on upper and lower jaw at angle of mouth Scoliodon 

AA. Labial folds wanting; teeth more or less serrate on both 

margins of the cusp , Carcharhinus 


Scoliodon Muller 

Sharp-nosed Shark 

Scoliodon terrae-novae (Richardson) 


Henle, 1837 



References: Squalus terrae-novae, Richardson, 1836, Fauna Bor. Amer. 
Ill, p. 289. 

Scoliodon terrae-novae, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
fishes of Panama, I, p. 55. 

Field Characters: A small-sized shark, reaching a length of three feet; 
teeth smooth; upper and lower lips with a labial fold extending from the angle 
of the jaw forward for less than one-third the length of the jaw. 

Description: The following measurements were recorded of the largest and 
smallest specimens taken: 


Total length 

Preoral length 

Length to base of 1st dorsal 

Width at nostrils 

Interorbital area 

Snout 

Internostril angle from mouth 
“ “ snout 

Eye to nostril 
Internarial space 
Eye 

Width of mouth 

Preoral into base of 1st dorsal 
Width nostrils into preoral 
Eye greater than nostril width 
Teeth in outer row in each jaw 
Upper labial fold 


No. 7141 

No. 7109 

Y oung female 

Young male 

405 mm. 

668 mm. 

33.5 “ 

46 “ 

135.5 “ 

198 “ 

35 

46 “ 

35 

51 “ 

37 

52.8 “ 

16 

21 “ 

25 

34 “ 

13.5 “ 

19 “ 

24 

33.5 “ 

10.5 “ 

13.5 “ 

32 

43 “ 

1.06 

1.1 

1.05 

1 

Yes 

Yes 

21 

23 

12 mm. 


28 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Size and Weight: A 15 inch female weighed 610 grams. A 20 inch male 
weighed 3 pounds. 

Color: Pale shark gray above, turning to white below; dorsals and caudal 
edged with black, second dorsal and lower lobe of caudal broadly so. Iris 
greenish silver. 

General Range: Labrador to Brazil. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Occasionally brought into the 
market by fishermen. 

Abundance: Fairly common. 

Method of Capture: Mainly taken in nets by the natives. 

Food: Unidentifiable parrot fish. 

Young: Three of our specimens, including No. 7141 were of the same brood, 
the umbilical cord still being in evidence. These were taken April 4th. 

Study Material: 6; 405-668 mm: including Nos. 7109, 7141. 

Carcharinus Blainville, 1816 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Teeth slightly serrated, similar in form in the two jaws, narrow, clavi- 
form, constricted at base; snout rather sharp; fins edged with black. 

limbatus 

AA. Teeth in both jaws distinctly serrate in adult, serrae on lower teeth 
smaller; upper teeth rather broad, lower teeth narrower; snout not 
very acute; color deep blue gray falciformis 


Spot-fin Ground Shark, Caconeta 

Carcharinus limbatus (Muller and Henle) 


References: Carcharias limbatus, Muller and Henle, 1841, Plagiostomen, 
49, PI. XIX, fig. 9 (Martinique). 

Carcharhinus limbatus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 41. 

Note: I include this species on the fact that when I started my deepest dive 
of sixty feet on March 23, 1927 over the schooner’s side, several fathoms below 
the surface a shark over nine feet in length, attended by a single young about 
three feet long, passed slowly by me. The only feature which remains in mind 
is the extensive and intense black tips of at least three fins, the two dorsals and 
the anal. They appeared much blacker than I have ever observed in sharks 
of this species after being drawn from the water. (W. B.) 




Scythe-shaped Shark 

Carcharinus falciformis (Bibron) 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


29 


References: Carcharhinus falciformis, Bibron, 1838, in Muller and Henle’s 
Plagiostomen, p. 47: 

Carcharhinus falciformis, Evermann and Marsh, 1902, Fishes 
of Porto Rico, p. 62. 

Field Characters: Large sized blue grey shark. Upper teeth much 
broader than lower and deeply notched on the outer margin; snout to mouth 
not greater than width of mouth; no sharp lobe to nasal flap; second dorsal and 
anal fins subequal. 

Description: The female specimen captured showed the following measure- 
ments : 


Total length 

1093 mm. 

Length to base of caudal fin 

838 “ 

Snout to first gill opening 

213 “ 

Length of caudal from pit 

292 “ 

Length of pectoral 

150 “ 

Snout to mouth 

83 “ 

Width of mouth 

83 “ 

Snout to origin of dorsal 

401 “ 

Origin of dorsal to caudal pit 

448 “ 

Weight: Reaches a length of 10 feet. 

Our 43 inch fish weighed 


13 pounds. 

Color: Dark shark grey. 

General Range: West Indies. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: The small specimens were taken 
over the deeper fishing reefs. 

Method of Capture: Taken on set line by native fishermen. 

Food: Two fish hooks and eight inches of line on each were found in the 
stomach of the young female, together with a small piece of fish, probably bait. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; young female, 3 feet 7 inches long, No. 
6940; young male, 3 feet long, No. 7137. 

Family Sphyrnidae ; Hammerhead Sharks 
Sphyrna Rafinesque, 1810 


Hammerhead Shark 

Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus) 



References: Squalus zygaena, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 234. 

Cestracion zygaena, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 58. 

Field Characters: A large shark with the head depressed and greatly 
expanded from side to side, the eyes being placed on the forward part of the 
lateral expansions. 


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Note: No specimens taken. A hammerhead shark, about nine feet long, 
swam close about the schooner all the afternoon of March 10th. It was pale 
grey with the posterior edges of the fins black. 

Size : The species grows to a length of 17 feet. 


Family Dasyatidae; Sting Rays 
Urobatis Garman, 1913 


Round Sting Ray 

Urobatis sloani (Blainville) 


References: Leiobatus sloani , Blainville, 1816, Bull. Soc. Philom., p. 121. 

Urolophus jamaicensis, Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, I, p. 81. 

Field Characters: Flattened disk-like ray with rayed caudal fin, the 
disk ovate, longer than broad and slightly longer than tail; brown sprinkled with 
yellow or orange dots, sometimes forming ocelli. 

Description: Measurements of two specimens: 



Length total 304 mm. 145 mm. 

Length disk 176 “ 76.5 “ 

Width disk 152 “ 76 “ 

Length caudal spine 41 “ 13 “ 

It can be seen from the measurements that the smaller fish has a disk that is 
almost round and that the tail is' almost as long as the disk. The upper surface 
of the smaller is nearly smooth. 

Size: The largest specimen obtained by us had a disk length of 190 mm. and 
a total length of 340 mm. 

Color: In the larger preserved specimen the round yellow or orange spots 
are smallest on the mid-line, becoming larger on the periphery of the disk and on 
the caudal fin. This is also true to a certain extent in the smaller specimen (76.5 
disk length) except that on the outer edges of the disk the darker color which 
surrounds the lighter spots has broken up, so that the color of this part of the 
fish could be described as a light background with broken reticulations and 
small spots of dark color. 

General Range : West Indies. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay : Found on the bottom, rather widely 
distributed, especially over muddy and sandy bottoms. 

Abundance: Rather common. Seen two or three times a week at the market. 

Method of Capture: Taken in wire traps baited with chicken remains and 
set on the bottom at fifty feet. Also captured by hooks and lines by native 
fishermen and by small seines along shore. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 31 

Food: The 190 mm. ray contained the remains of four shrimps, Peneus 
brasiliensis. The smaller fish contained comminuted bottom detritus. 

Size at Maturity: The 190 mm. male was in breeding condition on March 
22, 1927. 

Study Material: Photographs, 3731, 4126; Specimens, 4; 76.5 to 190 mm. 
disk length, including Nos. 6853 and 7164. 

Family Myliobatidae; Eagle Rays 
Aetobatus Blainville, 1816 


Eagle Ray 

Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen) 


References: Raja narinari , Euphrasen, 1790, Handl. K. Sven. Vet. Akad., 
XI, p. 217, pi. X. 

Aetobatus narinari, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 89. 

Field Characters: Flattened rays with pointed wings; head elevated, 
compact; tail long and lash-like with two serrated spines at the base; upper 
surface with numerous, round, whitish spots. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 12 feet long, 7.5 feet wide, and an estimated 
weight of 450 pounds. 

Color: A 30-inch specimen is clear green blue grey above, the numerous 
spots being pearly white, each surrounded by a broad, dark ring; those near 
the posterior edge of the wings and on the pelvic fins have a large dark center. 
The spots average 15 mm. in diameter and about the same distance apart; 
those on the snout merge into bands converging toward center of snout; under 
surface ivory white, immaculate; pupil vertical, iris silvery. 

General Range: Tropical parts of the Atlantic and the eastern Pacific. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Seen near surface, over fairly deep 
fishing reefs. 

Abundance: Fairly common, according to native fishermen. 

Method of Capture: Taken in seines. 

Study Material: Photographs, 3919, 4154, 4155, 4156, 4157; Specimens, 
3, 300-750 mm., including No. 6953. 



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Family Mobulidae; Giant Devilfish 
Manta Bancroft, 1829 


Giant Devil Fish; Great Manta 

Manta birostris (Walbaum) 


References: Raja birostris, Walbaum, 1792, Artedi Piscium, p. 535. 

Manta birostris, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, I, p. 94. 

Field Characters: A flattened ray growing to great size; with pointed 
and curved wings; two large fleshy cephalic fins; a short whip-like tail; black 
above. 

General Range: Tropical waters on both coasts of America, straggling to 
New York. 

Note: No specimen taken, but a medium-sized one observed on January 6, 
1927, half way between Port-au-Prince and Gonave Island. On January 12th, 
one about 6 feet across seen partly cut up at the fish-market. 

Family Elopidae ; The Ten Pounders 
Elops Linnaeus, 1766 

Big-eyed Herring 

Elops saurus Linnaeus 


References: Elops saurus, Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., Ed. XII, p. 518 
(Carolina). 

Elops saurus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine Fishes of 
Panama, I, p. 175. 

Field Characters: A slender, elongate fish with a large normal mouth, 
a single, soft-rayed dorsal fin in middle of back; very large adipose eyelid; scales 
small and absent on the head. Uniform bluish above, silvery on sides and 
below. 




1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


33 


Size and Weight: A specimen 10]^ inches long weighed 92 grams. 
General Range: Atlantic coast from Massachusetts to Brazil. 
Abundance : Apparently rather rare, not seen at the market during our stay. 
A small female seined April 18, 1927. 

Food: Our single specimen contained one shrimp, Peneus brasiliensis, and 
the heads of two small fish of its own species. 

Study Material: Photographs, Specimens, 1; 258 mm., No. 7172. 

Family Megalopidae; Tarpons 
Tarpon Jordan and Evermann, 1896 


Tarpon 

Tarpon atlanticus (Cuvier and Yalen 
ciennes) 



References: Megalops atlanticus, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1846, Hist. 
Nat. Poiss., XIX, p. 398. 

Tarpon atlanticus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 174. 

Field Characters: Large, silvery, compressed fish with a large mouth and 
undershot lower jaw; a single soft-rayed dorsal fin in middle of back, the last 
ray of which is long and filamentous; scales very large and heavy. 

Dimensions: The measurements of five arbitrarily chosen individuals are 


given below: 

a 

b 

c 

d 

e 

Length 

78 mm. 

122 mm. 

128 mm. 

188 mm. 

1060 mm. 

Depth 

20 

30 

33 “ 

46.5 “ 

257 “ 

Head 

22 

30 

34 “ 

48 

239 “ 

Eye 

6 

9 

10 “ 

11 

43 “ 

Snout 

5.8 “ 

8 

8 “ 

12 


Maxillary 

13 

19.5 “ 

20 “ 

30 

148 “ 

Length pectoral 

15 

25 

26 “ 

36 


Length last dorsal ray 

8 

22 

28 “ 

42 

287 “ 

Dorsal rays, number 

14 

14 

14 

14 

14 

Anal rays, number 

22 

22 

22 

22 

22 

Weight 

5 grams 



65 gr. 

36 lbs. 


Taking the largest specimen and calling each of its measurements 100% we 
find that the percentages of size of the smaller individuals a and d are as follows: 



a 

d 

e 

Length 

7.4% 

17.7% 

100% 

Depth 

7.8“ 

18 “ 

100“ 

Head 

9.2“ 

20 “ 

100“ 

Eye 

14 “ 

25.5“ 

100“ 

Maxillary 

8.7“ 

20 “ 

100“ 

Length, last dorsal ray . 

2.7“ 

14.6 “ 

100“ 


It is of interest to observe in this table that the eye is of greater size pro- 


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portionately and changes least in comparative size, — a character which might 
be expected in the development of the fish; and that the last dorsal ray is 
relatively small in smaller fish. 

Size and Weight: Three individuals taken during the expedition gave the 
following weights: 

Length 78 mm. or 3 inches, weight 5 grams 
“ 188 “ “ 8 “ " “ 65 “ 

“ 1060 “ “ 40 “ “ 36 pounds 

The world’s record for size, at this date, is 8 feet 2 inches long with an esti- 
mated weight of 350 pounds. 

Color: The thirty-six pound fish had a black dorsal fin with a broad golden 
edge. 

General Range: Atlantic coast, from Massachusetts to Brazil. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Adults were rather rare and found 
mostly near coral reefs and along shore. The young were found in abundance 
in February in a land-locked lagoon at Source Matelas, approximately 15 
miles northwest of Port-au-Prince. 

Samples of water from the lagoon where these fishes were captured were 
submitted to Mr. N. McKaig, Jr., Assistant Chemist of the Service Technique 
of Haiti. A portion of his preliminary report is given here, “I have started 
analysis of the water of the Tarpon Lagoon and have found it to be rather inter- 
esting. It has a density of 1.0374 and contains 54,000 parts per million total 
solids, which, as you see, is much denser than ordinary sea water. The hydro- 
gen sulphide content is low, about 5 parts per million in the sample which 
I received.” 

Method of Capture: In large seines. Not known to take a hook in Haitian 
waters according to local fishermen. Two members of our party trolled 
industriously with various types of tarpon gear and failed to raise a fish. Whether 
this was the result of its being the wrong time of the year is not known, but 
as far as we could gather this seems to be the experience of the Haitian sports- 
men, also. 

The young were taken in small bait seines dragged through the shallow waters 
of their lagoon. 

Eggs: The 40-inch fish contained an estimated 891,000 eggs. 

Young: An account of the capture of young individuals of this species has 
been published by William Beebe in the Bulletin of the New York Zoological 
Society, September-October, 1927, Vol. XXX, No. 5, page 141, under the 
title of “A Tarpon Nursery in Haiti.” Part of this article is republished in 
the following paragraphs: — 

“About fifteen miles west of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, along the shore of the gulf 
itself, I located two, interconnected, land-locked lagoons known as Source Matelas. 

“The more western of the lagoons was a rounded body of water about one hundred 
yards across, on a marshy promontory backed by low, rolling hills. These were 
covered with the usual semi-arid vegetation, consisting of cactus, cereus and acacias. 
From the waters of the gulf the lagoon is separated only by a narrow dyke built 
up apparently by the action of the storm waves at high water. 

“In mid- January I walked into the mud at the edge of one of the lagoons and out 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van : The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


35 


to the center. There I found half a foot of mud and about eighteen inches of water. 
This was green and muddy but not slimy. It was impregnated with sulphur and 
the odor of this element rose strongly from the disturbed mud. A few miles away 
was a constantly flowing sulphur spring, used to bathe in by the natives, and this 
lagoon has apparently some connection with the same source of supply. This 
unprepossessing liquid was filled with innumerable small insects which, upon examina- 
tion, proved to be water-boatmen ( Corixidae ), both adults, with handsomely varie- 
gated, yellow elytra, and young which looked at first glance amazingly like copepods. 
These have been identified as Trichocorixa reticulata (Guerin). 

“I saw no signs of fish and was about to return to shore when something nipped 
my ankle. This happened again, and I called for the seine. We had hardly com- 
menced to draw it when small fish began leaping high to escape it. Closing the 
net I secured a considerable number, and when we examined our catch on the 
shore I found thirty-six tarpon, Tarpon atlanticus (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 
ranging from two to eight inches. When I recovered from my first astonishment 
at seeing these clean-scaled, virile fish living in this sulphurous, stagnant pool, 
I examined the smallest for any hint of the leptocephalus stage through which 
ifcis assumed they must pass early in life. Neither this, nor a later, much more 
thorough examination showed in these young fish any hint of such phase — even the 
smallest was as normal and perfectly formed as any six-foot giant of the Florida 
waters. This may mean only that the leptocephalid characters disappear when the 
fish are still smaller. 

“My next visit to Source Matelas was on January twenty-third, when I 
made a haul with the seine in the same place and secured a heavy load of tarpon. 
When we counted our catch on shore, we found one hundred and fifty-four of the 
young fish, from three to seven inches in length. One individual measured thirteen 
inches. It was a pure culture of tarpon, except for three small snook, Centropomus 
undecimalis (Bloch). Several times as many tarpon as we took escaped by leaping 
over the top of the seine as we were pulling it, some of them rising three feet clear of 
the surface. We threw back all but the few which we wished to keep as specimens. 

“My third visit was two months later, after heavy storms had set in, on the 
twenty-first of March. 

“I found the lagoon dyke broken through, and the tide pouring into a three-foot 
sluiceway. A thorough seining of the first lagoon netted six tarpon, measuring 
from four and a half to seven inches, together with a two-inch snook. Ultimate hauls 
failed to secure another fish of any kind. A seine haul in the second lagoon yielded 
four small mojarras, Eucinostomus californiensis (Gill), recent emigrants from the 
open water outside. The water-boatmen were as abundant, and the sulphur 
smell quite as strong as ever, in spite of the infiltration of the water from the gulf. 

“The most interesting development of this last haul of young tarpon was that when 
we examined five of the fish in aquariums on the schooner, we found that there 
was something the matter with their eyes — a grey, translucent film clouding the 
tissue of the lens or the humor behind it, the aspect being wholly unlike the appear- 
ance of the eyes of the fish taken two months before. They seemed to be quite 
blind. Whether this affliction was connected with their remaining in the lagoon 
after the hundreds or thousands of their fellows had escaped to the open gulf can 
be only surmised. It could hardly have interfered with their feeding, as the water- 
boatmen were present in uncounted millions, and a single scoop with a quart jar 
would secure large numbers. 

“The only other mention of an actual nursery of tarpon is in Evermann and 
Marsh’s “Fishes of Porto Rico,” page 80, where we find the following note: “Com- 
mon about Porto Rico where it evidently breeds, as numerous immature individuals 
were taken at Hucares and Fajardo. The four examples from Hucares are from 7.5 
to 11.5 inches long and were seined in a small brackish pool of dark-colored water, 
not over five feet deep, in the corner of a mangrove swamp, and at that time 
(February) entirely separated from the ocean by a narrow strip of land scarcely 
25 feet wide. The thirteen others are nearly all very young, of 2.25 to 3.25 inches, 
collected at Fajardo.” A few tarpon, from six to eight inches long, have been 
taken on the north shore of the Gulf of Mexico in Florida, and L. L. Babcock in his 


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excellent monograph of the tarpon, records a three-inch specimen taken in a cast net 
on the coast of Texas. He also gives the world’s record tarpon as eight feet, three 
inches, with an estimated weight of three hundred and fifty pounds. This was 
taken in a net by Florida fishermen. 

“My discovery of young tarpon in a land-locked lagoon in Haiti suggests that 
the Porto Rican record is not a casual accident, but a usual phenomenon in the 
life of these fish. On account of the shallowness and the muddiness of the Haitian 
lagoon, it would be impossible for an adult tarpon of any size to enter it and deposit 
her eggs. We can only surmise that the eggs are scattered out in the waters of the 
gulf, sink to the bottom and hatch, and that the young, either as leptocephalids or 
as very small larval fish, make their way into the lagoon before the season when it 
becomes cut off from the gulf. Here they live and thrive, with an abundance of 
food, sheltered from voracious fish and other dangers of the open sea, having to 
guard only against the keen eyes and sharp beaks of the larger herons, and such 
unthinkable catastrophes as visiting scientists. 

“One of my Haitian fishermen took two good-sized tarpon in his seine not far 
off shore from Source Matelas. These were thirty-six pounders, more than forty- 
one inches in length. When diving on Lamentin Reef, several miles across the 
gulf, I saw a large tarpon again and again. For a number of days in succession 
this great silver fish would swim toward me on my first submersion, and pass slowly 
within eight or ten feet, looking me over. When I learned that this would probably 
happen every time I went down, I devoted all my attention to estimating his 
exact length. Once he swam past two very tall tube sponges, and I could see 
distinctly that he overlapped the distance between them in actual body length, 
not including his tail. I measured this distance and found it six feet, three inches. 
So even ignoring the slight overlap, he was a full six feet in length of body. He 
showed no fear, only a gentle curiosity, rolling his great eye about as he passed. 
His scales reflected the light, even at a depth of twenty-five feet, as a dazzling 
sheet of bluish silver. 

“I could learn of no tarpon being caught on a hook in Haiti, although anglers 
have made many attempts. The native fishermen were familiar with them, and, 
as I have said, occasionally found them in their seines. 

“The food of the young tarpon consisted entirely of the aquatic hemiptera which 
filled the waters of the lagoon, a five-inch fish having the remains of sixty-eight 
of these insects in its stomach. The relative increase in various body measurements 
from a three-inch, through an eight-inch, to a forty-inch individual, is remarkably 
uniform, the average of the characters of length, depth, head and eye being 9.6%, 
and 19.8%, as compared with an arbitrary 100% of the largest fish. The elongated, 
thread-like, posterior ray of the dorsal fin is developed relatively late in life, the 
percentages of this character in the same three individuals being 2.7%, 14.6% and 
100%. In weight, the relations between the three sizes of fish are tremendously 
disproportionate. The actual weights are as follows: the three-inch fish, five grams; 
the eight-inch fish, sixty-five grams; and the forty-inch fish, thirty-six pounds. 
This makes the percentages: 

“Five-inch = .00031% or—?— of the large fish. 

3246 

“Eight-inch = .4% or—?— of the large fish.” 

250 

Study Material: Photographs, 4009, 4018, 4024, 4026, 4010, 4009, 4025; 
Specimens, 11; 78-1060 mm., all but the largest from Source Matelas; the 
largest from Port-au-Prince Bay. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


37 


Family Albulidae; The Bone Fishes 
Albula Gronow, 1763 


Bone-fish; Lady Fish 

Albula vulpes (Linnaeus) 


References: Esox vulpes , Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. x, p. 313 (Baha- 
mas, based on Vulpes bahamensis of Catesby). 

Albula vulpes , Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine Fishes of 
Panama, I, p. 178; Weber, 1913, Fishes Indo Australian 
Archipelago, II, p. 7. 

Field Characters: Adult: Cylindrical fishes with small mouth placed well 
back of the projecting pig-like snout; a single soft rayed dorsal fin in the middle 
of the back; scales rather small. Brilliant silver. Leptocephalid larvae: 
Teeth 30; transparent except for pigment line along ventral surface; dorsal 
fin 17, anal fin 8. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 31 inches and a weight of 14 pounds. Our 
17-inch fish weighed a little over 3 pounds. 

Color: Brilliant silver, the scales, especially above, with greenish tinge. 
Top of head greenish. Series of dark lines following the line of the scales, 
especially prominent above the lateral line. Tips of the dorsal rays, tips of 
the caudal rays, anterior portion of the anal, and the ventral rays spotted with 
dusky. A dusky spot at the base of the pectorals superiorly. 

General Range: Cosmopolitan in tropical seas. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Adults taken occasionally by 
native fishermen. The leptocephalid larvae were common at night at the 
surface during our stay. They were attracted to our lights. Adult fishes 
about a foot in length also seen at night about light, one on April 22nd and two 
on the 28th. 

Abundance: Uncommon. Seen occasionally at the fish market, but not 
especially useful for food. 

Method of Capture: Adults taken in seines; larvae taken in scoop nets 
at surface. 

Food: Bivalve mollusks and small squids formed the food of a 12-inch fish. 

Young: Leptocephalus larva; From February 26th to April 30th, in the 
course of thirty-four evenings of study of the positively phototropic surface 
organisms at the gang-way of the schooner, the larvae of Albula vulpes were 
absent on only two occasions, while on seventeen nights they were very abundant. 
They swam by slight, lateral undulations and gathered in numbers, swimming 
around the submerged light. 

No radical change or growth was observed during these two months, al- 
though one hundred and forty were preserved, and several thousand examined. 
The extremes of length were 45 and 60 mm. 



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Description of a Typical Larva taken at 2000 candle power light 
9:00 P. M., February 26. No. 6965 

Length 55 mm. Length of Pectoral 1 .4 mm. 

Depth 5.7 “ Length of Ventral .75 “ 

Head 4.1 “ Length base dorsal 2.3 “ 

Snout 1.1 “ Length base anal 1 “ 

Eye 1 “ 


Measurement Percentages of Larvae and Adult stages 


Adult 


Larva No. 6965 

Length 

100% 

30% 

Depth 

100% 

14% 

Snout 

100% 

5% 

Head 

100% 

.8% 

Eye 

100% 

•9% 


There are sixty-four myomeres, the dorsal fin beginning at the fiftieth. 

The only pigmentation besides the eye-ball is a very narrow, black line, 
between the lower edge of the myomeres and the alimentary canal. Anteriorly 
this is broken into two, short, stitch-like lines to each myomere, but posteriorly 
the line becomes more connected. There are a few rounded, black pigment 
cells at the base of the caudal rays, and a scattering of the black stitches along 
the longest, outer, caudal rays. 

The eye-ball is bluish black, with a cap of black pigment, draped in strands 
like moss or hair over the top of each eye-ball. 

The nostrils are very large, double, .4 of a millimeter from the tip of the 
snout, and occupying .45 of the total length of the snout. The anterior one 
is round, the posterior one constricted in its lower half. 

There are two long, straight, downwardly directed incisors, close together 
at the symphysis of the upper jaw; then a space, followed by fourteen short 
teeth, decreasing in length backward, directed almost straight downward. 
At the point of the lower jaw are two long, needle-like incisors, originating 
outside and beneath the edge of the jaw, and growing obliquely forward and 
upward, followed by ten teeth, much longer and more slender than those in the 
upper jaw, and slanted acutely forward. The upper jaw shows almost no 
overhang. 

The dorsal fin, with the seventeen rays of the adult fish, is well differentiated. 
The middle rays are the longest, curving rapidly down anterior^, much less 
so posteriorly. In front of the dorsal is a short, homogeneous membrane-fin, 
and behind, another which rises gradually into a low arc and again dies out 
just in front of the base of the caudal. This fin is granular on the proximal, 
hyaline on the distal portion. 

The anal fin shows the ultimate eight rays. It is close to the caudal, in fact 
is suspended and extends obliquely out from the body along the outer edge of 
the hyaline membrane-fin joining the lower caudal rays to the body. The 
anal fin is immediately preceded by the anus, and anterior to this is a very 
long, low, hyaline membrane-fin. 

The caudal contains twenty-two rays, symmetrically arranged, although the 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 39 

heterocercal character of this fin is clearly marked. This fin adds 3.4 mm. to 
the length, making the total 58.4 mm. 

The pectorals are well developed, 1.4 mm. in length, and paddle-shaped. 
The ventrals are much smaller, .75 long, arising at the thirtieth myomere. 
There is no indication of the axillary scales of the adult. 

The vertebrae are clearly distinguishable for the posterior sixteen myomeres, 
averaging three to a myomere. From the forty-eighth myomere to the base 
of the urostyle are fifty-two vertebrae, the last six being abruptly narrow, 
unlike the rest. 

Variations: In an individual of 47 mm. the dorsal begins at the fifty-second 
myomere, but the average is the fiftieth myomere. The extremes of myo- 
meres are 62 and 68. 

Extremes of development: In the largest larva taken (No. 7152), with a length 
of 60 mm., the ventrals are large and distinct, and the anal fin has broken 
wholly away from the membrane base of the caudal, and lies flat along the 
body. Although the largest, this is also the most developed, which agrees 
neither with the figures of Gilbert, 1 nor the description of Meek and Hilde- 
brand. 2 

Study Material: Photographs, 3936; Specimens — adults, 3; 182-390 mm., 
including Nos. 7009, 7130; leptocephalid stages, 140; 45-60 mm., No. 6965. 

Family Clupeidae; The Herrings 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Anal fin with less than thirty rays. 

B. Last ray of the dorsal fin not prolonged into a long filament. 


C. Gill rakers very numerous (105 in our single specimen) Clupanodon 

CC. Gill rakers moderate in number, about 25 to 35 Sardinella 

BB. Last ray of the dorsal fin prolonged into a long filament. . .Opisthonema 
AA. Anal fin with more than thirty rays; jaws with canines. .Chirocentrodon 



References: Sardinia pseudo-hispanica, Poey, 1861, Memorias, II, p. 311. 

Clupanodon pseudohispanicus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, 
Marine Fishes of Panama, I, p. 180. 

Field Characters: Small, compressed silvery fishes with weak scutes along 
belly, small mouth, weak jaws, and with numerous gill-rakers, in our specimen 
105. 


1 In Weber and Beaufort’s, 1913, “ The Fishes of the Indo- Australian Archipelago, ” II, p. 7 

2 Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, “The Marine Fishes of Panama,” I, p. 179. 


40 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; L 


Dimensions: 


Length 

122.5 mm. 

Dorsal fin 

17 

Depth 

33 (3.7) 

Anal fin 

18 

Head 

30 (4.1) 

Scales 

50 

Eye 

7.5 (4) 

Scutes 

15-13 

Snout 

8.8 (3.7) 

Gill-rakers 

105 

Maxillary 

12 (2.5) 




Discussion: There is considerable likelihood that this represents a new 
species, but the present lack of knowledge as to exact structural details and 
comparative osteology of related forms compels us to call it pseudohispanicus. 
To take the gill-raker count alone we find the following recorded variations: 


A — Cuba to Cape Cod 1 

30 to 40 gill-rakers 

B — Woods Hole, Mass. 

45 

C — Mass., Cuba, Jamaica 

65 

D — Havana 

88 

E — Dominica 

90 

F — Haiti 

105 


Until re-examination confirms or otherwise explains this extraordinary 
variation from 30 to 105 gill-rakers, it is useless to try to settle the question of 
specific identity. 

Study Material: Specimens, 1; 122.5 mm., No. 7432. 


Sardinella Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1847 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. About 25 gill rakers on lower limb of the first gill arch sardina. 

A A. About 32 gill rakers on the lower limb of the first gill arch . . macrophthalmus. 



Sardine 

Sardinella sardina (Poey) 


References: Harengula sardina, Poey, 1861, Memorias, II, p. 310. 

Sardinella sardina, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, page 183. 

Field Characters: Small, compressed fishes with adipose eyelid; single, 
soft-rayed dorsal fin; serrations along belly; small mouth and with about 25 
gill rakers. Scales deciduous, those on the sides with vertical striae. 

i A — Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes of North and Middle America, I, p. 424. 

B — Kendall and Smith, 1894, Bull. U. S. Fish Com., p. 17. 

C — Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine Fishes of Panama, I, p. 181. 

D — One specimen, No. 3377, American Museum. 

E — Three specimens, No. 1528, American Museum. 

F — One specimen, No. 7432, Haitian Expedition, Zoological Society. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 41 

Size and Weight: Grows to eight inches. 

Color: Blue above, sides silvery. Alcoholic specimens are amber brown 
above, larger individuals being silvery on the ventral 3-4 of the body and head. 
In small fish the silver is confined to the iris and the gill covers. 

General Range: Florida and the West Indies to Brazil. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: In schools along the sandy beaches 
and at the surface, coming to light at night. Also seen at the surface in day- 
time, a mile from shore. 

Abundance : Common, much more numerous than Sardinella macrophthalmus . 
Seen in the market quite often. 

Method of Capture: Small seines along shore and with scoop nets at night. 

Food: The young fish near shore fed upon red-eyed copepods. A 43^-inch 
fish taken in a seine off shore had eaten four medium-sized shrimps. 

Young: Young almost without pigment, 17 to 25 mm. were taken close in 
shore and at the surface a mile from land. In the former case they were in the 
same schools with larger individuals up to 49 mm. 

Study Material: Specimens, 82; 17-116 mm., including Nos. 6847, 70 ( . 
7027, 7043, 7185 and 7192. Port-au-Prince Bay. 


Sardine 

Sardinella macrophthalmus (Ranzani) 



References: Clupea macrophthalma , Ranzani, 1842, Nov. Comment. Ac. 

Sci. Inst. Bonon., Y, p. 320. 

Sardinella macrophthalmus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923. 

Marine Fishes of Panama, I, p. 184. 

Field Characters: Small compressed fishes with adipose eyelid; single, 
soft-rayed dorsal fin; serrations along belly, small mouth and with about 32 
gill rakers. Scales fairly firm, not as deciduous as in sardina. Scales on sides 
without evident vertical striae. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 6 inches. A 76 mm. individual weighed 7 
grams. 

General Range: Florida, south to Brazil. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Seen and taken mainly at light 
after dark. Some of the night seine fishermen bring these fish to the market. 

Abundance: In schools of hundreds, they often covered the 2000 candle- 
power submerged light submerged at the gang-way of the schooner, night 
after night. They were not especially common at the market, however. 

Method of Capture: Seines and hand-nets. 

Study Material: Specimens, 10; 48-98 mm., including Nos. 7001, 7082, 
7150, 7152, 7192, Port-au-Prince Bay. 


42 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 
Opisthonema Gill, 1861 


[X; 1 



Atlantic Thread Herring 

Opisthonema oglinum (Le Seur). 


References: Clupea thrissa, Broussonet, 1782, Ichthyologia, fasc. 1. 

Megalops oglina, Le Seur, 1817, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
I, p. 359! 

Opisthonema oglinum, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 187. 

Field Characters: Small, compressed, keeled, silvery scale fishes, with 
toothless mouth, small pectorals and ventrals; last ray of the dorsal fin pro- 
longed into a long filament. 

Description: The pectoral fins in many of our specimens do not reach the 
ventrals and average 1.47 in the head. The stomach is very long and U- 
shaped. 

Color : Silvery bluish-green, darker above, the rows of scales with somewhat 
indistinct dark streaks. Peritoneum black. 

Size and Weight: The weights of three individuals were as follows: 


Length 
84.5 mm. 
127 
214 


Weight 
9 . 6 grams 
30.5 “ 

201 


The 214 mm. specimen was the largest seen by us. 

General Range: Massachusetts to Brazil. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found widely distributed through 
the Bay, and at the surface at night. 

Abundance: A common species, often seen in the market, but a poor food 
fish. 

Method of Capture: Seines and hand nets. 

Food: Small fish, crabs, and shrimps. The smaller fish feed on zoea and 
other plankton larvae. 

Spawning Season: Two adult fish showed signs in March and April of an 
approaching breeding season. 

Study Material: Photographs, 3776; Specimens, 56; 63-214 mm. including 
6840, 7131, Port-au-Prince Bay. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


43 


Chirocentrodon Gunther, 1868 


Spiny-toothed Herringlet 

Chirocentrodon taeniatus Gunther 



References: Chirocentrodon taeniatus , Gunther, 1868, Cat. Fishes Brit. 
Mus., VII, p. 463. 

Chirocentrodon taeniatus, Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, I, p. 435. 

Field Characters: Small, elongate, compressed, anchovy-like fishes with 
single dorsal fin and with strong, canine teeth in both upper and lower jaws. 
Dimensions: The measurements of 5 of our specimens are given below: 



a 

b 

c 

d 

e 

Length 

74 mm. 

74.5 mm. 

71 mm. 

74 mm. 

73 mm. 

Depth 

16.5 “ 

17 

16 “ 

17 “ 

16 “ 

Head 

16.5 “ 

17 

16 “ 

18 “ 

19 “ 

Eye 

5 

5 

5 “ 

6 “ 

6 “ 

Snout 

5 

5.5 “ 

5 “ 

6 “ 

5 “ 

Pectoral fin rays 

— 

— 

11 

11 

13 

Dorsal rays 

15 

14 

15 

14 

14 

Anal rays 

40 

40 

40 

40 

40 

Gill-rakers 

13 

— 

— 

— 

15 


Proportionate 

Measurements 




a 

b 

c 

d 

e 

Depth into length 

4.47 

4.3 

4.43 

4.3 

4.6 

Head into length 

4.47 

4.3 

4.43 

4.1 

3.8 

Eye into head 

3.3 

3.4 

3.2 

3 

3.15 

Snout into head 

3.3 

3.4 

3.2 

3 

3.8 


Size and Weight: A 74 mm. fish weighed 4.5 grams. 

General Range: Jamaica, Haiti. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken by us only at the surface 
at night. 

Abundance: Rare, seen occasionally in the fish markets. 

Method of Capture: Taken at light at night, and a few purchased at the 
markets. 

Study Material: Specimens, 6, 63-74 mm., including No. 7102, Port-au- 
Prince Bay, April 1, 1927. 

Family Dussumieridae; Round Herrings 
Jenkinsia Jordan and Evermann, 1896 



Silver-lined Herringlet 

Jenkinsia lamprotaenia Gosse 


44 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

References: Clupea lamprotaenia, Gosse, 1851, Naturalist’s Sojourn in 
Jamaica, p. 291, Plate 1, fig. 2. 

Jenkinsia lamprotaenia, Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, I, p. 419. 

Jenkinsia stolifera, Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, I, p. 419. 

Field Characters: Small, elongate herrings with rounded bellies and with a 
terminal mouth. Anchovy-like in color and consorting with Anchoviella epsetus. 
Pale green with broad band of silver down the side. 

Description: Examination of part of our series of specimens, the majority 
of which were obtained from one school, reveals a certain amount of variation 
from the original description, — variation which tends to couple this species 
with stolifera. 

The dorsal fin count in our specimens ranges from 11 to 13 and the anal 
from 14 to 17, both counts within the range of either species. The position 
of the dorsal fin however, is constantly in front of the middle from the snout 
to the base of the caudal fin, — a character given for stolifera. However, the 
placing of the fin may not always be a valid character. In Jordan and Ever- 
mann’s “Fishes of North and Middle America” and in the copied description 
given by Evermann and Marsh in the “Fishes of Porto Rico,” lamprotaenia 
is characterized as having the dorsal fin inserted midway between the snout 
and the base of the caudal. Metzelaar 1 mentions for this same species that 
the “Front of the dorsal nearer to base of caudal than to tip of snout,” — 
a character quite the opposite of that given for either lamprotaenia or stolifera. 
However, in the figure given by him, the opposite is true, and the drawing 
illustrates a fish with the origin of the dorsal conspicuously nearer the snout 
than the base of the caudal! This figure resembles our specimens very closely, 
although a few of the Haitian fish have slightly shorter snouts. Considering 
the variation of the fin counts of our specimens, Metzelaar might very well 
have called his fish stolifera. 

The Haitian specimens range in depth from 5.9 to 6.1, approximating closer 
to lamprotaenia in this matter. The size of the eye is also closer to lamprotaenia, 
averaging 2.8 to 3.2 instead of the 2.5 of stolifera. 

The snout in our specimens might be either species, and the same holds 
true for the position of the maxillary. 

In regard to color, either description would fit our fish. Jordan and Gilbert 
and Jordan and Evermann (original description of stolifera and “Fishes of 
N. and M. America”) mention that stolifera has a double row of dots along 
the back before the dorsal fin and a single row along the back posterior to this. 
Metzelaar (1. c.) mentions “a triple dot line before, a double one behind the 
dorsal fin.” The latter statement applies more fully to our fish, but the first 
statement could easily apply to some, as the central line of the three frequently 
disappears and the 2 rear-most lines approach each other sufficiently close 
at times to be considered as one. 

Jordan and Gilbert in the original description of stolifera i 2 say that “We 


1 Over Tropisch Atlantische Visschen, 1919, p. 9. 

2 Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1884, p. 25. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


45 


should identify our specimens with Clupea lamprotaenia Gosse, from Jamaica, 
were it not for the difference in fin rays. ” 

Taking into consideration the variation and the intermediate position of 
some of the characters in our fish, we consider stolifera to be a synonym of 
lamprotaenia. 

Size and Weight: Specimens from 15 to 55 mm. taken. 

Color: Pale greenish, translucent, with a wide lateral band of silver. Two 
or three lines of black pigment dots down back to dorsal, one or two lines 
posterior to dorsal. 

General Range: Key West to Yucatan, Porto Rico, St. Eustatius and 
Curacao. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found in enormous schools about 
the outer reefs, especially at Sand Cay. 

Abundance: Very abundant, often forming part of the “whitebait” 
found at the market. 

Method of Capture: Seined by native fishermen. Dynamited on reefs. 

Enemies: Pelicans take great toll of these as well as of some of the anchovies. 
Carnivorous fish also feed upon great numbers. 

Size at Maturity: Breeding adults were examined, 25 to 50 mm. 

Study Material: Specimens, over 1200, including Nos. 7099, 7169, 7262, 
7263, 7264, Port-au-Prince Market and Sand Cay, Port-au-Prince Bay. 

Family Engraulidae; The Anchovies 
Key to Genera of Port-au-Prince Bay 

A. Gill membranes not united across the isthmus. Gill rakers relatively few, 


12 to 30 .... Anchoviella 

A A. Gill membranes broadly united across the isthmus (these membranes 
very easily torn). Gill rakers numerous 52 to 57. Anal fin moderate, 
of 20 to 25 rays Cetengraulis 


Anchoviella Fowler, 1911 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Pectoral fins short, the tips not reaching to the base of the ventral fins. 

B. Sides with a distinct silvery band. 

C. Body moderately elongate, depth 4 to 4.75 in the length; eye large, 3.5 

in head; gill rakers about % the eye, about 20 on the lower limb of 

the first gill arch; dorsal fin 15, anal fin 20 . . epsetus 

CC. Body more elongate, the depth about 5.25 to 5.75; eye 4.4 in head; gill 
rakers as long as eye, about 24 on the lower limb of the first arch; 

dorsal fin 13, anal 23-24 choerostoma 

BB. Sides without a distinct silvery band; depth 6 to 7; dorsal rays 12 to 14, 

anal rays 18-20 lyolepis 

AA. Pectoral fins very long, the tips of the fins reaching half way between 
the base of the ventrals and the origin of the anal fin 

longipinna new species 


46 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 



[X;l 


Bonnaterre’s Anchovy 

Anchoviella cpsetus (Bonnaterre) 


References: Esox epsetus, Bonnaterre, 1788, Ichthy., p. 175. 

Anchovia browni, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, I, p. 204, Plate xiv, fig. 1. 

Field Characters: Small, elongate, compressed fishes with single, soft- 
rayed dorsal fin, short pectoral fins and projecting, pig-like snout. Gill mem- 
branes not united across the isthmus. Gill rakers about 20. Eye large, 3.5 
in head. A silvery lateral band. 

Description: The Haitian specimens show a small amount of variation 

from the published descriptions, but the smallness of our specimens, ranging 
from 38 to 70 mm. standard length, may account for this. Taking into con- 
sideration the various descriptions that have been published, mainly those of 
Jordan and Evermann, 1 Jordan and Seale, 2 Meek and Hildebrand 3 and Met- 
zelaar 4 the following table can be constructed showing (1) the extreme of 
variation for the species and (2) the range of variation of the Haitian specimens. 
From this it can be seen that the variation is fairly small but that a few of the 
specifications need extending. 




(■ 1 ) 

2 ( Haitian material ) 

Head into length 

3.4 to 

3 75 

3.3 to 3.6 

Depth into length 

4.2 “ 

4.9 

4.87 “ 5.04 

Eye into head 

3.5 “ 

4.25 

3.4 “ 3.85 

Snout into head 

4.6 “ 

5 

5 

Dorsal fin rays 

12 “ 

15 

15 “ 16 

Anal fin rays 

19 “ 

23 

21 “ 23 

Gill rakers 

16 “ 

22 

18 


The Haitian specimens have the pectoral fin almost reaching the ventral 
as mentioned in Meek and Hildebrand’s description, but not as shown in their 
plate. 

Color: The silvery lateral stripe is faint in some of our fish and almost' 
absent in others. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 6 inches. A 39 mm. fish weighed 1 gram; a 
54 mm. fish weighed 2 grams and a 70 mm. fish weighed 4.5 grams. 

General Range: Cape Cod to Uruguay. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: The small fish are found along shore 
over shallow beaches and at the surface off shore at night. 

Abundance: Common, especially at the market, where it is often seen in 
great numbers, salted and used as whitebait. 

1 Fishes of North and Middle America, 1896. 

2 Review of the Engraulidae, 1926. 

3 Marine Fishes of Panama, 1923. 

4 Over Tropisch Atlantische Visschen, 1919. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


47 


Method of Capture: Seines and scoop nets about submerged lights at 
night. 

Food: Copepods and other entomostracans, shrimps, small worms and 
miscellaneous debris. 

Enemies: Preyed upon by most of the carnivorous fishes. A 2-inch speci- 
men was taken from the stomach of a snapper, Lutianus griseus. 

Study Material: Colored plate, H41, No. 6845; Specimens, 15, 38-70 mm., 
including 6845, 6901, 6920, 6997, 7027, Port-au-Prince Bay. 


Hog-mouth Fry 

Anchoviella choerostoma (Goode) 



References: Engraulis choerostomus, Goode, 1874, Amer. Journ. Sci., ser. 
3, VIII, p. 125. 

Stolephorus choerostomus , Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, I, p. 444. 

Field Characters: Small, elongate, compressed fish with single, soft-rayed 
dorsal fin, short pectoral fins and projecting, pig-like snout. Gill membranes 
not united across the isthmus. Gill rakers about 24. Eye moderate, 4.4 in 
the head. A silvery lateral band. 

General Range : Bermudas and southward. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken in shallow water along shore 
near Bizoton and also in shallow water at Source Matelas. 

Abundance : Fairly common, seen in the markets under the same conditions 
as epsetus. 

Study Material: Photographs, 4004; Specimens, 34; 34 to 50 mm. including 
7266, 7060, Port-au-Prince Bay. 

Spot-cheeked Ghost- Fish 

Anchoviella lyolepis (Evermann and Marsh) 


Reference: Stolephorus lyolepis, Evermann and Marsh, 1902, Fishes of 
Porto Rico, p. 89. 

Field Characters: Small, elongate, compressed fishes with single, soft- 
rayed dorsal fin, short pectoral fins and slightly projecting snouts. Gill mem- 
branes not united across the isthmus. No silvery lateral band, but with 
small black pigment spots, especially conspicuous on top of head, across opercles 
and at base of tail. 

Description: The Haitian specimens have the dorsal fin 13-16 instead of 
12-14. 

Size: The maximum length is 1 z /i inches. 

Colors: In life these fish are almost dead-white, rather translucent, and with 
pigment spots as described by Evermann and Marsh. 



48 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 


General Range: Porto Rico and Haiti. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: A few taken on some of the shoals, 
but the great majority found at surface at night, where they came to our lights. 

Abundance: One of the commonest of fishes to come to our submerged 
lamps, and present during all of our stay. 

Method of Capture: Seines and hand nets about lights. 

Study Material: Photographs, 3937; Specimens, 230; varying in length 
from 17 to 45 mm., including 7105, 7073, 7097a, 7087, 7046, 7243, 7054, 7152, 
7033, 7153b, 7030, 7153c, 7284, 7003, 7073a, 7081, 7097a, 7063, 7087, 7026, 
7050a, 7286 and 7005, Port-au-Prince Bay. 


Long-pectoralled Anchovy 

Anchoviella longipinna new species 



Type: No. 7460. Length 65 mm., Bizoton, Haiti, at night, April 1, 1927. 

Field Characters: Small, elongate, compressed fishes with single, rayed 
dorsal fin and projecting pig-like snout. Pectoral fins long, the tips filamentous, 
reaching half-way between the base of the ventral fins and the origin of the 
anal fin. 

Measurements and Counts of the Type : 


Length 65 mm. 

Scales about 35, caducous 

Head 

18 “ (3.6) 

Dorsal fin 

14 

Depth 

12 “ (5.4) 

Anal fin 

21 

Eye 

4 “ (4.5) 

Gill rakers 

20 

Snout 

4 “ (4.5) 



Pectoral length 19 




Description: Vertebrae: 40 in one specimen. 

Body: Elongate, compressed, the greatest depth between the opercle and 
the dorsal fin; ventral portion of the body but slightly compressed. Depth 
into length varying from 4.8 to 5.3. 

Anterior profile: Very slightly decurved immediately in front of the dorsal 
fin, thence straight to over the upper angle of the gill opening, then gently 
decurved to the snout. 

Head: Conical, 3.4 to 3.8 in length. 

Interorbital: Convex, about equal to diameter of eye. 

Eye: Small, 4.2 to 4.7 in head. 

Snout: Projecting, conical, but broadly rounded at tip; length approximately 
equal to diameter of eye, 4.3 to 4.7 in head. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


49 


Mouth: Large, slightly oblique, anterior end beginning just before the eye. 

Maxillary: Long, not quite extending to the gill openings, its posterior end 
pointed. 

Teeth: Very small, present on jaws, vomer, palatines and pterygoids. No 
canines. 

Preopercular margin: Very oblique, making with the maxillary a V-shaped 
area, the length of which from eye to tip is less than half the head length. 

Opercular margin: Smooth. 

Gill rakers: 20 to 21, about % the eye in length. 

Scales: Caducous, about 35. 

Dorsal fin: 13 to 15 rays, placed midway or slightly forward of midway 
between the snout and the base of the caudal fin. The fin arises in one dissected 
specimen over the 16th vertebrae. Third ray longest, the rays becoming 
progressively shorter. Last ray longer than preceding one. 

Anal fin: 20 to 21 rays, its origin under last ray of the dorsal. 

Caudal fin: Forked. 

Pectoral fins: Placed low, falcate, the upper ray very long, extending in 
unbroken specimens, to halfway between the base of the ventral fins and the 
origin of the anal. The tips in many of our specimens are broken, but clearly 
show that they extended much further than they now do. 

Ventral fins: Short, close together, placed midway between gill opening and 
origin of anal fin. 

Color: (In formalin) Hyaline, the caudal fin dusky. A silvery stripe down 
sides from upper angle of gill-opening to caudal fin, its margins somewhat 
indistinct, its width about that of the eye. 

Comparison: This fish is very close to filifera, described in 1915 from Trinidad 
by Fowler. It differs in the following particulars : depth slightly less, averaging 
4.8 to 5.4; anal fin rays 21 inclusive instead of 24 to 25; snout considerabty 
blunter; scales considerably deeper, possessing only 3 vertical rows plus a 
half row at the bottom and a half row at the top across the caudal peduncle. 

Study Material: Specimens, 11; the type, No. 7460; and 10 paratypes, 
52-64 mm., No. 7461, — 8 from light, BizOton, Haiti, and 2 from Port-au-Prince 
Market, April 1, 1927. 

Type Name and Location: longipinna in reference to the long pectoral fins. 

Type in the collection of the Department of Tropical Research of the New 
York Zoological Society. 


Cetengraulis Gunther, 1868 


Whalebone Anchovy 

Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier) 



50 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

References: Engraulis edentulus, Cuvier, 1829, Regne Animal, ed. 2, II, 
p. 323. 

Cetengraulis edentulus , Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 214. 

Field Characters: Small compressed fishes with single, soft-rayed dorsal 
fin, short pectoral fins and projecting pig-like snout. Gill membranes united 
across the isthmus, — this membrane very easily broken and not visible until 
the opercles are gently pried open. 

Size and Weight: Our largest specimen measured 103 mm. The species 
grows half again as large. A 98 mm. fish weighed 18 grams. 

Color: Caudal fin yellow with dusky edges. Iris golden. Dorsal greenish 
yellow. 

General Range: Atlantic Coast of tropical America. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Fairly common in the open Bay. 

Abundance: Common, often seen in the markets. 

Method of Capture: Mostly by seining by the native fishermen. 

Food: Copepods and other planktonic animals. Considerable amount of 
sand found in the stomachs of 2 fish taken from the stomach of Scomberomorus 
maculatus. 

Enemies: Two 100 mm. individuals found in the stomach of a Mackerel 
{Scomberomorus maculatus ) . 

Study Material: Photographs, 3900; Specimens, 22; 85-103 mm., including 
6868, 7292, Port-au-Prince Bay. 

Family Anguillidae; True Eels 
Anguilla Shaw, 1803 


Common Eel 

Anguilla rostrata (LeSueur) 



References: Muraena rostrata , Le Sueur, 1817, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., I, p. 81, (New York). 

Anguilla chrysypa, Evermann and Marsh, 1902, Fishes of 
Porto Rico, p. 68, plate I. 

Field Characters: Elongate eels with rather large mouth, the lower jaw 
projecting; pectoral fins well developed; skin covered with rudimentary em- 
bedded scales, placed at right angles to each other (often difficult to see without 
magnifying glass) ; dorsal fin continuous with the anal around the tail. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 4 or 5 feet. Our 186 mm. fish weighed 8 grams. 

General Range: Atlantic Slope of North America from southern Canada to 
Panama, West Indies. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found by us only at Source Mariani, 
a small fresh-water pond a little over a mile from the sea, connected with the 
ocean by a small rocky stream. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


51 


Abundance: Rare, only one seen. Not observed at the markets. 
Study Material: Specimens, 1; 186 mm., No. 7178. 


Family Muraenesocidae; Pike-eels 


Muraenesox McClelland, 1844 



References: Muraena savanna, Cuvier, 1829, Regne Animal, Ed. 2, II, 
p. 350. 

Muraenesox savanna, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 143. 

Field Characters : Medium sized eels without scales and with well developed 
pectoral fins; dorsal and anal fins confluent around the tail; lower jaw shorter 
than upper; tongue narrow, mostly attached to the floor of the mouth; vomerine 
teeth large, in three series, the central ones enlarged. 

Size and Weight: A 28-inch eel weighed 1.25 pounds. 

Color: Silvery gray above, silvery white below; dorsal fin dull fleshy bordered 
with black; anal fin bordered with black. 

General Range: West Indies to Brazil 

Abundance: Uncommon, but seen occasionally at the market. 

Method of Capture: Seines and spears. 

Food: The alimentary canal contained the remains of three engraulids. 

Eggs: The ovary in the 720 mm. specimen is 173 mm. long, and extends 30 
mm. back of the vent. The very numerous eggs are round and average .3 
mm. in diameter. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 720-733 mm., including No. 6969. 

Family Echelidae; Worm-eels 
Ahlia Jordan and Davis, 1892 


Worm-eel 

Ahlia egmontis (Jordan) 


References: Myrophis egmontis, Jordan, 1884, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences, 
Phil. XXXVI, p. 44. 

Ahlia egmontis, Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes of North 
and Middle America, I, p. 370. 

Field Characters: Small, very elongate, worm-like eels with dorsal fin 



52 Zoologica : N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

beginning behind anal fin; posterior nostril placed at edge of mouth; the anterior 
nostril in a large tube. 

Description: Twenty-one fish, 50 to 145 mm. long are grouped under this 
species. They agree with the figure given by Bean (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
XXVI, p. 963), but in general they are considerably slimmer. The anterior 
nostril is very large, almost doubled by an infolded pointed septum, the nostrils 
of each side of the head connected by a thin velum. The nostrils lie one on 
each side of the lower jaw. 

Size and Weight: Grows to fifteen inches. 

Color: Brownish green, the head finely speckled with black dots, becoming 
larger and rounder on posterior sides of head, and smaller and more dot-like 
on body. 

General Range: Florida, Glover Reef, Swan Island, Haiti and Barbados. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Many specimens taken and seen at 
light at surface at night. Not otherwise seen. 

Abundance: Fairly common. 

Method of Capture: Scoop net about submerged lamps. 

Study Material: Photographs, 3939, 3943; Specimens, 21; 50-145 mm., 
including Nos. 6998, 7088, 7097d, 7125, 7185, 7192, 7242, 7243. 

Family Ophichthyidae ; Snake Eels 
Myrichthys Girard, 1859 

Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Dark spots on body on a paler background 

AA. Pale spots on body on a dark background 


Black-spotted Snake Eel 

Myrichthys oculatus (Kaup) 


References : Pisoodonophis oculatus, Kaup, 1856, Cat. Apod. Fish Brit. 
Mus. p. 22. (Curacao). 

Myrichthys oculatus, Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, I, p. 376. 

Field Characters: Medium sized elongate, more or less cylindrical eels 
with sharp-pointed finless tail; teeth blunt; dorsal fin beginning on the head 
before the gill opening; a series of 35 or more dark spots on paler background; 
white below. 

Size and Weight: Our 28-inch fish weighed 160 grams. 

General Range: Cuba to Brazil, also Cape Verde and Canary Islands. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Our single specimen was taken at 
the surface, coming to light over a depth of 40 feet of water. 



. . . .oculatus 
.acuminatus 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


Abundance: Apparently rather rare, not seen at the markets. 
Method of Capture: Hand nets at side of schooner. 

Study Material: Specimens, 1; 730 mm., No. 6978. 


Yellow-spotted Snake Eel 

Myrichthys acuminatus (Gronow) 



References: Muraena acuminata, Gronow, 1854, Fishes Brit. Mus. p. 21. 

Myrichthys acuminatus, Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, I, p. 376. 

Field Characters: Medium sized, elongate cylindrical eels with sharp- 
pointed finless tail; teeth blunt; dorsal fin beginning on head before gill opening: 
two series of round, whitish blotches on each side of body; head with small 
whitish blotches. 

Description: Our specimen in life had a series of conspicuous horizontal 
creases, especially common along the middle of the sides of the trunk, and a 
series of vertical creases on the sides extending up to the base of the dorsal 
fin but not extending below the middle of the sides. The combination of these 
two series of creases formed a series of small square or rectangular areas. These 
creases may be an aid to easy movement, and the presence of the horizontal 
creases may be helpful when especially large prey has been swallowed. 

Color: The white spots mentioned in Jordan and Evermann “on the sides,” 
are present also all over the crown. 

General Range: West Indies north to the Florida Keys. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found by us on shallow reefs 
along shore. 

Abundance: Rare. 

Method of Capture: Taken by means of spears. 

Study Material: Specimens, 1; 740 mm., No. 6905. 

Family Muraenidae; Moray Eels 
Gymnothorax Bloch, 1795 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Color more or less uniform, not conspicuously mottled or reticulated with 

white or light yellow. 

B. Body plain dark brown, lower parts somewhat paler; teeth on anterior part 

of jaws more or less distinctly in two series funebris 

BB. Body brownish, mottled with dark brown or purplish spots; teeth uni- 
serial vicinus 


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A A. Brownish to purplish brown, conspicuously mottled and reticulated 
with white or light yellow moringa 



Olive-green Moray Eel 

Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani 


References: Gymnothorax funebris , Ranzani, 1840, Novi Comment. Ac. 
Sci. Inst. Bonon., IV, p. 76. 

Gymnothorax funebris, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 163. 

Field Characters : Medium to large eels without pectoral fins and with very 
small gill openings; plain olive green or olive brown. 

Size and Weight: Our largest specimen, 41 inches long, weighed 3.5 pounds. 
General Range: Florida to Brazil. Also recorded from the Cape Verde 
Islands. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found generally on reefs. 
Abundance: Fairly common; often seen in the markets. 

Method of Capture: Usually by spearing. Often taken in traps. 

Habits : These eels have astonishing viability. One taken out of water one 
evening was able to move and snap the next morning. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 800-1040 mm. including No. 7048. 



Purple -mouthed Moray Eel 

Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau) 


References: Murenophis vicina, Castelnau, 1855. Anim. Nouv. Rares 
Amer. Sud, p. 81, Plate XLII, fig. 4. 

Gymnothorax vicinus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 164. 

Field Characters: Medium sized eels without pectoral fins and with very 
small gill openings; brownish mottled with darker brown or purplish spots; 
anal fin with a pale edge. 

General Range: Cuba to Brazil. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found by us only over the shallower 
reefs. 

Abundance: Uncommon; seen rarely in the markets. 

Methods of Capture: Grains and tr? - 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


55 


Food: One specimen contained a 6-inch Rhomboplites aurorubens, a 5-inch 
Cetengraulis edentulus and two 3-inch Yellow-tails, Ocyurus chrysurus. 

Study Material: Specimens, 3; 573-600 mm., including No. 6903. 


Common Spotted Moray Eel; 
Hamlet 

Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier) 



References: Muraena moringa, Cuvier 1829, Regne Animal, Ed. 2, II, p. 
352. 

Gymnothorax moringa, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 166. 

Field Characters: Medium sized eels without pectoral fins and with 
very small gill openings; brown or purplish brown with spots and reticulations 
of white or pale yellow. 

Size and Weight: A 24-inch eel weighed half a pound. 

Color: Field notes were made on color twice, in both cases the lighter color 
being considered as the ground color, which is the opposite of the usual color 
descriptions. 

A 610 mm. eel was described as follows: Pale yellowish white, mottled and 
marbled everywhere with raw umber; head with a pinkish white sheen; dorsal 
fin viridine green; anal fin edged with white; iris silvery white near pupil, 
mottled toward outer rim with dark brown. 

A second eel, somewhat larger, was described thus: General ground color 
between ivory yellow and colonial buff, becoming whitish on the head and 
brightest on the dorsal fin. Spots of cameo brown covering the entire body, 
these being divided into two distinct sizes, the larger being irregular in shape, 
the smaller more regular. 

The variation in color and pattern is enormous. 

General Range: Florida to Brazil; Also recorded from St. Helena. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Widely distributed over the coral 
reefs. 

Abundance: Common, the commonest eel seen on the reefs, usually seen 
hiding between clumps of coral. Often seen in the markets. 

Method of Capture: Spearing and traps. 

Food: Small fish; one eel had swallowed a small trigger fish ( Monacanthus 
oppositus ) . 

Study Material: Color Plate, H9, No. 6889; Photographs, 3783, 3784, 
3833, 3834, 3860; Specimens, 11; 400-720 mm., including Nos. 6889, 6924. 

Leptocephalid Larvae 

During the expedition collections were constantly made at night, by the 
use of dip nets about submerged lights. As a result of this fishing, and in 
addition to the various juvenile fishes which resembled their adult forms, a 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


56 


[X; 1 


number of young fishes were captured which are wholly unlike their parents. 
All of these fish in life were transparent, or at least translucent. 

The vast majority of these larvae were Lizard-fish (Sy nodus foetens ), Snake- 
fish ( Trachinocephalus my ops), and Lady-fish ( Albula vulpes ), especially the 
first and third; the remaining ones being typical eel Leptocephalids. The first 
three mentioned species have been treated under their respective headings, 
but for ease of identification they have been included in the following key. 
The eel Leptocephalids have been placed under the Leptocephalus form that 
they most closely resemble, with notes as to how they differ. 


Key to Leptocephalid-larval stages 

A. Larval stages with small vertical fins, the dorsal with 11 to 17 rays, the 

anal with 8 to 11. 

B. Dorsal rays 17, anal rays 8. No conspicuous, black, circular spots 

along sides Albula vulpes 

BB. Dorsal rays 11 to 14, anal rays 11 to 16. Lower sides with six conspicuous 
black circular spots on lower sides, these spots on the gut. 

C. Head long, flattened, lizard-like, coming to a rather sharp point. Eye 

small, shorter than snout Sy nodus foetens 

CC. Head shorter, compressed; eye large, longer than snout. 

Trachinocephalus myops 

AA. Larval stages with elongate dorsal and anal fins, the dorsal at least half 
the length. 

D. Pectoral fins absent; 142 myomeres; origin of dorsal fin far in advance 

of anal Leptocephalus latus 

DD. Pectoral fins present. 

E. Myomeres 140; dorsal beginning very slightly in advance of anal; tail 

rather sharp, the dorsal and anal not continued around it, each of 
these fins expanded just before caudal; a series of conspicuous wide 
spaced black dots along alimentary canal . . .Leptocephalus mucronatus 
EE. Myomeres 120 to 126. 

F. Myomeres 125-126. 

G. Myomeres 125; dorsal fin beginning slightly in advance of anal; anterior 

nostril in a tube, posterior nostril very small; eye large, 4.7 in head 

Leptocephalus michael-sarsi 
„ GG. Myomeres 126; dorsal fin beginning far in advance of anal, near the. 

head; anterior nostril in tube, posterior very large, eye small, 6.8 

in head Leptocephalus microphthalmus new species 

FF. Myomeres 120; dorsal fin beginning slightly in advance of the anal; 
nostrils remote, the anterior not in a tube Leptocephalus rex 

Leptocephalus latus Eigenmann and Kennedy 

References: Leptocephalus latus, Eigenmann and Kennedy, Bull. U. S. 

Fish Comm., XXI, 1901, p. 87, figs. 6, 6a, 6b. 

Description: A single leptocephalus 83 mm. long, is referred to latus. It 
is intermediate in some ways between latus and gilli, possessing a head shaped 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 57 

like latus, and with the caudal region shaped more like gilli; it also differs in 
the relations of the myomeres. 

No. 7081, 83 mm. Port au Prince Bay at light, March 19, 1927. Body 
very thin and elevated, widened rather suddenly at the nape, reaching its 
maximum height before the middle of body, and maintaining the same height 
for more than pi the length; tail rounded, but not quite as broad as shown for 
latus; depth 6; head small, 20 in length, lower jaw slightly shorter than upper 
with a series of 10-11 long fang-like teeth in lower jaw; 12 similar forward 
pointing teeth in upper jaw; eye 2.1 in snout, 6.7 in head; nostrils remote, 
pectorals not developed; a series of very small pigment spots at base of dorsal 
and anal rays, and a few dots obliquely on back of head; myomeres 91 + 51, 
total 142. 

The relation of the caudal and abdominal myomeres is considerably different 
from latus, a character which possibly may be assigned to movement of the 
anus with growth, but in most other characters the fish is fairly close to Eigen- 
mann’s description of that species. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 83 mm., No. 7081, March 19, 1927. 

Leptocephalus mucronatus Eigenmann and Kennedy 

References: Leptocephalus mucronatus, Eigenmann and Kennedy, Bull. 

U. S. Fish Comm., XXI, p. 90, figs. 11, 11a, and lib. 

Description: Two larvae, 73.5 and 82 mm. long, agree with this form, 
the longer one especially. Our field notes about this specimen record prominent 
black marks on each myomere below the lateral line, a character agreeing with 
Eigenmann and Kennedy’s description. In the preserved fish these spots are 
practically absent, and would never have been noticed except for the field 
description. 

No. 7146, 82 mm. Surface at light, Port-au-Prince Bay, April 4, 1927. 
Elongate, band-shaped, the body tapering in its anterior fourth, tapering more 
abruptly posteriorly, depth 11 in length; head rather short, 17.5 in length; 
eye small, 5.5 in head; snout about 4.7 in head; nostrils closer together than 
described by Eigenmann and Kennedy; teeth large, strong, triangular; two 
long slender canines project downward from tip of upper jaw beyond tip of 
lower; myomeres 61 + 79, total 140; dorsal fin beginning 39 mm. from snout; 
anal fin 39 mm. from snout; dorsal with 236 rays and anal with 220 rays. 

A series of pigment lines down each myacomma a short distance from middle 
bend; a black dot at base of each dorsal and anal ray; a series of relatively 
larger spots along alimentary canal, a larg6r one above and a smaller one below. 

This specimen differs somewhat in size of head, snout and eye from mucro- 
natus, but agrees fairly well in myomere count, and excellently in form, especi- 
ally the peculiarly shaped tail, and in pigmentation. 

The second specimen, No. 7198, 73.5 mm. surface at light, Port-au-Prince 
Bay, April 22, 1927, is slightly older and more robust, the depth being 18 in the 
length. It possesses the same myomere count, peculiar form of posterior dorsal 
and anal fins, and pigmentation. It differs from the preceeding specimen in 
having the anterior nostril in a short tube. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; No. 7146, April 4, 1927 and No. 7198, 
April 22, 1927. 


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Leptocephalus michael-sarsi Lea 

References: Leptocephalus michael-sarsi , Lea, Muraenoid Larvae, Rep. 

Sci. Results Michael Sars North Atlantic Deep Sea Expedi- 
tion, Yol. Ill, Part 1, p. 28. 

Description: Two specimens, 65 and 68 mm. long are placed under this 
species. Both are considerably further advanced than the single specimen 
(99 mm.) upon which Lea based his description. They agree in all essential 
characters, those in which they differ being easily laid to difference in age. 

No. 7032, 68 mm., surface, Port-au-Prince Bay at light, March 10, 1927. 

Rather robust in form, partly metamorphosed from the flattened ribbon-like 
form, the depth 14.8 into the length, the body tapering slightly toward the 
tail. Head conical, fairly robust, 9.7 in total length, the dorsal profile evenly 
curved; lower jaw shorter than upper, the upper slightly decurved over the 
lower; anterior nostril in a tube at edge of upper jaw; posterior nostril small, .1 
mm. in diameter, anterior to but below the middle of eye; eye fairly large, 4.7 
in head length. Myomeres 54 +71, total 125; dorsal fin beginning a few 
segments in front of anal. 

A lateral line of chroma tophores just beneath the central angle of the myo- 
meres, the color cells roughly on alternate muscle segments. Three small 
black spots (2 in michael-sarsi of Lea) on gut anterior to pectoral fins; a row 
of black dots with large interpsaces along alimentary canal, more marked 
anteriorly; small black spots at base of dorsal, caudal and anal rays. 

No. 7390, 65 mm. Surface at light. Port-au-Prince Bay, February 15, 1927. 

This specimen does not differ in any essential way. Its coloration is not quite 
as distinct as the others, and the three spots on the anterior part of the gut are 
absent, a fact which may be laid to preservative, as the specimen is a reddish 
brown instead of light yellow typical of most preserved leptocephalids. 

Lea’s specimen of michael-sarsi came from 48° 2' N. and 39° 55' W., West 
of Flemish Cap in the North Atlantic, a long distance from Haiti, but the 
agreement of characters which change but little with age, is such that we have 
little hesitation in identifying our specimens as this form. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 65 and 68 mm., Nos. 7032, 7390. 


Leptocephalus microphthalmus sp. nov. 



Type: No. 7080, 74 mm. Surface at light, March 19, 1927. 

Description: Body elongate, flattened, moderately deep, depth 11.8; 
dorsal and anal fins rather wide, especially posteriorly; head rather small, 
conical, 14.5 in length, the lower jaw projecting beyond upper (specimen 
damaged, so that lower jaw may possibly be equal to upper); eye small, 6.8 in 
head, its vertical diameter greater than its horizontal; snout rather short, a 
little less than 3 in head; anterior nostril in a short tube, near upper lip; post- 
erior nostril very large, almost half the horizontal diameter of the eye in width, 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


59 


and situated anterior to middle of eye; 13 teeth in side of lower jaw, — anterior 
8 large, the remaining 5 very small. 

Myomeres 65 + 61, total 126; dorsal fin rays, 250, the fin arising at the 18th 
myomere from the head; anal fin rays 165; pectoral rays 16. 

Gut with anlage of liver at 13th myomere from head; from this point on- 
ward back to anus a row of small round chromotophores along ventral surface. 

Transparent, with a very short vertical pigmented line on each myocomma 
below central bend of myomere. Dorsal and anal fin posteriorly with a black 
spot at the base of each ray, these spots faint and most noticeable at posterior 
end of anal. Small black spots along gut. 

Measurements and Counts: 


Total length 74 mm. 

Depth 6.3 “ 

Head 5.1 “ 

Eye .75 “ 

Posterior nostril diameter • .32 “ 

Snout 1.6 “ 

Pectoral fin length 2 

Snout to origin of dorsal 13 

Snout to anus 44 “ 


Comparison: This species runs close to michael-sarsi, but specimens of 
practically equal size differ strikingly in size of posterior nostrils and in relative 
proportions of the eye and somewhat in color. 

Study Material: Specimen 7080. Surface at light, March 19, 1927. 

Leptocephalus rex Eigenmann and Kennedy 

References: Leptocephalus rex , Eigenmann and Kennedy, Bull. U. S. Fish 
Comm., XXI, 1901, p. 86, figs. 3, 3a, 3b. 

Description: One specimen is placed under rex, agreeing in possessing about 
120 myomeres, in the relative proportions and relations of the dorsal and anal 
fins, form and color, but differing in depth and size of head. Eigenmann and 
Kennedy in their paper mentioned above were not certain as to whether their 
amphioxus and rex were not the same. The Haitian specimen possesses some 
characters of both. 

No. 7003, 87 mm. long. Taken at light, Port-au-Prince Bay, March 6, 1927. 

Depth 14.7; head 11; form rather robust, not especially compressed, the 
head having taken on its adult form, (like illustration of rex); snout rounded, 
lower jaw very slightly shorter than upper; teeth very small; tail long and 
pointed; dorsal beginning slightly in front of anal; caudal rounded, the continua- 
tion of the dorsal and anal fins intermediate in shape between rex and amphioxus. 
Small black pigment dots at base of dorsal and anal, most conspicuous near 
caudal, becoming less marked as they progress forward, those of the anal more 
marked than those of the caudal. No other pigment spots apparent. 

Study Material: Photograph, 3940; Specimen, 1; 87 mm., No. 7003, 
March 6, 1927. 


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Family Synodontidae; The Lizard Fishes 


Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 


A. Head rather long, flattened, triangular; snout depressed, longer than eye. 

Synodus 

AA. Head compressed; snout short, not depressed, shorter than eye. 

Trachinocephalus 


Synodus Scopoli, 1777 


Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 


A. Scales larger, 48 to 52 in the lateral line intermedins 

AA. Scales smaller, 58 to 63 in the lateral line foetens 






Agassiz’s Lizard-fish 

Synodus intermedius Agassiz 


References: Synodus intermedius, Agassiz, 1829, in Spix, Pise. Brazil, p. 81. 

Synodus intermedius, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 217. 

Field Characters: Elongate fish with single soft-rayed dorsal fin and small 
adipose fin, and with flattened, scaled lizard-like head; 48 to 52 scales in the 
lateral line. Greenish with 8 cross bands of darker, sometimes with indistinct 
bands between them. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 15 inches. A 225 mm. fish weighed 129 grams. 

General Range: North Carolina to Brazil. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found generally along sliore. 

Abundance: Fairly common, and often brought to the markets, where it 
is one of the poorer food fish. 

Method of Capture: Mostly with seines. 

Food: A carnivorous species. Our food records mention fish, especially 
engraulids and atherinids, and shrimps. 

Study Material: Photograph, 4121; Specimens, 6; 216-262 mm., including 
No. 6860, Port-au-Prince Bay, 1927. 

Lizard-fish; Galliwasp; Lagarto 

Synodus foetens (Linnaeus) 



References: Salmo foetens, Linnaeus, 1776, Syst. Nat. Ed., XII, p. 513. 

Synodus foetens, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, I, p. 220. 

Field Characters: Adults: elongate fish with flattened lizard-like head 
and with single soft dorsal and small adipose fin; scales 58 to 63; greenish, pale 
below; Young; elongate, cylindrical, translucent, with 6 black spots on the 
gut showing through to outside, a blackish patch on the sides at base of caudal 
fin, continued forward on the lateral line, but not continued onto the dorsal 
surface. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 61 

Description: The single adult taken agrees completely with the published 
descriptions. Two hundred young specimens, 22 to 41 mm., the majority 
near the larger size, agree very well with Nicholas description and figure of 
young Bynodus foetens (Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. XXX, 1911, p. 278). 
Our fish differ in being slightly deeper, about 103^2 instead of 113^2, as stated 
by Nichols. However, his figure when measured, has the same depth as our 
fish, and is identical with our specimens of similar size. The Haitian fishes of 
40 mm., and some of slightly shorter length have the scales well defined, but 
practically invisible until the fishes are partly dried. 

The teeth in a 41 mm. fish are as follows: 

Lower jaw: Four sharp incisors in front followed by two long, curved canines. 
Following these four groups of three teeth each, each group somewhat separate 
from the rest, the first and second in each group somewhat longer than the others. 

Upper jaw: Teeth much more irregular. About 24 on each side, in two 
rows, the larger in the outer row. Posterior third of jaw has only a single 
row of teeth. 

The proportionate size and placing of the stomach diverticulum in a 40 mm. 
and the 155 mm. fish is shown in the following diagram. 



Synodus foetens 

Relative size of stomach, diverticulum in adult and young. 

A. 155 mm. standard length. B. 40 mm. standard length.. 

The curved line at the left hand side of the diagram represents the opercle; the right 
hand portion of the diagram represents the anus. 

The stomach in the larvae is lined with circular folds, broken only at the 
bottom. These are deep and close together, each .43 mm. deep and 10-12 to 
the millimeter. The height of the gut, following along the curve of the side, is 
1.35 mm. 

Size: Grows to about 12 inches. 

Color: Larvae; — Body, translucent white with six pairs of conspicuous, 
round black spots along the ventral side; — one near the posterior edge of the 
opercle, one beneath the posterior edge of the pectoral, one half way between 
insertion and tip of ventral, one at half the length of the ventral beyond the tip 
of the ventral, one-half way between last mentioned spot and the anus. The 
position of the second, third and fourth may be shifted considerably forward 
in relation to the fins. These black pigment spots lie between the gut and the 
peritoneum, and they are considerably more adhesive to the outer layer of 
tissue. The spots are upright, broad ellipses with solid edges. 

A slightly older fish, 41 mm., is described as follows: 

Upper surfaces and upper sides of head with small chromatophores, these 
color cells extending on the back and sides of the fish, those on the sides in the 


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form of diamond shaped figures with the axis on the lateral line. Small blotches 
of chromatophores on the sides between and above the diamond-shaped patches. 
Chromatophores of the upper side of the body forming vague cross bands. 
A dark bar on the sides at the base of the lower caudal rays, continued forward 
slightly along the lateral line. The black spots of the slightly younger larvae 
still show through the sides. 

General Range: North Carolina to Brazil. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Seen along shore. The young 
found at the surface at night. 

Abundance: Adults uncommon. Young very common. 

Method of Capture: The small specimens were taken mainly with scoop 
nets as they came to the submerged lights at the side of the schooner. Adults 
taken with seine. 

Food: The young individuals are exceedingly voracious, devouring their 
own brothers and cousins and anything else animal approaching their way. A 
35 mm. fish ate a 20 mm. fish af the same species, 11.8 of the 20 mm. fish remain- 
ing well forward in the alimentary canal and undigested. A 41 mm. fish had 
swallowed a 31 mm. specimen of his own kind. 

Breeding: The young were first taken by us on February 28th, and they were 
present about the schooner in almost the same numbers and differing only 
slightly in size up to April 30, 1927. 

Study Material: Photograph, 3942; Specimens, 201: 22-155 mm., including 
Nos. 6967, 6995, 7003, 7004, 7007, 7026, 7029, 7046, 7050, 7054, 7063, 7073, 
7074, 7081, 7087, 7097, 7107, 7125, 7126, 7152, 7153, 7243 and 7285. February 
28 to April 30, 1927, Port-au-Prince Bay. 

Trachinocephalus Gill, 1861 


Snake-fish 

Trachinocephalus myops (Forster) 



References: Salmo myops, Forster, MS., Bloch and Schneider, 1801, Syst. 
Ichth., p. 421. 

Trachinocephalus myops, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 222. 

Field Characters: Medium sized fishes with dorsal fin composed of rays 
only and a small adipose fin; head short, blunt, compressed, the snout shorter 
than the eye. 

Description : Three small fish resembling young Synodus foetens in general 
appearance and color, are assigned to this species. When compared with 
foetens they differ most noticeably in the shape of the head, and size and position 
of the eye. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


63 


Size: Grows to 9 inches. 

Color : The young specimens were translucent with six black spots on the gut 
(similar to Synodus foetens), and one similar spot at the posterior base of the 
anal. Blackish spots and pattern on other parts of the body as follows: — top 
of head with scattered chromatophores; a line of chromatophores along middle 
of sides; a series at the base of the dorsal; 2 spots at upper base of the pectoral; 
a large spot at base of the adipose fin; a series of spots at base of posterior anal 
rays; a large blotch at base of caudal, extending upward and forward slightly 
on the upper surfaces. 

General Range: Widely distributed in tropical seas. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Young found at surface only at 
night. 

Abundance: Rare. 

Method of Capture: Scoop nets at night. 

Study Material: Photographs, 3942; Specimens, 3; 36-38 mm., including 
6995, 7125 and 7126, Port-au-Prince Bay. 

Family Belonidae;* The Needlefishes 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Body moderately compressed, the depth not greatly exceeding the width. 

Strongylura 

A A. Body very strongly compressed, more or less ribbon-shaped; the depth 
more than twice the width Ablennes 

Strongylura Van Hasselt, 1824 

Needlefish ; Houndfish ; Guardfish 

Srongylura raphidoma (Ranzani) 



References : Belone raphidoma, Ranzani, 1842, Nov. Comm. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Inst. Bonon., V, p. 359, pi. 37, fig. 1. 

Tylosurus raphidoma, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 226. 

Field Characters: Very elongate and slender fishes, with jaws produced 
into a long, slender beak; a band of minute teeth and a series of large, wide-set 
teeth; scales small and thin; lateral line low and fold-like; dorsal and anal 
opposite and long, elevated anteriorly; gill rakers obsolete; greenish above, 
silvery below; bones green. 

Description : The needlefish we took in Haiti are typical of the present species 
and the only point of interest worth mentioning is a comparative table of 
characters from young to adult. 


* There is a species of gar living in Etang Saumatre, the inland brackish lake of Haiti. 
Although we plainly saw two fish about a foot long, we were unable to capture them. 


64 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 


Specimen abed 


Length 

30 mm. 

50 mm. 

166 mm. 

740 mm. 

4% 

7% 

22% 

100% 

Depth 

1.7 mm. 

3 mm. 

9 mm. 

44 mm. 

4% 

7% 

20% 

100% 

Head 

6.8 mm. 

12 mm. 

53 mm. 

220 mm. 


3% 

5% 

24% 

100% 

Eye 

1 . 5 mm. 

2 mm. 

6 mm. 

22 mm. 

7% 

10% 

27% 

100% 

Snout 

3 mm. 

6 . 3 mm. 

32.5 mm. 

120 mm. 


2.5% 

5% 

27% 

100% 

Average 

4% 

7% 

24% 

100% 


We see from this that the length, depth and head increase from juvenile to 
adult rather regularly. The snout is, at first, by far the least developed, being 
only two and one half percent of the arbitrarily chosen adult; the eye, as is 
usual in almost all young vertebrates, is ahead of the rest, showing as seven 
percent in the smallest youngster. In the 166 mm. individual, the eye has 
slowed down and the snout caught up, and we find all five characters averaging 
twenty-four percent of those of the full-grown needlefish. 

The variation in the dorsal and anal rays is not great, being from 22 to 23 
in the former, and 20 to 23 in the latter fin. 

Size and Weight: Known to reach a length of 5 feet. Our largest captured 
specimen weighed 3% pounds and was 33 inches in length. We saw several 
which were well over four feet long. 

Color: Adult: The back is dark green, the sides and belly silvery; on some 
individuals there are two or three black lines down the back and a silvery 
band along the sides; the dermal keel on the caudal peduncle is black and the 
fins dusky. 

Young: A typical young of fifty mm. exhibits an inverted pattern very 
unusual among fishes, being light brown above and brownish black below. 
After death the pigment of both dorsal and ventral surfaces concentrated into 
a multiplicity of minute, round, black dots. The pectorals, ventrals, caudal 
and the anterior portions of the vertical fins are hyaline, but the posterior 
three-fourths of the anal are slightly spotted, and the dorsal solidly blackened. 
The lower half of the caudal peduncle is conspicuously black, and the large, 
lappet-like, jaw flap of skin which is such a consistently juvenile character in 
this and related families, is jet black. 

General Range: From North Carolina to Brazil. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: The young and occasionally the 
adults are seen swimming singly at the surface in full sunlight. A few may be 
seen almost every day in the market. One of medium size was taken at the 
surface light. 

Abundance: Uncommon. Always seen singly. 

Method of Capture: The young were scooped up in hand nets. Adults 
taken with hook and line and in the seines of the native fishermen. 

Food: Fish remains were found in several stomachs but too comminuted to 
be recognized. The beak and teeth of needlefish are too delicate to be used 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


65 


in the capture of very large fish, and it is probably that they feed chiefly on the 
vast schools of small fish which swarm at the surface. 

Proportion of Sexes: Of eight adult individuals one was a male, and seven 
were females. 

Size at Maturity: In no individual smaller than 24 inches were the gonads 
well developed. 

Spawning Season: In March and April the ovaries were well developed, 
indicating spawning in the next month or two. In these females the ovary 
averaged about thirty per cent of the length of the fish, and fifty percent of its 
depth. 

Eggs: The eggs were packed closely together in the elongated ovary. In a 
fish taken in mid-March they measured from one, to two and one quarter mm. 
in diameter. 

Young: Two young fish, 30 and 50 mm. in length, were taken on the 20th 
and the 11th of March respectively, and at least half a dozen others seen swim- 
ming at the surface. All were a mile or more from shore. 

General Habits : The young must in some way be adapted, by the inverted 
pattern already described, for concealment at the surface. The eyesight is 
much more acute than that of the other young fish living under similar condi- 
tions, and it was exceedingly difficult to take them with hand nets. In flight, 
they darted off with short irregular spurts, and never sought shelter beneath 
the stray strands of sargassum weed or floating debris. The juvenile, fleshy 
flap extends along the entire length of the lower jaw and on each side near the 
symphysis is abruptly enlarged into a wide lappet. It is less deeply pigmented 
in the smaller specimen. In both young fish the teeth are well developed, both 
the small and the larger series. In addition to the short beak, the most dis- 
tinctive character of these immature fish is the total absence of any forked 
appearance of the caudal fin. Instead, it is quite regularly rounded. 

Even in needlefish which have reached a length of over six inches the dermal 
jaw flap is still fully developed, shaped as described in the above paragraph. 
In the fish of this age the inverted coloration has given place to the more usual 
pattern of the adult. 

Study Material: Color Plates, H548, No. 7195a; Photograph, 4127; Speci- 
mens, 11; 30-840 mm., including numbers 6865, 6880, 7051, 7158, 7195a, 7260, 
7287. 

Ablennes Jordan and Fordice, 1886 

Ribbon Needlefish 

Ablennes Mans (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

References: Belone hians, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1846, Hist. Nat. 
Poiss., XVIII, p. 432. 

Ablennes hians, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, I, p. 231. 

Field Characters: Similar to Strongylurus but with the bod}? - compressed 
into a band or ribbon shape. 



66 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Description: Our specimen is typical except that it has one more dorsal 
ray than has heretofore been recorded. 


Length 

654 mm. 

Interorbital 

18 mm. 

Depth 

44 

U 

Postorbital 

38 “ 

Width 

20 

u 

Pectoral length 

64 “ 

Head 

185 

u 

Dorsal rays 

26 

Eye 

Snout 

Beak 

19 

129 

111 

5 149 I 3 - 5 

u 

u 

(C 

H 

E 

Anal rays 

9.7 § 1.43 5 1.65 
fe Jd 

27 


Size and Weight: The species is known to reach a length of 3 feet. Our 
specimen was 25% inches or 654 mm. in length, and weighed 320 grams. 

General Range: From Massachusetts to Brazil. Also recorded from the 
Cape Verde Islands. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: One specimen taken in seine by 
native fishermen. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 654 mm., No. 7134. 

Family Hemirhamphidae; The Half-beaks 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Body moderately compressed; pectoral fins moderate; shore fishes. 

B. Sides of the body vertical; ventral fins inserted much nearer the base of 

the caudal than the gill opening Hemirhamphus 

BB. Sides of body not quite vertical, more or less convex; ventral fins inserted 
further forward, usually at a point about midway between base of 
caudal and gill opening . Hyporhamphus 

A. Body slender and compressed, more or less band-like; pectoral fins very 
long, more than % the length of the body; ventral fins very short, 
inserted posteriorly; pelagic species Euleptorhamphus 

Hemirhamphus Cuvier, 1817 

Orange-tailed Half-beak; Ballyhoo; 
Baloa 

Hemirhamphus brasiliensis (Linnaeus) 

References: Esox brasiliensis, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 314. 

Hemirhamphus brasiliensis, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, 
Marine Fishes of Panama, I, p. 234. 

Field Characters: Small, elongate fishes with lower jaw prolonged into a 
long beak; sides vertical; ventral fins inserted nearer base of caudal than gill 
openings. Upper lobe of caudal fin orange. 

Description: Our specimens are typical in almost every respect. The 
following table illustrates the relative progress of 6 characters from young to 
adult. 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 67 



A 


B 


C 


D 


Length. . . 

35 mm. 

16% 

38.5 mm. 

18% 

145 mm. 

67% 

215 mm. 

100% 

Depth .... 

3.8 “ 

10 

5 

14 

25 

70 

36 

100 

Head 

7.8 “ 

16 

9 

18 

35.2 “ 

73 

48.5 “ 

100 

Eye 

2.3 “ 

17 

2.6 “ 

19 

9.5 “ 

70 

13.5 “ 

100 

Snout. . . . 

1.6 “ 

10 

2.4 “ 

14 

11 

67 

16.5 “ 

100 

Beak ..... 

10.3 “ 

17 

13.5 “ 

23 

41.5 “ 

72 

58 

100 

Average.. . 

14.3% 

17.6% 

70% 

100% 


The head of the 145 mm. fish is slightly longer than is usually described for 
this species, averaging 4.1 times into the length instead of 4.35 to 4.63. The 
specimen agrees, however, in all other characters. 

The smaller examples are less deep than in typical measurements given 
Meek & Hildebrand, the depth into the length being 9.2 in a 35 mm. fish and 
7.7 in a 38.5 mm. specimen, and in these the eye is slightly larger, — 3.4 and 3.46 
in the head, respectively. 

Size and Weight: This species is said to reach a length of 15 inches. Our 
largest example measured 215 mm. in length. 

Color: This species is conspicuous among the Haitian half -beaks because 
of the orange upper lobe of the caudal fin. 

Adults: Dusky greenish-brown above, silvery on the sides and below. 
A dark streak along the sides from the upper angle of the gill opening to the 
base of the caudal, wider and more diffuse posteriorly. Median line of the 
back with three, dark, narrow lines, often difficult to see, the central one often 
diffuse. Upper lobe of the caudal fin orange, the lower dusky. 

Smaller fish from 35 to 47 mm. in length (alcoholic specimens) have the 
pigment distributed as follows: Top of head, snout and lower jaw densely 
covered with chromatophores; the opercles with only a few scattered pigment 
cells. Edges of the scales on the dorsal surfaces as far down as the center of 
the sides, densely pigmented. A dark band on the sides beginning at the upper 
angle of the gill-opening, continuing to the caudal fin, becoming wider and 
denser posteriorly. Belly and under surfaces with a median narrow band 
of chromatophores extending from the isthmus to the caudal fin, most intense 
immediately before and between the ventrals, splitting in two at the anus 
and continuing as a line of spots on either side of the anal fin to the caudal. 
A small black spot on the body at the base of the ventral fin, anteriorly and 
superiorly. Three dark patches on the middle of the sides, two between the 
anal and dorsal fin, and one above the ventrals. There is a trace of another 
spot before this one, but it is not sufficiently developed in any of our specimens 
to be certain as to its actual existence. A few scattered chromatophores are 
found on the lower sides. Membranes of the posterior part of the dorsal and 
anal fins blackish. Lower lobe of the caudal dusky. Other fins plain. 

The changes in the distribution of the pigment on the dorsal surface is 
somewhat simpler than in Hyporhamphus unifasciatus, although this may be 
because we lack specimens of Hemirhamphus as small as those of the other 
species. Three characters only are present, and their changes may be shown 
in the following diagram: 


68 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 



A B C D 

Hemirhamphus hrasiliensis 

Changes in pigmentation of the dorsal surface with growth. 

A. — 35 mm. specimen. C. — 47 mm. specimen. 

B. — 40 mm. specimen. D. — 185 to 215 mm. specimens. 

Symbols same as those used under Hyporhamphus unifasciatus. 

1. Median line. 

Present in all individuals, in varying degrees of strength; in some of the 
larger specimens being wider and more diffuse than in others. 

2. Submedian lines. 

These appear in our fish of 40 mm. length as a series of dots, which in the 
47 mm. specimen have become continuous lines. They are pfesent in all 
larger specimens. 

3. Pigmented scale edges. 

These are present and are very conspicuous in our small specimens of 
35 to 47 mm. In the older fish the general darkening of the upper surface 
has completely submerged these patterns. 

General Range: Florida south to Bahia, Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: A few at surface light at night. 

Abundance: Rather rare compared with Hyporhamphus unifasciatus. We 
took nine individuals. 

Method of Capture: Natives take them in seines at night. All of ours were 
taken as they came to submerged lights. 

Food: The stomach of a 215 mm. specimen contained the usual quantity of 
comminuted algae, also considerable woody tissue of land plants, 2 or 3 blades 
of grass and several insects, a spider and a small hymenopteron. There was 
also the remains of a half-digested small fish. 

A second individual had eaten large quantities of half-decayed bits of Thalassia 
leaves. 

In a third fish, 50 mm. long was a mass of similar material, Thallasia and bit s 
of tissue of land plants all quite decolorized. * 

Study Material: Photographs, 3773; Specimens, 9 (6 small, 3 large'^. 
including Nos. 6803, 7043 (2), 7050 (2), 7087a (2),— (2). Port-au-Prince Ba;^ 


1928J Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


69 


Hyporhamphus Gill, 1859 




Half-beak; Balao; Balaju ; Bally-hoo 

Hyporhamphus unifasciatus (Ranzani) 


References: Hemirhamphus unifasciatus, Ranzani, 1842, Novi. Comment. 
Ac. Sci. Inst. Bonon., V, p. 326. 

Hyporhamphus unifasciatus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, 
Marine Fishes of Panama, I, p. 237, Plate XVI, fig. 1. 

Field Characters: Small, elongate fishes with lower jaw prolonged into a 
long beak. Sides convex. Ventral fins inserted midway between base of 
caudal and gill opening. 

Description: The 28 specimens taken all conform typically to the descrip- 
tions of unifasciatus. The extremes in size in our collection are 15 and 147 
mm. and the comparative development of six characters is shown in the following 
table : 


Length. . . 

A 

15.5 mm. 

10% 

26 

B 

mm. 

18% 

78 

C 

mm. 

53% 

D 

147 mm. 

100% 

Depth .... 

1.3 “ 

8 

2.5 

“ 

10 

8.5 

U 

37 

23 

100 

Head 

3 

9 

5 

C( 

15 

16 

U 

50 

33 

100 

Eye 

.95 “ 

12 

1.7 

u 

22 

4.0 

U 

53 

7.5 “ 

100 

Snout. . . . 

.65 “ 

6 

1.3 

“ 

12 

5.7 

“ 

52 

11 

100 

Beak 

2 

8.3 

7.8 

Ci 

32 

20 

u 

83 

24 

100 

Average. . . 

8.6% 



18% 



55% 


100% 



In the smallest fish the snout is least developed, the eye as usual being the 
most advanced. In specimen C, which is half the length of the adult, the general 
average of all six characters is 55%, yet the depth still lags, being only 37%, 
while compensation is found in the beak which has forged ahead to 83%. 

Size and Weight: Our largest specimen measured 147 mm. and weighed 
27 grams. Grows to a foot. 

Color: Pale green above, silvery below and on sides. Upper surface of head 
and mandible blackish, the tip of the latter red. Sides with a plumbeous 
stripe, widest posteriorly, bordered above with black, — this line present at 
all ages down to 15.5 mm. long. Back with dusky punctulations following 
the edges of the scales. The pattern of the dorsal surface varies with age, 
and the component parts of the pattern and their appearance and disappear- 
ance are given below. 

In connection with the dorsal pigmentation four characters may be distin- 
guished, as shown in diagram. These characters are similar to a certain extent 
to those found on Hemirhamphus brasiliensis, but they also differ considerably. 


70 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 





1 

• 



• 

,+l 

k 

* 

# 

»"j‘S 

■7* 

i 

r 


B 


D 


i 

, 


[■ 

n 


Hyporhamphus unifasciatus 

Changes with growth in the pigmentation of the dorsal surface. 

A. — Artificial diagram showing all the elements present. 1, median dorsal line, 2, sub- 
median dorsal lines, 3, lateral dorsal spots, 4, pigmented scale edges. 

B. — Dorsal surface of 15.5 mm. specimen. 

C. — 19 mm. specimen. 

D. — 32 mm. specimen. 

E. — 52 mm. specimen. 

F. — 95 mm. specimen. 

G. — 147 mm. specimen. 


Taken one by one the characters appear or disappear with age as follows: 

1. Median dorsal line of chromatophores. 

In a 15.5 mm. fish this line is absent. Faint indications appear in a 19 mm. 
fish, the chromatophores being very small and wide apart. In a 28 mm. 
specimen the chromatophores have increased in number and are consequently 
closer together. They continue their existence in much the same way in 
larger specimens, although in a 147 fish they are masked to a considerable 
extent by the encroaching pigmented scale edges. 

2. The sub-median dorsal lines. 

These are present in 15.5 mm. and 19 mm. fish as a series of unconnected 
pigment dots. In 32 mm. specimens these pigment dots have become elongate 
dashes, and at 52 mm. standard length the dashes have consolidated and the 
continuous double dorsal stripes so conspicuous in the adult, are developed. 

3. Lateral spots. 

These spots are present in specimens up to 95 mm. and it is possible that 
they may persist in larger fish. In the very young they are enormous, appar- 
ently formed of a single chromatophore, and dwarfing the chromatophores of 
the beginning sub-median dorsal lines. With age they become relatively 
smaller and in practically all of our 85 and 95 mm. specimens they have dis- 
appeared entirely. In the smallest specimens these chromatophores join 
posteriorly to form the black spot on the upper surface of the caudal peduncle. 

4. Pigmented scale edges. 

In our series these do not appear until 95 mm. standard length has been 
attained. They are then especially prominent on the rows of scales just outside 
the submedian line. In still larger specimens they attain greater prominence 
and form, next to the submedian dorsal lines, the most conspicuous feature 
of the dorsal coloration of the adult. 

General Range: Rhode Island to Brazil. 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


71 


Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay : Many seen in the markets. Common 
about our surface lights at night. Medium-sized half-beaks occasionally 
seen in shallow water near shore, and one small one was taken at the surface 
in full daylight two miles from shore. 

Method of Capture: The native fishermen take these in seines at night. 
Our specimens were captured with hand nets at the gangway at night. 

Food: Stomach of a medium sized fish filled with a fine, white, flocculent 
substance, amorphous except under high power microscope, where remains 
of partly broken down cells of algae can be made out. We have never seen 
this species feeding, but both the structure of its jaws and beak and the character 
of the food indicate a surface feeder. 

Size at Maturity: Female 147 mm. in length (March 5th) had ripe ovaries. 

Spawning Season: The ripe condition of the 147 mm. fish taken on March 
5th, would indicate that the spawning season was approaching. The two ovaries 
were 70 mm. long by 7, the largest eggs measuring 1 mm. in diameter. 

General Habits: Those which came to our light were wary, and always on 
guard, and it was not easy to take them with a hand net. None were ever 
seen to feed; they swam slowly along near the surface, occasionally making a 
flying leap out of the water at the approach of danger. 

Study Material: Specimens, Total number 28, divided as follows, — 14, 
15 to 70 mm. including 6996 (2), 7006 (2), 7043, 7050 (2), 7087a (3), 7113 (2), 
7183 and 7288. 12, medium sized, up to 100 mm., including 7153d, 7243, — (8). 
2, large, up to 147 mm. 

Euleptorhamphus Gill, 1859 


Flying Half -beak 

Euleptorhamphus veloz Poey 



References: Euleptorhamphus velox, Poey, 1867, Synopsis, 383. 

Euleptorhamphus velox, Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, I, p. 724. 

Field Characters: Slender, compressed, band-like fishes with lower jaw 
extended into a long beak; pectoral fins very long, more than one quarter the 
length of the body. 

Note: En route to Gonave Island on January 6, I positively identified this 
species of which 30 or 40 kept rising ahead of the mine-sweeper in which I 
made the trip. In the afternoon of the same day a pair was seen through the 
water-glass, as I waded shoulder deep in an outer reef off Point a Galets, Gonave, 
and both broke water and flew some distance at the approach of a motor boat. 

I distinguished every character in the case of the latter pair, but never again 
saw the species in Haiti. (W. B.) 


72 


Zoological N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Family Exocoetidae; the Flying-Fishes 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Pectoral fins moderate, not reaching beyond middle of base of dorsal 

fin; base of anal about equal to base of dorsal Parexocoetus 

AA. Pectoral fins long, usually reaching beyond base of dorsal fin, sometimes 
nearly to base of caudal; ventral fins long, reaching past middle of base of 
anal; anal fin short, its base shorter than dorsal fin base Cypselurus 

Parexogoetus Bleeker, 1866 


Short-winged Flyingfish 

Parexocoetus mesogaster (Bloch) 


References: Exocoetus mesogaster, Bloch, 1795, Ichthyologia, p. 399. 

Parexocoetus mesogaster, Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, I, p. 728. 

Field Characters: Transparent-winged flying-fish; body coppery blue 
above, silvery below; pectorals reaching half way to end of dorsal, anal equal 
in length to dorsal; snout short and blunt. 

Size and Weight: Reaches 7 inches in length. Our specimen measured 
104 mm. and weighed 14.5 grams. 

Color: Blue above with iridescent lights changing constantly to copper, 
green and orange; silvery white below, shading to steely purple. 

General Range: Cosmopolitan in tropical seas. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Seen now and then flying about the 
Bay. A single specimen taken at the surface light at night on April 20th. 

Study Material: Colored Plate, H101, No. 7186; Specimens, 1; 104 mm. 
No. 7186, Port-au-Prince Bay. 

Cypselurus Swainson, 1839 


Dark-winged Flyingfish 

Cypselurus bahiensis (Ranzani) 




References: Exocoetus bahiensis, Ranzani, 1842, Novi. Comment. Ac. Sci. 
Insti. Bonon. V, p. 362, PI. XXXVIII. 

Exocoetus bahiensis, Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, I, p. 739. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 73 

Field Characters: Flying-fish with dusky and brown spotted pectoral fins. 

General Range: Tropical seas. 

Note: No specimen of this flying-fish was taken, but numerous individuals 
and schools with dusky and brown spotted pectorals were seen flying above 
the water of the Bay, all of which undoubtedly belonged to this genus, and very 
probably to the species bahiensis. 

Family Bregmacerotidae 
Bregmaceros Thompson, 1840 


Unicorn Fish 

Bregmaceros atlanticus Goode and Bean 



References: Bregmaceros atlanticus, Goode and Bean, 1886, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., XII, No. 5, p. 165. 

Bregmaceros atlanticus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes 
of No. and Mid. America, III, p. 2527. 

Field Characters: Very small flesh-colored fish, pigmented above and 
sometimes on fins; long dorsal and anal fins with undulatory outlines, of forty 
or more rays each; single elongated spine on head; pelvics with three, very 
long, flat, separate rays. 

Size and Weight: The longest specimen recorded measures 46 mm. 

General Range : Atlantic Ocean near the West Indies. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Six specimens taken at night, at the 
surface, at light. 

Enemies : One taken from the stomach of Garanx latus. 

Study Material: Colored Plate, H56; Photograph, 3938; Specimens, 6; 
25 to 40 mm., including Nos. 7000, 7030, 7055, 7064, and 7289. 


Family Bothidae; Flounders 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Lateral line with a distinct arch in front; interorbital space broad; scales 

small, 75 to 100 or more Platophrys 

AA. Lateral line without a prominent arch in front. 

B. Teeth in upper jaw biserial, in lower uniserial; gill-rakers short. . .Syacium 
BB. Teeth in both jaws uniserial; maxillary more than length of head; 

gill rakers slender, of moderate length Citharichthys 


74 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 
Platophrys Swainson, 1810 


[X;l 



Peacock Flounder 

Platophrys lunatus (Linnaeus) 


References: Pleuronedes lunatus, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 269. 

Platophrys lunatus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, III, p. 2665. 

Field Characters: Medium-sized flounders with eyes and color on left 
side; both pectoral fins present, that of the left side usually filamentous in the 
male; vomer toothless; lateral line with a strong arch in front; interorbital 
space very broad; snout projecting, prominent; dark olive, with many rings, 
curved spots and small round dots of sky blue on body. 

Size and Weight: Reaches a length of 18 inches. Our 250 mm. specimen 
weighed 288 grams. 

General Range: Florida and West Indies. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Two specimens obtained from market. 

Study Material: Color Plate, Hi 13, No. 7239; Specimens, 2; 171 and 250 
mm., Nos. 7726, 7239. 


Syacium Ranzani, 1842 



Transparent Turbot 

Syacium, micrurum Ranzani 


References: Syacium micrurum, Ranzani, 1842, Novi Comment. Ak. Sci. 
Inst. Bonon., V, p. 20. 

Syacium micrurum, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 981. 

Field Characters: Small, elliptical flounders with ventral fin of eyed side 
inserted on abdominal ridge; lateral line nearly straight; maxillary equal to or 
greater than length of head; teeth in upper jaw biserial; 60 to 68 scales in 
lateral line; brownish. 

Size and Weight: Reaches a length of 175 mm. 

Color : Adult, brownish with irregular dark blotches and a few ocelli, ringed 
with grey and black, fins with numerous dark spots. Young, quite transparent. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 75 

General Range: Key West, to West Indies and Rio Janeiro, Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Three inch specimen seined by native, 
smaller one taken at night at surface light. 

Young: On the night of March 31st took a small turbot of 23 mm. at the 
gang-way submerged light. When first seen, and later when examined under 
the microscope in the laboratory tent, it was absolutely transparent, even bone 
being perfectly clear and distinct. Only the phosphorescent-like reflective 
gleam from the two eyes was visible, together with the backing of the eye 
balls, and six red pigment cells on the gills and anterior dorsal rays. In pre- 
servative, the fins have remained clear, but the body is pale opaque yellow. 
In this specimen the head is relatively small, going into the length five times, 
instead of the adult average of 3.8. (W. B.) 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 23 and 68.5 mm. Nos. 6990 and 7127. 
Port-au-Prince Bay. 

Citharichthys Bleeker, 1862 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Eye larger, 33^ to in head; whitish blotches and ocelli present. . .uhleri 
AA. Eye smaller, 5 to 6 in head; no whitish blotches and ocelli present. 

spilopterus 


Uhler’s Whiff 

Citharichthys uhleri Jordan 


References: Citharichthys uhleri, Jordan and Goss, 1889, Rep. U. S. Fish 
Comm., p. 275. 

Citharichthys uhleri, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, III, p. 2684. 

Field Characters: Small, oblong flounders with eyes and color on left 
side; vomer toothless; lateral line without arch in front; teeth in jaws uniserial; 
maxillary more than } 4 of head; gill rakers slender; eye 3 K to 4^ in head; 
dorsal rays 68, anal rays 52; brown with large ocelli on body and tail. 

Size and Weight: A 123 mm. specimen weighed 28 grams. 

Color: Greenish brown, with numerous large ocelli, pale edged with dark 
brown centers; a large very distinct ocellus in the center of the caudal rays. 
Iris bright yellow. 

General Range: Haiti. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Rarely taken in seines by native 
fisherman. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 99 and 123 mm. No. 6850. 



76 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; l 



Reference: Citharichthys spilopterus , Gunther, 1862, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., 
IV, p. 421. 

Citharichthys spilopterus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 988. 

Field Characters: Small oblong flounders with eyes and color on left side; 
vomer toothless; lateral line without arch in front; teeth in jaws uniserial; 
maxillary more than Ri length of head; gill rakers slender; eye 5 to 6 in head, 
45 to 48 scales in lateral line; olive brown, with darker spots and blotches. 

Description : Differs from the type description in having the eyes somewhat 
closer together, and the depth into the length is 2.3 instead of “nearly two. ” 

Size and Weight: Our 133 mm. specimen weighed 37 grams. 

General Range: New Jersey, and the West Indies to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: On the bottom in rather shallow 
water where the native fishermen take them in their seines. 

Abundance: Apparently not rare as we obtained eleven specimens. 

Study Material: Photograph, 3777; Specimens, 11; 72-133 mm. No. 6837. 

Family Achiridae; Soles 
Achirus Lacepede, 1803 


Lineated Sole 

Achirus lineatus (Linne) 



References: Pleuronedes lineatus, Linne, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 268. 

Achirus lineatus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, III, p. 998. 

Field Characters: Small, ovate, scaled soles with caudal fin free from 
dorsal and anal; eyes and color on right side of body; brown to greyish, with 
about eight narrow, vertical blackish cross streaks, and often with large blackish 
blotches. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 77 

Size and Weight: Grows to a length of 8 inches. Our 96 mm. specimen 
weighed 32 grams. 

Color: Variable, plain dark brown, or mottled or showing six to eight narrow, 
dark cross lines. 

General Range: Florida Keys and West Indies, to Uruguay. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Adults living on bottom, the young 
coming to the surface at night. 

Abundance: Not rare, fourteen taken by us. 

Method of Capture: Seined by native fisherman, and taken in hand nets 
at surface. 

Young: On several nights I caught young soles of this species, near the surface, 
at our submerged light. They swam slowly along and when at the surface 
elevated the encircling ring of vertical fins, and depressed the body, and in this 
cupped shape floated with no apparent movement of fins or body. The tips 
of all the rays could be seen breaking the surface film, but I could see no dif- 
ference in the level of the enclosed water and that outside. These specimens 
measured from 17.5 to 25 mm. 

The color change in these young soles was more extreme than in any fish I 
have ever seen. One taken on April 5th was dark green when dipped up, 
but in a glass dish under full electric light lost all color except a broad fin border 
of mottled greenish brown. When this individual undulated to the surface 
and cupped itself, the effect was of a circular ribbon of dark color, surrounding 
an area of absolute transparency, showing only dimly a network of fine bones. 
This specimen had only a single eye although in orientation it was quite adult. 
In past years I have caught 6 or 8 soles and flounders which had each lost an 
eye, and as this has always been the peripatetic one, it appears as if the aston- 
ishing shift through muscle and skull is not accomplished without a certain 
amount of weakening. 

A second baby sole taken at night had a considerable amount of brilliant 
torquoise blue on the fins. This one likewise became transparent in the light 
of the laboratory, with the exception of six large, dusky, round spots, three on 
each side, with a scattering of black pin-pricks of dots. The blue was of the 
same character as that on the fins of the young, surface-swimming Halieutichthys, 
an interesting fact because of the bottom living nature of the adult fish in each 
case. (W. B.) 

Study Material: Colored Plate, H18, H125a, No. 7190; Photograph, 
3962; Specimens, 14; 17.5-96 mm., including Nos. 6841, 7021, 7204, and 7243. 
Port-au-Prince Bay. 

Family Cynoglossidae; Tongue-Fishes 
Symphurus Rafinesque, 1810 

Tongue Fish 

Symphurus plagusia (Bloch and 
Schneider) 



78 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

References: Pleuronectes plagusia , Bloch and Schneider, 1801, Syst. Ichth., 

p. 162. 

Symphurus plagusia , Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes Panama, III, p. 1005. 

Field Characters: Small, elongate, lanceolate soles, with dorsal and anal 
fins confluent around tail; eyes and color on left side of body; brownish, some- 
what mottled. 

Description: The two specimens show somewhat intermediate characters 
between plagusia and plagiusa, as follows: No. 7257 is plagiusa in dorsal ray 
and in scale count, while 7116 is close to it in anal ray count. In color and all 
other characters both are typical plagusia. It is probable that the two forms 
will prove to be one species. 

Size and Weight: Our 142 mm. specimen weighed 21 grams. 

Color: Brown with 6 to 7 black cross-bars, vertical fins dusky or black. 

General Range: West Indies to Uruguay. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Seined by native fisherman near a 
pebbly beach. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 91 and 142 mm. Nos. 7116, 7257. 

Family Holocentridae; the Squirrel-Fishes 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Lower jaw short, the chin not entering the dorsal profile. 

B. No large, preopercular spine, gill rakers long and slender, 21 to 23 on lower 

limb of first arch Myripristis 

BB. A large preopercular spine; gill rakers rather long and slender, 8 to 15 

developed on lower limb of first arch Holocentrus 

AA. Lower jaw long, more than half the length of the head; chin projecting 
considerably beyond upper jaw. Gill rakers short, thick-set, about 9 
developed on lower limb of first gill-arch Flammeo * 

Myripristis Cuvier, 1829 


Candil; Frere-Jacque 

Myripristis jacobus Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes 


References: Myripristis jacobus, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829, Hist. Nat. 
Poiss., Ill, p. 162. 

Myripristis jacobus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 294. 

Field Characters: Small, chunky, compressed, large-eyed, scarlet fish 
without a preopercular spine; with a deep crimson bar across upper half of opercle, 
extending down and back across base of pectoral. 



* The genus Flammes merges with Holocentrus and is no longer considered valid. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


79 


Description: 

Length 125 mm. 

Depth 50 (2.5) 

Head 42 (3) 

Eye 19 (2.2) 

Snout 8 (5.2) 

Lateral Line Scales 34 
Dorsal : X-I-14 
Anal : IV-12 

Size and Weight: Reaches 12 inches in length; our five-inch specimen 
weighed 74.5 grams. 

Color: In life: Scarlet, paling to silvery below; a deep crimson bar across 
upper half of opercle, and down and back across base of pectoral fin; dorsal 
fin deep scarlet on distal three-fourths of first two webs, becoming a broad 
edge on the rest; remainder of webs silvery; ventral fins white; all others deep 
rose, anterior ray of dorsal and anal and outer caudal rays white, iris scarlet, 
shot with silvery on outer edge. 

General Range: West Indies to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found on reefs; rare. 

Method of Capture : Taken in trap baited with crab meat at Bizoton Reef. 
Size at Maturity : In breeding condition when five inches long. 

Spawning Season: Female breeding on March 23rd. 

Eggs: Ovary 30 x 10 mm. Eggs .68 mm., each containing a single oil globule. 
Study Material: Specimen, 1; 125 mm. No. 7092. 

Holocentrus Gronow, 1763 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Thirteen to fifteen gill-rakers developed on lower limb of first gill arch. 

ascensionis 

A A. Eight to nine gill-rakers developed on lower limb of first gill arch. 

B. Black spot confined to the membranes between first and third or first 

and fourth dorsal spines coruscus 

BB. Membranes of dorsal fin black in front of each spine, pale behind, the 
black not extending to the base or to the tip between the first and second 
and the second and third spines v vexillarius 


Common Squirrel-fish; Cartinau 

Holocentrus ascensionis (Osbeck) 


References: Perea ascensionis, Osbeck, 1765, Reise nach Ostindien und 
China, p. 388. 

Holocentrus ascensions, Meek and Hildebrand 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 297. 



80 


Zoological N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X;l 


Field Characters: Small to medium-sized, oblong, compressed fishes, with 
very large eyes, long spine on preopercle; scales strongly serrate; upper lobe 
of caudal much longer than lower; anterior rays of soft dorsal much elevated; 
reddish above, with bluish reflections and brownish stripes between the scales; 
head bright red, iris scarlet. 

Description: Our series of specimens agrees with the published descriptions 
of this species. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 2 feet. A 156 mm. fish weighed 85 grams. 

General Range: From Florida to Brazil, and known from the Eastern 
Atlantic. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Widely distributed over reefs. 

Abundance: A common species, often seen in the markets, but not of great 
food value. 

Method of Capture: Seines, hooks and lines and in traps. Many were 
taken with the two latter methods, from the schooner anchorage in 40 to 60 
feet of water on muddy bottom. A 56 mm. fish was strongly attracted to a 
red selenium bulb submerged over the side. 

General Habits: These fish were easily frightened while we were diving. 
One medium-sized fish had appropriated a small box-like depression in the 
upper part of a piece of coral, in which it had coiled itself, and was quietly 
resting. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H21, No. 6877; Photographs, 3761, 4012; 


Shining Squirrel-fish 

Holocentrus coruscus Poey 


References: Holocentrum coruscum, Poey, 1860, Memorias, II, p. 158. 

Holocentrus coruscus , Jordan and Evermann, 1896, The Fishes 
of Middle and North America, I, p. 851. 

Field Characters : Small, short . and thick, compressed fishes with large 
eye and a long spine on preopercle; an intense black spot on membrane between 
1st and 3rd or 1st and 4th dorsal spine. 

Description: Three specimens are assigned to this species, their respective 
lengths being 30, 32 and 85 mm. All three agree in possessing the black spot 
on the anterior part of the spinous dorsal fin, although in preserved coloration 
the two small fish are bright silvery, while the larger one is dull yellow, a condi- 
tion most likely brought about by differences in preservative, the former being 
in alcohol and the latter in formalin. 

The measurements of the three are as follows: 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: 

The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 81 

Specimen number 

7149B 

7149A 

7291 

Length, actual mm. 

30 mm. 

32 mm. 

85 mm. 

Depth 

9 (3.3) 

10 (3.2) 

30 (2.8) 

Head 

10 (3) 

11.2 (2.8) 

30 (2.8) 

Eye 

4 (2.5) 

3.7 (3) 

12.5 (2.4) 

Snout 

2.5 (4) 

3 (3.7) 

7 (4.3) 

Scales 

41 

40 

41 

Gill-rakers, developed 

8 

9 

8-9 

Dorsal fin 

XI-1-12 

XI-1-12 

XI-1-13 

Anal fin 

IV-9 

IV-8 

IV-8 K 


Although there is an appreciable amount of variation between certain propor- 
tions it is believed that all three fish are of the same species. The longer head 
and snout measurements in the smaller specimens is due to the projecting snout 
characteristic of young Holocentrids. 

Size and Weight: Our 85 mm. specimen weighed 16 grams. 

Color: The following description was made of the 32 mm. fish; Upper sur- 
faces above a line from the center of the eye to middle of caudal peduncle, 
reddish with a coppery tinge. Remainder of sides silvery with a slight reddish 
tinge. A series of horizontal, bluish stripes as follows: one from head to base 
of 4th dorsal spine; one from head to base of last dorsal ray; two from upper 
edge of opercle to tail; a stripe above and a stripe from below the pectoral fin 
toward the tail, these bands merging together above the last rays of the anal 
fin; one band from isthmus below pectoral to above base of anal. A yellowish, 
rather broad band, along the lateral line from opercle to tail. Upper sides 
with brownish punctations. Sides and lower surfaces with small red spots. 
Spinous dorsal pinkish red at base, above which is a rather irregular white 
band, surmounted by a pinkish band which, in the posterior part of the fin 
extends to the outer edge. On the membrane between the first five spines the 
outer edge is white. Membranes immediately in front of the spines, heavily 
punctate with black, the punctuation more sparse on rest of membranes, — 
resembling vexillarius to a slight degree in this way. A large, intense black 
spot on membranes between the first and second, second and third, and on 
the anterior half of space between third and fourth dorsal spines. Pectoral, 
ventral and anal fins hyaline. Soft dorsal hyaline, the rays reddish. Center of 
each caudal lobe reddish. 

The coloration of the smaller specimen was the same with the exception that 
the black spot on the anterior portion of the spinous dorsal was confined to the 
space between the first and third spines, and the reddish tinge was continued 
to the outer border of the anterior membranes of the dorsal fin. 

General Range: West Indies. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: On reefs, and young found near 
surface at night. 

Abundance: Rare, not seen on reefs during expedition. 

Method of Capture: Small ones taken with scoop-nets as they came to 
our light at night. 

Food: The largest specimen had eaten a shrimp. 

Study Material: Specimens, 3; 30, 32 and 85 mm., Nos. 7149b, 7149a 
and 7291. 


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[X; 1 


Black-barred Squirrel-fish 

Holocentrus vexillarius Poey 


References: Holocentrum vexillarium, Poey, 1860, Memorias, II, p. 158. 

Holocentrus vexillarius , Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 299. 

Field Characters: Small, rather short, compressed fishes with a long 
spine on preopercle. Dark stripes along rows of scales; membrane in front of 
each dorsal spine black, and pale behind. 

Description : Our specimens agree very well with the long description given 
by Meek and Hildebrand. 

Size and Weight: Our specimens are all of about the same size, the largest 
measuring 100 mm. and weighing 31 grams. 

General Range : Cuba, Porto Rico and Panama. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found on small reefs. 

Method of Capture: Taken by us only with dynamite. 

Study Material: Specimens, 7; 60-100 mm., Nos. 7332, 7321. 

Flammeo Jordan and Evermann, 1898 


Large-mouthed Squirrel-fish; 
Marian 

Flammeo marianus (Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes) 


References: Holocentrum marianum, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829, Hist. 
Nat. Poiss., Ill, p. 219. 

Holocentrus marianus , Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, I, p. 852; Part III, 1898, pages 
2842 and 2871. 

Field Characters: Small, rather deep, compressed, red fishes with pro- 
jecting chin, large lower jaw and projecting spine on preopercle; spinous dorsal 
fin with two rows of orange spots; caudal with a deep red bar. 

Size and Weight: Grows to at least 170 mm. Our 130 mm. specimen 
weighed 52 grams. 

Color: In life, bright red becoming white below, with narrow, yellowish 
stripes between the rows of scales, the stripes above the lateral line alternately 
large and small. Upper part of soft dorsal and anterior part of anal rays 
pinkish. Membrane of spinous dorsal pale bluish-white with irregular orange 




1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


83 


spots on upper portion of anterior part of fin. Smaller spots of similar color 
but paler on basal portion of anterior rays. Caudal fin with a broad bar of 
deep red, the posterior part of the lobes pale pink. 

General Range: West Indies. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken near reef by native fishermen. 

Abundance: Rare, only two specimens seen or taken, one of these at market. 

Eggs: The larger fish contained numbers of undeveloped eggs, measuring 
.3 mm. in diameter. 

Study Material.: Specimens, 2; 85-130 mm., Nos. 7100 and 7320. 

Family Syngnathidae; the Pipe-Fishes 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Head shaped like horse; tail prehensile; body robust 
A A. Body elongate; tail not prehensile. 

B. Dorsal fin with 40 to 43 rays 

BB. Dorsal fin with fewer than 30 rays 

Hippocampus Rafinesque, 1810; The Seahorses 


Dotted Seahorse 

Hippocampus punctulatus Guichenot 


References: Hippocampus punctulatus, Guichenot, 1853, in Sagra, Hist. 

Phys. Polit. Nat. Cuba, IV, Pt. II, p. 174, PI. V, fig. 2. 

Hippocampus punctulatus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 255. 

Field Characters: Head shaped like that of horse, at right angles to the 
body; tail prehensile. 

Description: Our specimens are typical in every way. Both have 17 dorsal 
rays. 

Size and Weight: Our 128 mm. seahorse weighed 9 grams. 

General Range: Tropical Atlantic from America to Africa. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken rarely in Sargassum weed 
which the tide brought into the Bay. One small and one large one collected. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 19-128 mm., including Nos. 6846 and 7195. 
Port-au-Prince Bay. Sargassum weed. 



. Hippocampus 

Doryrhamphus 
. . . Syngnathus 


84 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 
Doryrhamphus Kaup, 1856 


[X; 1 


Lineated Pipe-fish 

Doryrhamphus lineatus (Valenciennes) 

References: Doryichthys lineatus , Valenciennes, 1856, MS. in Kaup, Cat. 
Lophobr. Fish, 59. 

Doryrhamphus lineatus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 261. 

Field Characters: Small, elongate pipe-fishes with long snout; tail shorter 
than trunk; approximately 40 rays in the dorsal fin. 

Description : Our specimens are typical except that - the tail fin in specimens 
up to 80 mm. in length, is longer and not shorter than the post-orbital portion 
of the head, as shown in the following table : 

Length of Speci- 
men in mm. 63.5 mm. 73 76 80 85 

Length of Post- 

Orbital Part of 

Head 3.9 “ 4.2 5 5 6.3 

Length of Caudal 

Fin 6.9 “ 5.2 5.9 6 5.5 

General Range: Shores of tropical Atlantic. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Of the 11 specimens 3 were taken 
in a brackish creek at Bizoton and the others at light, from March 5th to April 
30th. 

Study Material: Specimens: 11; 63 to 147 mm., including numbers 6977 
(3) brackish creek, Bizoton; 6996 (3), 7125 (2), 7153d (1), 7243, and 27261, all 
from light, Port-au-Prince Bay. 

Syngnathus Linnaeus, 1758 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Dorsal longer, with 26 to 30 rays. 

B. Head and snout 6.1 to 6.6 in length; depth (in Haitian specimens) about 


22 or less mackayi 

BB. Head and snout 7.5 to 8.5 in length; the depth (in Haitian specimens) 

25 to 37 in length rousseau 

AA. Dorsal shorter, 22 to 24 rays, on JSSj- 5 or 0 + 6 rings elucens 


Mackay’s Pipefish 

Synynathus mackayi (Swain and Meek) 

References: Siphostoma mackayi, Swain and Meek, 1884, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., VII, p. 239. 

Syngnathus mackayi, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 257. 

Field Characters: Small elongate pipe fishes with 26 to 30 dorsal rays: 
depth 16 to 22; head and snout very long, 6.1 to 6.6 in length. 

Description: Various discrepancies were encountered in the descriptions of 



142 

9 

5.3 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


85 


this fish and of the two following species, when the accounts, mainly of Jordan 
and Evermann, Evermann and Marsh, and Meek and Hildebrand, in addition 
to the original description of each species, were considered. However, when 
all the descriptions were merged and the extreme proportions and characters 
combined, our specimens fall within the limits of these species. 

General Range: Florida to Panama. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: All of our specimens were taken from 
Sargassum weed in late April, 1927. 

Abundance: Common in sea-weed. 

Method of Capture: Taken by searching through sea-weed grappled from 
surface. 

Study Material: Photograph, 4225; Specimens, 7; 77-130 mm., including 
Nos. 7210 and 7245, Port-au-Prince Bay. April, 1927. 

Rousseau’s Pipefish 

Syngnathus rousseau Kaup 



References: Syngnathus rousseau, Kaup, 1856, Cat. Lophob. Fish, p. 40. 

Syngnathus rousseau , Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 258. 

Field Characters: Small, very elongate pipe-fishes with 26 to 29 dorsal 
rays; head and snout 7.5 to 8.5 in length; both sexes very slender, the depth 
25 to 37, usually, in Haitian specimens, over 30. 

General Range: West Indies. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Our largest fish was taken close in- 
shore over muddy bottom. Smaller fish (55-67 mm.) were present at night 
at the surface from Feb. 26 to April 20th, 1927. 

Abundance: Fairly common, several specimens were to be seen every night. 

Method of Capture: Traps and by means of scoop nets at submerged lights. 

Breeding: The male captured February 23, was carrying eggs. 

Study Material: Specimens, 9; 55-167 mm., including Nos. 6936, 6963, 
7063, 7125, 7153d, 7185, 7300, Port-au-Prince Bay. 


Poey’s Pipe-fish 

Syngnathus elucens Poey 



References: Syngnathus elucens, Poey, 1867, Synopsis, p. 443. 

Syngnathus elucens, Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, I, p. 768. 

Field Characters: Small pipefish with short dorsal fin, containing 22 to 24 
rays; dorsal fin occupying the first six caudal rings or occasionally extending 
on the last or the two last body rings. 

Description: Five small fish, 32 to 35 mm. long, differ considerably from 
the other Haitian pipe-fishes*, and appear to agree more closely with elucens 
than any other described species. They have been compared with a 66 mm. 
fish from the collections of the Museum of Natural History, identified as this 
species, and our fish differ in no essential details. 


86 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 


The Haitian fish have 22 (2 spec.) to 24 (3 spec.) dorsal rays, as opposed to 
24 or 25 as described for elucens. The dorsal fin in 3 Haitian fish is on 0 + 6 
rings and in the two others it is on 1 +5. 


Proportions of these five fish are given below: 



7192a 

7192b 

7301a 

7301b 

6963 

Length 

35 mm. 

32 mm. 

32.5 mm. 

32.5 mm. 

33 mm. 

Depth in Length 

23 

24 

23 

23 

22 

Head in Length 

7 

7.1 

7.2 

7 

7.5 

Snout in Head 

2.6 

2.6 

2.5 

2.6 

2.7 

Post-orbital in Head 

2.5 

2.3 

2.3 

2.4 

2.46 

Eye in Head 

5.8 

5 

5.9 

5.2 

5.7 

Tail in Length 

1.6 

1.7 

1.7 

1.7 

1.7 

Dorsal Rays 

22 

24 

24 

22 

24 

Dorsal Rings 

17+32 

17+30 

16+33 

17+32 

16+31 

Pectoral Length into Head 

7.1 

7.1 

7 

6.5 

6.7 


General Range: Florida, Cuba and Haiti. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found by us only at surface at night. 
Abundance: Uncommon, 5 specimens seen and taken. 

Method of Capture: Scoop nets as the fish came to light. 

Study Material: Specimens, 5; 32-55 mm., including Nos. 7192a, 7192b, 
7301a, 7301b, 6963. February 26-April 4th, 1927. 

Family Aulostomidae; the Trumpet-Fish 
Aulostomus Lacepede, 1803 

Trumpet-fish 

Aulostomus maculatus Valenciennes 



References: Aulostoma maculatum, Valenciennes, about 1845, in Cuvier, 
Ifiust. Poiss., plate 92, fig. 2. 

Aulostomus maculatus, Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, I, p. 754. 

Field Characters: Elongate, somewhat compressed fishes, with mouth 
at end of very long head and snout, scales present; dorsal fin over anal and of 
same size; preceded by 8-11 spinous finlets. 

Description: Three specimens showed unusual variability in several char- 
acters. The spinous dorsal rays number from 8 to 11, and the anal rays 24 to 
28. The arrangement of the silvery body lines agrees with maculatus, but in 
general body color and in the greater relative length of the postorbital part 
of the head, specimen C approaches the unique individual known as cinereus. 
It appears probable that this is only a variation of maculatus. In comparative 
measurements the only point of interest is the unusually large size of the eye 
in the smaller specimens, contrary to Gunther’s statement. (Cat. Fishes British 
Museum, Vol. Ill, p. 536). 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


87 



A 


B 


C 



$ 


9 


$ 


Length 

362 mm. 

62% 

440 mm. 

76% 

578 mm. 

100% 

Depth 

29- “ 

59.5 

35- “ 

71.5 

49- “ 

100 

Head 

120- “ 

62.5 

147- “ 

77 

191- “ 

100 

Eye 

11 “ 

73.5 

14- “ 

93.5 

15 “ 

100 

Snout 

81- “ 

62.5 

98- “ 

75.5 

130 “ 

100 

Interorbital 

6.5 “ 

56.5 

9 “ 

78 

11.5 “ 

100 

Postorbital 

28.2 “ 

57 

36.5 “ 

74 

49.5 “ 

100 

Weight in grams 

90 

26 

160 

47 

341 

100 

Average of above eight 







characters 

62% 


78% 


100% 


Dorsal 

X-27 


XI-26 


IX-263^ 

Anal 

28 


24K 


28 



Size and Weight: Our largest trumpet-fish measured 22.5 inches or 578 mm. 
and weighed 341 grams. 

General Range: Caribbean Sea, north to southern Florida. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Observed over reefs, slowly moving 
in and out among the coral. 

Abundance: Uncommon; rarely brought to the markets. 

Method of Capture: Taken by native fishermen in nets, and speared by 
us on the reefs. 

Food: The stomach contents of three individuals with their respective length 
are as follows: 

(a) 578 mm. long, contained a 51 mm. Engraulid; and a Pomacentrus. 
The measurements of the latter are quite enormous, when the small mouth of 
the trumpet-fish is considered. The fish measured 71 mm. long with a depth of 
29 mm. and a width of 17 mm. It had been swallowed tail first. 

The size of the demoiselle and the fact that it had been swallowed tail first, 
make it likely that it had been swallowed after being killed by one of our dyna- 
mite explosions. 

(b) 440 mm., contained comminuted fish remains. 

(c) 362 mm., contained an Engraulid. 

Breeding: The ovaries measured as follows: 

(a) 578 mm. in length = 97 X 10 X 8 mm. = the length of the ovary being 
16% of the fish’s length. 

(b) 440 mm. in length = 82 X 11 X 7 mm. = 18% of the length 

(c) 362 mm. in length = 88 X 12 X 8 = 24% of the length. 

Study Material: Specimens, 4; 362-578 mm., including No. 6941. 

Family Fistulariidae; the Cornet-Fishes 
Fistularia Linnaeus, 1758 


Cornet-fish 

fistularia tabacaria Linnaeus 





88 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 


References: Fistularia tabacaria, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 312. 

Fistularia tabacaria, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama; I, p. 250. 

Field Characters: Elongate fishes with small mouth at end of very long 
snout and head; body without scales; no small finlets on dorsal surface before 
dorsal fin. 

General Range: West Indies and neighboring seas, straggling occasionally 
to Massachusetts. 

Note: This species was not taken during the expedition, but individuals 
belonging unmistakably to the species were seen while diving, once at Sand 
Cay and twice on Lamentin Reef. One of the latter was observed while close 
to a large Aulostomus maculatus, and the differences between the two genera 
were easily ascertained. 

Family Atherinidae; the Silversides 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Upper edge of mandibular rami straight or nearly so 

AA. Upper edge of mandibular rami sharply curved posteriorly 

Hepsetia Bonaparte, 1837 


Broad-headed Silverside 

Hepsetia stipes (Muller and Troschel) 

References: Atherina stipes, Miiller and Troschel, 1848, in Schomburgk, 
Hist. Barbados, p. 671. 

Atherina stipes, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, I, p. 264. 

Hepsetia stipes, Jordan and Hubbs, 1919, Monographic Review 
of the Family Atherinidae, Studies in Ichthyology, Stanford 
University Series, p. 34. _ 

Field Characters: Small elongate fishes with two separate, small dorsal 
fins; greenish with a narrow silvery line down middle of sides. Interorbital 
space wide. Scales 36 to 38. 

Size and Weight: Grows to less than 3 inches. A fish 45 mm. long weighed 
2 grams. 

General Range: West Indies; shores of Western Atlantic from Florida to 
Panama. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken only at surface at night with 
submerged light alongside schooner. 

Method of Capture: Scoop-nets at gangway of schooner, with light. 

Food: Plankton, mainly entomostracans. 

Study Material: Specimens, 21; 15 to 44 mm., including Nos. 6997, 6999, 
7027, 7050, 7054, 7087a, 7097d, 7125. 



. .Hepsetia 
. .Atherina 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


89 


Slender Silverside 

Atherina harringtonensis araea (Jordan 
and Gilbert) 



References: Atherina araea , Jordan and Gilbert, 1884, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., VII, p. 27. 

Atherina harringtonensis araea, Jordan and Hubbs, 1919, 
Monographic Review of the Family Atherinidae, Stanford 
University Publ.. University Series, p. 39, Plate III, fig. 9. 

Atherina araea, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine Fishes of 
Panama, I, p. 264. 

Field Characters: Small elongate fish with two separate small dorsal fins; 
greenish with a silvery line down middle of sides. Interorbital space not very 
wide, scales 42 to 45. The general appearance in the water seen from above, 
shows the back of molten silver; the head and the back from the second dorsal 
to the caudal turquoise green; sides silver with a greenish tinge, a patch of 
green at base of pectoral; head bluish; eye cold silvery white. 

Description: Our specimens are quite typical and show a decided average of 
difference from a series of Bermuda harringtonensis harringtonensis taken by the 
senior author in September, 1927. 

General Range: Florida and West Indies, south to Panama. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Widely distributed surface fish, 
near reefs and the shore line. The distribution of the 164 specimens taken 
was 99 dynamited, 53 caught at the surface light at night and 12 taken at surface 
near Sand Cay. 

Abundance: In enormous schools of hundreds of thousands near the surface. 

Method of Capture: The fishes formed an abundant component of the so 
called “white bait” in the markets, taken by the native fishermen in seines. 
We secured many when we were dynamiting for large fish. 

Food: Plankton, and floating dead organisms such as ants. 

Enemies: Mackerel and many other large carnivorous fish took heavy toll 
from the great schools of silversides, while the pelicans pursued them mercilessly 
whenever they leaped out of the water. 

Eggs: Eggs were bursting from a female taken on March 11th at surface 
light at nine o’clock. The ovaries contained 163 large eggs about 1 mm. in 
diameter, and about 400 averaging .4 mm. in diameter. The large eggs were 
clear, with a small dark nucleus surrounded by a few, small fat-cells, while the 
surface of the egg was covered with a maze of numerous, fine, hair-like lines. 

General Habits: As our motor-boat passed through one of the large schools, 
the appearance was of concentrated silvery motes sliding over the water, 
seldom sinking unless frightened, more than a few inches beneath the surface. 
The schools extended sometimes for a mile or more. They were closely associ- 
ated with equal numbers of Jenkinsia lamprotaenia. 

Study Material: Specimens, 164; including Nos. 6985, 6999, 7027, 7027a, 
7087a, 7113, 7150, 7153b, 7183, 7192, 7192a, 7243, 7265, 7302, 7303. 


90 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 


Family Mugilidae; the Mullets 
Key to the the Haitian Genera 


A. Palatine teeth absent Mugil 

A A. Palatine teeth present Agonostomus 


Mugil Linnaeus, 1758 


White Mullet ; Blue-back Mullet ; 
Liza Blanco 

Mugil curema Cuvier and Valenciennes 


References: Mugil curema , Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1836, Hist. Nat. 
Poiss., XI, p. 87. 

Mugil curema , Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, I, p. 279. 

Field Characters: Elongate, cylindrical, round-headed fishes with large 
adipose eyelids; small mouth with minute teeth. Two dorsal fins, the first of 
4 spines, the second of 1 spine and 8 rays; anal fin with 3 spines and 9 rays; 
young similar with 2 anal spines and 10 rays. 

Description: Our specimens fall within the limits of description of typical 
curema, except that we find a maximum count of 43 lateral scales in one large 
specimen. 

Ontogentic Character Averages. 



A 

B 

C 

D 

E 

F 

Length of Specimen in mm. 

7.7 

21.5 

115 

158 

196 

418 

Length 

1.8% 

5.1% 

27% 

38% 

47% 

100% 

Depth 

2.3 

5.5 

35 

44 

60 

100 

Head 

2 

6 

31 

47 

49 

100 

Eye 

3 

7 

34 

53 

53 

100 

Snout 

1.7 

6 

31 

43 

50 

100 

Interorbital 

2 

6 

29 

40 

42 

100 

Average 

2% 

6% 

31% 

44% 

50% 

100% 

Weight in grams 



32 

95 

165 

1020 

Average 



3% 

9.3% 

16% 

100% 


Size and Weight: In a land-locked pool, the source of the Mariani, we secured 
our largest specimens of this species. They measure respectively 418 and 420 
mm. and weigh 2 } 4 pounds each. 

Color: A 7 mm. specimen shows a reversed coloration, the dorsal surface 
of the head and body showing only a scattering of pigment dots. This prob- 
ably is connected with their life at the surface. 

General Range : Both coasts of America from Cape Cod to Brazil, and the 
Gulf of California to Chili; also found in West Africa. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Only found at surface light and in 
inland pools and streams. 

Abundance: Querimanna stage common about surface light; larger ones 
fairly common in streams. Abundant in market. 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


91 


Method of Capture: Hand-nets at surface light, and seines in fresh-water 
pools. 

Food: Mud, decayed vegetation and bottom debris in the freshwater indi- 
viduals. 

Study Material: Colored Plate, H34, No. 6909; Photograph, 3901; Speci- 
mens, 155; from 7 to 420 mm. in length, of which 18 were taken in a fresh- 
water pool at the source of Mariani: Nos. 7176, 7177, 7307, 7308, 7309, 7310. 
136 were in the Querimanna stage, taken at the submerged light; Nos. 6909, 
6929, 6930, 6984, 6997, 7010, 7020, 7027, 7043b, 7081, 7185, 7304, 7305, 7306. 

Agonostomus Bennett, 1830 
Key to Haitian Species 

A. Upper lip very little if at all thickened, body rather robust and deep. 

monticola 

AA. Upper lip thick anteriorly, much wider than the lateral portions, body 
elongate and rather slender microps 


Yellow-tailed Fresh -water Mullet 

Agonostomus monticola ( Bancroft ) 



References: Mugil monticola, Bancroft, 1836, Cuvier’s Animal Kingdom, 
(ed. Griffith), p. 367, t. 36. 

Agonostomus monticola, Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, I, p. 819, fig. 347. 

Field Characters: Small to medium-sized, elongate, somewhat compressed, 
but robust fishes with small teeth on the palate, and with two separate dorsal 
fins, the first of four spines. Upper lip thin, not conspicuously thickened 
anteriorly. Caudal fin yellow, with a conspicuous black spot on the side of 
the caudal peduncle. 

Description: In a great many of the Haitian specimens the interorbital 
space is almost flat; but these fish grade into those with typical convex inter- 
orbital spaces. It is very likely that percoides is the same as monticola. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 9 inches. A 150 mm. fish weighed 82 grams. 

Color: Sides greenish, becoming dark brown above and white below, the 
edges of the scales on the upper sides with dark edges. A dark irregular bar 
through the eye across opercles to base of pectoral fin. Axil black. An 
intense black spot on the caudal peduncle, in some specimens shaped like a 
triangle, the longest point of which is directed toward the tail. Caudal yellowish, 
especially intense on the base of the lobes. Ventral, anal and soft dorsal 
fins yellowish, the latter with very small black spots at the base. Spinous 
dorsal yellowish and orange at base, pale distally, and with a few black spots 
at base. First dorsal spine black. 


92 Zoological N. Y . Zoological Society [X; 1 

General Range: Fresh water streams of the West Indies and the east 
coast of Mexico. 

Occurrence in Haiti: Found widely distributed in fresh-water streams. 
Found by us in sea-ward flowing streams of the Cul-de-Sac Plain and at Source 
Mariani. 

Abundance: A common species. In the Grand Riviere they were by far 
the most abundant species, far out-numbering the cichlids and poecilids. 

Method of Capture : Seining. 

Food: An omnivorous feeder; seeds, berries, insects and mites found in the 
stomachs of three fish examined. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H54; Specimens, 49; 43-188 mm., including 
Nos. 6972 and 6989, Grand Riviere and Source Mariani. 

Thick-lipped Fresh -water Mullet 

Agonostomus microps Gunther 


References: Agonostomus microps, Gunther, 1861, Cat. Fish British Museum, 
III, p. 462. 

Agonostomus microps, Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, I, p. 820. 

Field Characters: Small to medium, elongate, compressed fishes with 
small teeth on the palate, and with two separate dorsal fins, the anterior of 
four spines. Upper lip thickened anteriorly. 

Description: Our single 180 mm. fish agrees with the description given 

by Gunther, with the exception that it possesses a slightly larger eye, 4.9 
instead of 6 as mentioned by Gunther, or 63^2 as stated by Jordan and Ever- 
mann for a male. As Gunther’s specimen was 12 inches long and ours a little 
over 7, the discrepancy may possibly be laid to size. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 12 inches. Our 180 mm. fish weighed 71 grams. 

General Range: Dominica, St. Vincent, Venezuela, Haiti. 

Occurrence in Haiti : Known to us from a single specimen from the Grand 
Riviere, Cul-de-Sac Plain. 

Abundance: Rare. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 180 mm., No. 7459. 

Family Sphyraenidae; the Barracudas 
Sphyraena Klein, 1778 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Ventral fins inserted in advance of dorsal; pectorals reaching beyond 


base of ventrals. 

B. Scales large, 79 to 85 in a lateral series barracuda 

BB. Scales smaller, 118 to 130 guachancho 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 93 

AA. Ventral fins inserted directly under origin of spinous dorsal, much nearer 
base of last anal ray than tip of lower jaw; pectoral fins failing to reach 
base of ventrals. Scales 123 to 130 in a lateral series picudilla 

Great Barracuda 

Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum) 

References: Esox barracuda, Walbaum, 1792, Artedi Piscium, III, p. 94, 
(after Catesby). 

Sphyraena barracuda, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 283. 

Field Characters: Medium to large, elongate, cylindrical and slightly 
compressed fishes with long snout and projecting lower jaw; mouth with large, 
pointed, wide-set teeth; pectoral fins overlapping ventral fins; scales large, 
79 to 85 in a lateral series. 


Description: Our specimens are typical in every way of this species. 
Ontogenetic Characters 


Specimen Numbers 

7185 

6809 

7315 

7315 

7110 

Actual Length, mm. 

25.5 

106 

210 

454 

705 

Length 

3.6% 

15% 

30% 

64% 

100% 

Depth 

3.8 

16 

36 

65 

100 

Head 

5.3 

19 

35 

70 

100 

Eye 

6.4 

23 

46 

78 

100 

Snout 

5.1 • 

18 

32 

67 

100 

Average 

Weight in grams 

Average 

4.8% 

18% 

8 

• 32%. 

36% 

70 

2.8% 

69% 

794 

33% 

100% 

2495 

100% 


fffh 


UI 




Size and Weight: Reaches a length of at least 5 feet 3 inches and a weight 
of 54 pounds; unauthenticated reports of 10 foot specimens. Our 705 mm. 
specimen weighed 5^2 pounds. 

Color: Young: — Five preserved fish, 20 to 26.5 mm. had the following- 
disposition of pigment: 

1. — A broad lateral band extending through the eye from snout to the tail, 
narrowed anteriorly, about 3^2 width of eye at posterior edge of the eye, becoming 
wider posteriorly and spreading over the entire upper and lower surfaces 
beyond the anal and soft dorsal fin. When viewed without a lens this band 
tends to break up into a series of spots, six in number from the pectorals to the 
caudal fin. 

2. — A series of six dark blotches along dorsal surface, which when viewed 
through a low power microscope, merge, into a broad band. 

3. — Upper surface of head and anterior portion of lower mandible covered 
with chromotophores. 

4. — Spines of first dorsal fin spotted, other fins clear. 

It is possible that smaller fish than those in our collection may possess a 
complete lateral band, which is here shown breaking up into the spots char- 
acteristic of fishes of medium size (100-200 mm.). 


94 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

General Range: West Indies to Brazil, north to South Carolina and Ber- 
muda. Rarely straggles as far north as Woods Hole. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Widely distributed near surface and 
over reefs; small ones taken close to shore over weed-covered bottom, both 
at Bizoton and at Source Matelas. Three foot fish photographed under water, 
15 feet deep, on Sand Cay. Large specimens, estimated at 5 feet and over, 
circled about our schooner at least half a dozen times. 

Abundance: A common species; small and medium sized individuals often 
seen in the market. 

Method of Capture: Caught on hook and line and in seines, and in hand- 
net at surface light. 

Food: Stomach contents of 3 individuals as follows: 

1 — 200 mm. specimen had eaten a 55 mm. Scarus croicensis. 

2 — 400 mm. specimen had eaten an 80 mm. Chloroscombrus chrysurus. 

3 — 697 mm. specimen had eaten a 70 mm. Ocyurus chrysurus, the Ocyurus 
in turn, having swallowed three anchovies. 

Size at Maturity: A cf, 705 mm. long (No. 7110) was in full breeding 
condition on March 28, with testes 140 x 10 mm. ; a 400 mm. individual was 
also in breeding condition, with testes 120 x 14 mm. 

Young: Five young individuals, from 20 to 26 mm. were taken from March 
6th to May 8th. Three were taken at the surface light at night and two 
scooped from the surface several miles from land in full daylight. 

General Habits: Like the gars, large sized barracudas now and then swam 
around the schooner for an hour or two at a time, apparently in the hope of 
picking up a dead fish or other refuse. 

Study Material: Specimens, 12; of which five were under 26 mm., 7006, 
7185, 7230, and 7271; five were 175 mm., 6809; two, 465 and 705 mm., Nos. 
7110, 7314. 

Guachancho Barracuda 

Sphyraena guachancho Cuvier and Val- 
enciennes 

References: Sphyraena guachancho, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829, Hist. 
Nat. Poiss., Ill, p. 342. 

Sphyraena guachancho, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 285. 

Field Characters: Medium sized, elongate, cylindrical and slightly com- 
pressed fishes with long snout and projecting lower jaw; mouth with large 
teeth; pectoral fins overlapping ventrals; scales small, 118 to 130 in a lateral 
series. 

Size and Weight: Known to reach a length of two feet. 

General Range: Florida and West Indies south to Panama. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Occasionally seen at the surface and 
over reefs. 

Abundance: Rarely seen alive but common in the market. 

Food: Small fish, including remains of Atherinids and Pomacentrids. 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


95 


Study Material: Specimens, 7 ; four averaging 200 mm., and three averaging 
325, Nos. 7311, 7312, 7313. 

Picudilla Barracuda 

Sphyraena picudilla Poey 


References: Sphyraena picudilla, Poey, 1860, Memorias, II, p. 162. 

Sphyraena picudilla , Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 287. 

Field Characters: Medium-sized, elongate, slightly compressed fishes, 
with long snout and projecting lower jaw; teeth large and wide set; pectoral 
fins not overlapping the ventral fins; scales small, 123 to 130 in lateral series. 

Description: Adult specimens taken are typical of the species. 

A specimen 33 mm. long has the posterior lateral line scales keeled, forming a 
carangid-like keel along the sides of the caudal peduncle. It possessed a black, 
cutaneous flap at the tip of the lower jaw. Both of these characters are men- 
tioned by Nichols and Breder (Zoologica, IX, Number I) as having appeared 
in a specimen of Sphyraena borealis, 2 % inches total length, from Sandy Hook. 

Meek and Hildebrand (Marine Fishes of Panama, 1923, Part I, p. 288) 
state of picudilla, that “The species is very closely related to Sphyraena borealis 
from which it is probably not distinct. ” and “A larger series must be secured 
before their true relationship can be established. ” 

The presence of the lateral keel in these two young fishes is an additional 
character tending to unite the two species. 

Color: The 33 mm. fish, Number 7194, in its preserved condition, differs 
considerably in color pattern from similar sized specimens of Sphyraena bar- 
racuda. 

The most noticeable character in picudilla is the dark lateral band, which 
in this species is much narrower than in barracuda and extends from the tail 
about half way to the gill-openings. The upper posterior part of the head is 
densely pigmented, and pigment is found in the other parts of the body as 
follows: 7 quadrate patches on the dorsal surface, the three posterior patches 
being duplicated on the ventral surface, the center of each patch less dense; 
upper surface of snout, more densely toward the tip; tip of lower jaw, especially 
the black cutaneous portion; basal part of dorsal spines and posterior part of 
soft dorsal with small black spots; anal fin, small blackish spots more abundant 
on basal half of fin; other fins plain. 

General Range: West Indies south to Bahia. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Obtained now and then near reefs. 

Abundance: Less common than the other two species of the genus. 

Food: Small fish and shrimps. 

Size at Maturity: A female of 335 mm. had ovaries 115 x 10 mm. 

Study Material: Specimens, 5; four of which are medium, 149 to 335 mm., 
No. 6810; one small, 33 mm., No. 7194. 



96 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Family Polynemidae; the Threadfins 
Polynemus Linnaeus 


Seven-fingered Threadfin; Barbudo 

Polynemus virginicus Linnaeus 


References: Polynemus virginicus. Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, 
p. 317. 

Polynemus virginicus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 289. 

Field Characters: Small fishes with small scales, two separated dorsal 
fins and a projecting pig-like snout; seven thread-like filaments arising from 
just in front of the pectoral fin; scales 53 to 61. 

Description: Ontogenetic Characters. 


Specimen Number 

7163 

7006 

6835 

Actual Length, mm. 

23 

35 

113 

Length 

20% 

31% 

100% 

Depth 

17 

30 

100 

Head 

22 

33 

100 

Eye 

24 

36 

100 

Snout 

27 

39 

100 

Average 

22% 

34% 

100% 


Size and Weight: Grows to a foot in length. Our largest specimen was 113 
mm. in length and weighed 28 grams. 

General Range: Florida, West Indies, Panama and possibly from Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found at the surface both by day 
and night. Larger ones around coral. Nine small specimens taken near 
floating sargassum weed in daytime, and 21 small ones at surface light in evening 
from Feb. 27 the April 21. 

Abundance: Not common. Usually seen singly. 

Method of Capture : Taken at surface with hand net. A few seen in market 
taken with other fish in seines. 

Young: Found occasionally among floating Sargassum weed, and taken now 
and then at submerged light in the evening. 

Study Material: Specimens, 34; of which 30 are small, from 23-35 mm.. 
Nos. 6984, 6997, 7006, 7027, 7097c, 7163, 7183, 7192, 7192a, 7195d, and 4, 100- 
113 mm. 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


97 


Family Scombridae; Mackerels 
Scomberomorus Lacepede, 1802 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Pectoral fins scaled; sides with bronzy longitudinal bar and spots. . .regalis 
AA. Pectoral fins naked; sides with bronzy spots only maculatus 


King Mackerel, Painted Mackerel 

Scomberomorus regalis (Bloch) 


References: Scomber regalis , Bloch, 1795, Ichthyol., Plate CCCXXXIII. 

Scomberomorus regalis, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 323. 

Field Characters : Medium-sized, elongate, compressed fishes, with slender 
spines in first dorsal fin; second dorsal and anal fin followed by a series of finlets. 
Pectoral fins scaled. Bluish above, silvery below with a longitudinal golden- 
brown band on middle of sides; spots above and below this. 

Description: All our specimens agree with the descriptions given for species. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 6 feet and 20 pounds weight. 

General Range: Massachusetts to Brazil. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Rather widely distributed over the 
bay. 

Food: A carnivorous species feeding upon anchovies and small snappers. 

Study Material: Specimens, 5; Nos. 6976, 7019, and 7145. 


Spanish Mackerel, Cazard 

Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill) 


References: Scomber maculatus, Mitchill, 1815, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc., 
N. Y., I, p. 426 (New York). 

Scomberomorus maculatus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, 
Marine Fishes of Panama, Part I, p. 324 

Field Characters: Medium-sized, elongate, compressed fishes with slender 
spines in first dorsal fin; second dorsal and anal fins followed by a series of finlets; 
pectoral fins naked; bluish above, silvery below, sides with elliptical bronzy 
spots. 

Description: Our specimens are typical of the species. 

Size and Weight: Grows to a length of V /2 feet and a weight of 10 pounds. 
The largest specimen taken during the expedition measured 745 mm. and 
weighed 9 pounds. A 280 mm. fish weighed 234 grams. 

Coloration: A fish 170 mm. long, had the. anterior half of the spinous 
dorsal, the distal % of the soft dorsal, the caudal and edge of pectoral black; 






98 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

posterior half of spinous dorsal whitish; proximal third of soft dorsal, and all of 
pectoral except edge yellow. 

A 255 mm. fish was recorded as follows: bluish above, silvery below. Mem- 
brane of dorsal spines, tip of 2nd dorsal lobe, and posterior part of pectoral 
fins blackish. Anal fin whitish. Caudal dusky, especially so on anterior rays 
of upper lobe. The spots on the sides of the body are almost invisible and dis- 
appear entirely when the fish became dry. 

General Range: Atlantic coast from Maine to Brazil and West Indies. 
Also on Pacific coast from Cortez Banks to the Galapagos Islands. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Widely distributed in many localities 
in the bay. Seen occasionally while diving over reefs. 

Abundance: A common fish, often seen in the markets, and one of the 
fishes most often brought to our table. An excellent food fish. 

Method of Capture : Seines and hooks and lines. 

Food: The stomach contents of about a third of our specimens contained 
fish, a number of them being identified as Anchovies Anchoviella epsetus and 
Cetengraulis edentulus. The major number of our specimens were taken in 
the early morning hours, from midnight to 3 or 4 o’clock. This may account 
for their empty stomachs, as it is possible that they do not feed at night. 

Parasites: Nematodes and trematodes(D. T. R. 27190) especially the first, 
were taken in the alimentary tract of a number of specimens. Encysted 
worms, were found in the liver (D. T. R. 27189, 27108) and parasitic isopods 
were found on the outer surfaces (D. T. R. 27186). A small fish had the marks 
of some boring parasite just beneath the thin skin. The meanderings ran 
back and forth, across and under the lateral line, like the marks of a bark- 
boring beetle or leaf-mining caterpillar. 

Study Material: Photographs, 3963, 3965; Specimens, 25; 85-730 mm., 
Nos. 6832, 6879, 6975, 7028 and 7096. One hundred or more additional fish 
were examined in the field. 

Family Thunnidae; Tunnies 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Scales present on anterior part of body only, forming a corselet, and along 

the lateral line; palatine teeth wanting. 

B. Spinous and soft dorsal fins close together, the former of 15 to 16 spines. 

Gymnosarda 

BB. Spinous dorsal not close to soft dorsal, the space between equal to about 

% of the length of the head; first dorsal with 9 to 11 spines Auxis 

AA. Body covered with scales, sometimes very small or rudimentary, forming 
a corslelet or not, palatine teeth present. Teeth on jaws small, conical, 
curved inward, body robust, slightly or not at all compressed. 

Parathunnus 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


99 


Gymnosarda Gill, 1862 


Little Tunny 

Gymnosarda alletterata (Rafinesque) 


References: Scomber alletteratus, Rafinesque 1810, Carrateri, etc., p. 46. 

Gymnosarda alletterata, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Maiine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 311. 

Field Characters: Elongate, robust, fusiform, slightly compressed fishes; 
scales present on anterior part of body only, forming a corselet; dorsal fins 
close together, the first of 15 to 16 spines, a series of finlets following the dorsal 
and anal fins. Bluish above, silvery below; sides above lateral line with black, 
oblique lines or spots. 

Description: Our single specimen was typical. 

Size and Weight: A 496 mm. fish weighed 3.75 pounds. 

General Range: A pelagic species known from all warm seas. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Method of Capture: Taken in seines by Greek fishermen. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 496 mm., No. 7053. 



Auxis Cuvier, 1829 



References: Scomber thazard, Lacepede, 1802, Hist. Nat. Poiss., Ill, 9. 

Auxis thazard, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine Fishes of 
Panama, I, p. 313. 

Field Characters: Small to medium, fusiform-shaped fishes; scales present 
on body in the form of a corselet close to the head, and along the lateral line; 
remainder of body naked; spinous and soft dorsal fins widely separated, the 
first with 9 to 11 spines, a series of finlets following the dorsal and anal fins. 

Description : Our single specimen was typical, with the exception that 
it had 11 dorsal spines instead of 9 or 10, — the last one being exceedingly small 
and difficult to find. 

Size and Weight: A 395 mm. fish weighed 2 pounds. 

General Range: Known from all warm seas. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found offshore in the Bay. 

Abundance: Seldom seen in the fish markets. About fifteen observed, — 
the result of one day’s fishing of a Greek fisherman . It is interesting to note that 
this species and the other Bonito-like fishes, Gymnosarda and Parathunnus, are 


100 


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[X;l 


seldom seen in the fish markets where most of the fishing was done by negroes. 
The Greek fishermen, of which there is a small colony in Port-au-Prince, 
specialize in the capture of these fishes, — an interesting carrying over of the 
customs of their homeland. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 395 mm., No. 7052. 

Parathunnus Kishinouye, 1923 


Deep-bodied Tunny 

Parathunnus obesus (Lowe) 


References: Thynnus obesus, Lowe, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, III, 1849, p. 4. 

Field Characters: Large robust fishes with pointed snout and large eye; 
body covered with scales: soft dorsal fin followed by a series of finlets; pectoral 
fin quite long, extending to the end of the spinous dorsal fin, 3.8 in the length; 
teeth, on jaws, small, conical, curved slightly inward. 

Description: Our single specimen is placed under this species with very 
little hesitation. It agrees very well with Lowe’s description, and falls within 
the genus Parathunnus as described by Jordan and Evermann (Occasional 
Papers of the Cal. Acad, of Sciences) although we have not been able to examine 
some of the internal characters mentioned by these authors and Kishinouye. 
As the finlets were not yellow in life and obesus is described from the Atlantic, 
we consider our specimen to be this species, and not sibi as Cunningham (1910) 
mentions. Mr. John T. Nichols has seen our fish and considers that we are 
quite justified in assigning it to this species. 

Size and Weight: Reaches a length of 5 feet. Our 620 mm. fish weighed 
12 pounds. 

General Range: Atlantic, known from Madeira, St. Helena and Haiti. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Food: Carnivorous, the stomach contents mainly shrimps and small fish, 
among the latter, anchovies and small snappers, Rhomboplites aurorubens. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 620 mm., No. 7037. 

Family Trichiuridae; the Cutlass-Fishes 
Trichiurus Linnaeus, 1758 


Cutlass-fish 

Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus 


References: Trichiurus lepturus, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. Ed. X, p. 246. 

Trichiurus lepturus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 328. 




1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 101 

Field Characters: Elongate, compressed, band-like, bright silvery fishes 
with slender tail tapering to a point; no caudal fin; teeth on jaws strong and 
unequal, the lower jaw projecting beyond the upper. No ventral fins. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 34 inches. A 500 mm. fish weighed 79.5 grams. 

General Range: Widely distributed in warm seas. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Often brought into the market by 
fishermen. Not otherwise seen by us. 

Abundance: Uncommon, two or three specimens a week brought into the 
markets. 

Study Material: Specimens, 5; 345-500 mm., No. 6943. 

Family Coryphaenidae; Dolphins 
Coryphaena Linnaeus, 1758 


Dolphin 

Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus 


References: Coryphaena hippurus , Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 
261; (open seas). 

Coryphaena hippurus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 406. 

Field Characters: Large, compressed, elongate, tapering fishes with very 
long high dorsal fin beginning on the nape, entirely of flexible spines or jointless 
rays; brilliantly colored, blues, yellows, and greens. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 6 feet. A 34-lb. specimen is the largest of 
its species to be caught by hook and line. A 325 mm. fish weighed 3.25 pounds 
and one of 645 mm. weighed 5 pounds. 

General Range: Atlantic and Pacific. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Occasionally seen accompanying 
ships in the Gulf. Observed at the market about once a week. It is not valued 
very highly for food. The 3.25 pound fish sold for 40 cents gold and the 5 
pound fish for 30 cents, an apparent contradiction but very likely the result of 
bargaining. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Breeding: In the 645 mm., 5 pound fish, captured on March 23rd, 1927, 
the ovaries measured 175 by 30 mm., and weighed 96 grams. The estimated 
number of eggs was 500,000, about one-third of the mass averaging .85 mm. in 
diameter, while the remainder averaged from .17 to .28 in diameter. 

Food: Vertebral column of a small unidentified fish, 1 Rhomboplites aurorubens , 
and a small piece of sea-weed. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 325-645 mm., No. 694. 



102 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 

Family Stromateidae; the Harvest-Fishes 
Peprilus Cuvier, 1829 


[X; 1 


Harvest-fish 

Peprilus paru (Linnaeus) 


References: Stromateus paru, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 248. 

Peprilus paru, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 411. 

Field Characters: Small, compressed, small scaled, deep, silvery-blue 
fishes without ventral fins. Snout very short and steep, pug-nosed; anterior 
portions of dorsal and anal fins long, falcate. 

Description: Many of the Haitian fish have the anal fin with 38 to 40 rays. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 8.5 inches. A 182 mm. fish weighed 205 grams. 

General Range: Cape Cod to West Indies and Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Not seen by us over the coral reefs, 
but taken by seine fishermen along shore. 

Abundance : Rather common, practically always to be seen in the fish markets. 

Method of Capture: Older fish taken by seine fishermen. Our smaller 
fish were taken with larger numbers of bumpers ( Chloroscombrus chrysurus ) 
under jelly-fish. One 29.2 mm. fish was taken while swimming free at light. 
Whether it had temporarily emerged from its coelenterate host was not as- 
certained. 

Size at Maturity: A seven inch male was in full breeding condition with 
testicles 20 x 5 mm. 

Food: The pharyngeal teeth of this species apparently are sufficiently strong 
to chew up the food to such an extent that by the time it has reached the 
stomach it is almost of the consistency of mucus. Incidently in all of our 
specimens large quantities of mucus was present. In examining the teeth in 
the pharynx we found considerable sand, intermixed with minute crustaceans 
and comminuted vegetable matter. Two specimens contained a single spine 
of a Porcupine fish ( Diodon hystrix), and others contained animal tissue too 
far gone to identify. 

Study Material: Specimens, 24; 22-182 mm., including Nos. 6859, 7182, 
7185 and 7193. 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


103 


Family Nomeidae; Portuguese Man-of-War Fish 


Nomeus Cuvier, 1817 


Portuguese Man-of-War Fish 

Nomeus gronovii (Gmelin) 



References: Gobius gronovii, Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., I, p. 1205. 

Nomeus gronovii, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 408. 

Field Characters: Small, symmetrically shaped fishes with forked tail; 
ventral fins comparatively very large and black; conspicuously marked with 
dark cross bands. 

Note: This fish was seen by us while diving. It was swimming close to 
the surface near a small patch of Sargasso weed. (W. B.). 

Size: Grows to 6 or 8 inches. 

General Range: Tropical parts of the Atlantic and Pacific. 

Family Carangidae; the Cavallas 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Lateral line armed in some part with bony scutes. (Very weak and 

occasionally wanting in Chloroscombrus.) 

B. Dorsal and anal each with a single detached finlet Decapterus 

BB. Dorsal and anal without finlets. 

C. Shoulder girdle with a deep furrow near its juncture with the isthmus and 

with a fleshy projection above it; eye large Selar 

CC. Shoulder girdle normal, not as above; eye of normal size. 

D. Teeth uneven, in one or a few series, persistent; villiform teeth usually 

present on vomer, palatines and tongue, deciduous or wanting in some 

species Caranx 

DD. Teeth, if present, small and even, in a single series, or in villiform bands 
on the jaws. 

E. The back much elevated; the dorsal outline more strongly curved than 

the ventral. 

F. Snout well in advance of the forehead; anterior profile convex; anterior 

rays of the second dorsal and anal filamentous Alectis 

FF. Snout scarcely in advance of forehead; anterior profile nearly vertical; 
soft dorsal and anal low, never falcate, the anterior rays not produced 

in filaments Vomer 

EE. Back little elevated; ventral outline much more strongly curved than the 
dorsal; lateral line with a few very weak bony scutes or none. 

Chloroscombrus 


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Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 


A A. Lateral line entirely unarmed. 

G. Second dorsal and anal fins equal in length, both longer than the abdomen. 

H. Body deep, ovate; premaxillaries protractile; 2nd dorsal and anal fins 

anteriorly elevated, falcate. 

I. Body very closely compressed, the outline everywhere trenchant; pre- 
orbital extremely deep; maxillary broad, with a well developed supple- 
mental bone Selene 

II. Body less closely compressed; abdomen never trenchant; preorbital very 
narrow; maxillary narrow, without a distinct supplemental bone. 

Trachinotus 

HH. Body oblong; premaxillaries not protractile, except in very young; maxil- 
lary narrow, without a supplemental bone; second dorsal and anal 

fins low, never falcate Oligoplites 

GG. Anal fin much shorter than second dorsal, its base shorter than the abdo- 
men; 1st dorsal with 3 or 4 low stiff spines Naucrates 


Decapterus Bleeker, 1851 

Round Scad; Round Robin; Cigar- 
fish; Quia-quia 

Decapterus punctatus (Agassiz) 

References: Caranx punctatus , Agassiz in Spix, Pise. Brazil. 1831, p. 108, 
Plate LVIa, fig. 2. 

Decapterus punctatus , Meek and Hildebrand, Marine Fishes of 
Panama, II, 1925, p. 334. 

Field Characters: Small, elongate, slightly compressed or fusiform fishes 
with minute teeth, long dorsal and anal fins, each followed by a single detached 
finlet. 

Description: The specimens in the collection agree with the descriptions 
published, except that the smaller fish are considerably compressed and by no 
means fusiform. The widths of these specimens are contained about twice in 
the depth. Larger specimens in the American Museum of Natural History 
are almost fusiform. The two smallest individuals also have a larger head, 
it being contained 3.4 and 3.5 in the length. Teeth are present on the tongue 
of the large specimen. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 1 foot. Our 95 mm. fish weighed 15 grams. 

Color: One of the larger fish has 12 small black spots on the anterior portion 
of the lateral line, these being absent on the smaller fish. Jordan and Evermann 
mention these spots in their key to the species of the genus Decapterus but not 
in their description. 

General Range: Known from Cape Cod to Brazil. 

Abundance: This species seems to be rather rare about Port-au-Prince. 
It was seldom seen in the markets. 

Method of Capture: The larger specimens were taken with hook and line, 
while the smaller were scooped up from beneath floating Sargasso weed. 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


105 


Evermann and Marsh in “The Fishes of Porto Rico” mention young about 
2 inches in length taken in a beam trawl at 220 fathoms. Judging from our 
small specimens taken under Sargasso weed by us, this record is questionable. 
As a beam trawl was used, the specimens may have been taken at almost any 
depth and could very likely have come from the surface. 

Some of our other small specimens were taken at light at night. 

Food: The 95 mm. specimen had fed copiously upon planktonic organisms, 
namely small copepods, and numerous zoea and ostracods. The small fish 
contained no food. 

Enemies: A 6 mm. nematode in the alimentary canal of the 95 mm. fish. 
Study Material: Specimens, 6; 33-95 mm., Nos. 7027, 7167, 7195. 


Selar Bleeker, 1851 


Large-eyed Selar Goggle-eyed 
Scad 

Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch) 


References: Scomber crumenophthalmus, Bloch, 1793, Naturg. Ausl. Fische, 
VII, p. 77, Plate CCCXLIII. 

Selar crumenophthalmus, Meek and Hildebrand, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, 1925, p. 335. 

Field Characters: Small, elongate, little compressed carangids, with very 
large eye and well developed adipose eyelids; a deep furrow on the shoulder 
girdle near the isthmus and a fleshy projection above the furrow. Silvery, 
highly iridescent. 

Description: Our specimens are typical in every respect. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 2 feet. Our two specimens are as follows: 



Length 
175 mm. 
178 “ 


Weight 
104 grams 
109 “ 


Color: Highly iridescent. Upper parts sage green shading into lighter 
green with a narrow band of calliste green on the middle of the sides. Lower 
parts opalescent, iridescent silver. Breast in front of the ventrals light rho- 
damine purple shading into blue violet and Venice green. Opercles opalescent, 
blue violet, Venice green and rhodamine purple predominating. Eye opalescent. 
Dorsal fin rays pale green yellow. Caudal pale green yellow edged with black. 
Pectorals, anal and ventral fins pearly white. 

General Range: Known from most tropical seas. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Seen only beneath our schooner 
from 10 to 15 feet beneath the surface, where they came to feed upon worms, 
fish and other creatures that had been attracted to our lights. 

Abundance: Not uncommon at light, but seen nowhere else. Not seen at 
the markets. 


106 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Method of Capture: Taken only by hook and line, the hook being baited 
with small silvery fish. 

Food: Fed entirely upon small fish of various kinds and polychaete worms. 

General Habits: As mentioned above this fish was found only about our 
lights, where they took great delight in preying upon any living organism that 
they could capture. They took a hook readily, and were easily brought to the 
surface when captured. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 175 and 178 mm., No. 7191. 


Caranx Lacepede, 1802 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Gill rakers 13 to 18 exclusive of rudiments, on the lower limb of the first 

arch. 

B. Breast naked, with only a small triangular patch of scales in front of 

the ventrals; a large opercular spot present hippos 

BB. Breast covered with small scales; opercular spot present or wanting. 

C. Second dorsal and anal fins scarcely elevated anteriorly, the fins com- 

pletely covered with minute scales; no opercular spots; lateral scutes 

22 to 35 hartholomaei 

CC. Second dorsal and anal fin moderately or strongly developed anteriorly, 
only the elevated portions of the fins with minute scales; lateral scutes 

35 to 38 latus 

AA. Gill rakers 24 to 32 exclusive of rudiments, on the lower limb of the first 
arch. 

D. Second dorsal and anal fins long, the former with 27 or 28 rays, the latter 

with 23 or 24; lateral scutes 30 to 35; gill rakers 30 to 32 ruber 

DD. Second dorsal and anal shorter, the former with 22 to 25 rays; the latter 
with 19 to 24; lateral scutes 38 to 52; body moderately deep, 2.8 to 3 in 
length; gill rakers 24 or 25 crysos 


Common Jack-fish; Crevalle Toro; 
Horse Crevalle; Cavaliy 

Caranx hippos (Linnaeus) 



References: Scomber hippos , Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat. Ed., XII, p. 494. 

Caranx hippos, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes of 
Panama, II, p. 350. 

Field Characters: Large, robust, compressed fishes, with short, deep head 
and blunt snout and with strong enlarged scutes along the posterior sides; 
breast naked; upper profile very strongly convex, lower slightly curved anter- 
iorly. Bluish green above, sides with a brassy lustre, a large, very distinct 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


107 


black spot on opercle; dorsal and caudal fins dusky; axil of pectoral fin black, 
lower rays of pectoral with a black blotch, indistinct or wanting in the young. 

General Range: Tropical Atlantic and Pacific. 

Abundance: Fairly common. Large specimens are often seen at the market 
places. 

Method of Capture: Taken by us during airplane bombing practice, and 
with hook and line. 

Food : Small fish, consisting mainly of young Lutianus aya and Rhomboplites 
aurorubens. 

Breeding: In a 520 mm. fish, taken on March 11, 1927, the eggs were well- 
developed, and the ovary measured 110 by 60 mm. 

Study Material: Photograph, 3751; Specimen, 1, 520 mm. 



Nat. Poiss., IX, p. 100. 

Caranx bartholamaei, Meek and Hildebrand, Marine Fishes of 
Panama, 1925, II, p. 351. 


Field Characters: Small, rather deep, compressed fishes with weak scutes 
along the posterior sides and with upper and lower profile almost evenly convex, 
the upper slightly more so; head short and blunt. Bluish green above, sides 
silvery, in the young strongly reticulated with gold. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 15 inches. A 65 mm. fish weighed 5.25 
grams. 

Color: All of the smaller specimens observed by us, and especially those 
smaller than 75 mm. were strongly reticulated on the sides with irregularly- 
shaped patches of gold. 

General Range: North Carolina to Panama. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: This species is found all over the 
Bay in quite widely differing situations. It was found on the reefs and inshore 
in shallow water, on or near the bottom in 50 to 60 feet, and also at the surface 
at light at night. 

Abundance: A common species, seen always while diving, and, although 
small and not of much value from a food stand-point, often seen in the market. 

Method of Capture: Seines, dynamite, traps and hook and line; also taken 
at light. 

Study Material: Specimens 15; 52-121 mm., Nos. 6959, 7154 and 7015. 


108 


Zoological N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 



Horse-eye Jack 

Caranx latus Agassiz 


References: Caranx latus , Agassiz, in Spix, Pise. Brazil, 1831, p. 105. 

Caranx latus, Meek and Hildebrand, Marine Fishes of Panama, 
II, 1925, p. 354. 

Field Characters: Elongate, compressed, rather deep fishes with enlarged 
scutes along the posterior part of the sides, and with steeply descending fore- 
head. Lobe of soft dorsal fin blackish, other fins pale, caudal yellowish or 
dusky. 

Description: Most of our specimens have had 36 lateral scutes. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 22 inches. Weights and measurements of 
three of our specimens are as follows: 

Length 
115 mm. 

158 “ 

238 “ 

General Range: Occurring in all tropical seas. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: We have taken this species practically 
everywhere in the Bay, — at the surface, among coral heads on the reefs, and — 
especially the smaller individuals, along shore in shallow water. 

Method of Capture: Seines, hooks and lines, dynamite, and by scoop-nets 
at night at the surface. 

Food: When these fish came to light they usually gorged themselves upon 
the many animals of this fruitful source of sustenance. One small specimen 
that we captured after its sojourn about the light, contained 33 small fish, 
including 2 full grown anchovies, 10 anchovy larvae, 8 leptocephalid eel 
larvae, in addition to 6 trigger-fish {Monacanthus), 2 puffers ( Spheroides tes- 
tudineus ) and 6 Bumpers ( Chloroscombrus chrysurus). This list was duplicated 
with variations in many other fish taken under the same conditions. While 
it may not be significant, none of our specimens contained worms, although 
they were as abundant as the fish under our lights. 

General Habits: When these voracious attendants came about our sub- 
merged lamps they practically always remained from 6 to 15 feet beneath 
the surface, making quick darts up to the vicinity of the lights to capture food. 

Study Material: Specimens, 27; 72-280 mm., Nos. 6851, 7013. 


Weight 
42 grams 
103 “ 

320 “ 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


109 


Blue-striped Cavalla; Carbonero; 

Cibi Mancho 

Caranx ruber (Bloch) 

References: Scomber ruber, Bloch, 1793, Naturg. Ausl. Fische, VII, 75, Plate 
342. 

Caranx ruber, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes of 
Panama, II, p. 357. 

Field Characters: Elongate, compressed fish with long tapering head and 
with enlarged keeled plates along the posterior middle of the sides; upper 
profile evenly convex, lower outline only slightly curved in front of anal. Bluish 
and silvery with a brilliant blue line on sides just beneath the dorsal fin. Lower 
lobe of caudal fin with a black bar. 

Color: Bluish olive, silvery below, scarcely yellowish in life; a stripe of 
brilliant clear blue just below the dorsal fin, which disappears rapidly after 
death. Dorsal yellowish gray, other fins dusky olive. Caudal fin vinaceous 
tawny with a distinct blackish band extending along the lower lobe. 

General Range: West Indies; North Carolina, Bahamas and southward 
to Cozumel. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found generally over reefs and in 
deeper water. 

Abundance: Common, seen in markets in fair numbers practically every 
day. This was by far the commonest species of its genus seen while diving on 
the reefs. Schools of 10 to 20 often swam about the divers, their blue dorsal 
line making them exceptionally conspicuous as it reflected the sunlight from 
above. 

Method of Capture: Taken by hook and line, in seines and by dynamite. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H123; Specimens, 15; 77 to 275 mm., No. 
7016. 


Golden Jack; Hard-tailed Jack; 
Runner, Jurel, Yellow Mackerel, 
Caran 

Caranx crysos (Mitchill) 


References: Scomber crysos, Mitchill, 1815, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc., N. Y., 
I, p. 424. 

Caranx crysos, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes of 
Panama, II, p. 358. 

Field Characters: Elongate, rather slender, compressed short-headed and 
short-snouted fishes with rather strong scutes along the posterior middle sides; 
upper and lower profile evenly convex. Bluish above, silvery below; spinous 




110 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

dorsal and margins of dorsal and caudal dusky; other fins pale; a black opercular 
spot. 

Size and Weight: Grows to one foot. A 95 mm. specimen weighed 16.5 
grams. 

Color: A 95 mm. fish had 8 well-marked vertical cross-bars. It was brassy 
in lustre with yellow dorsal and caudal fins, rather than greenish yellow. A 
dusky opercular and axillary spot present. 

General Range: Cape Cod to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found usually over fairly deep banks. 
Abundance: Uncommon, seen occasionally in the markets. 

Study Material: Specimens, 7; 92 to 324 mm., Nos. 6844 and 7117. 

Chloroscombrus Girard, 1858 


Bumper, Casabe 

Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus) 


References: Scomber chrysurus, Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat. Ed. XII, p. 494. 

Chloroscombrus chrysurus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, 
Marine Fishes of Panama, II, p. 369, Plate XXX. 

Field Characters: Small, very compressed fishes, with convex dorsal and 
ventral outlines, the latter more convex than the former; anal and dorsal fins 
long and low. Silvery, specimens over 30 mm. in length with a black spot on 
the upper side of the caudal peduncle; fins yellowish. 

Description : In a series of 25 specimens the soft rays of the dorsal fin were 
27 in number in 22 individuals, 28 in two and 29 in one, instead of 26 to 27 as given 
by Meek and Hildebrand. The anal fin count in all our specimens was 26 to 
28. The young are deeper than the adults, and in individuals from 13 to 30 
mm. standard length, the depth was from 1.9 to 2. At 35 mm. and over our 
specimens had the described depth assigned to the species of 2.1 to 2.4. A pro- 
cumbent dorsal spine was present in all of our specimens. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 8 inches. Specimens in the Haitian collection 
range from 6.5 to 180 mm. in length. 

Color: “ Bluish gray above, sides silvery; a small opercular spot present; 
a prominent black, quadrate blotch on the upper half of the base of caudal: 
fins yellowish in life; vertical fins edged with black; pectorals and ventrals pale 
in spirits.” (Meek and Hildebrand.) 

The quadrate black spot on the upper side of the caudal peduncle is not 
present in very small fish. In a series of 408 ranging from 6.5 to 60 mm. it 
does not begin to show until the fishes are about 30 mm. in length. When 
the fish approach this length the pigment becomes more concentrated and in 
some individuals the black spot has already taken its intense black adult form. 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 111 

In 10-11 mm. preserved specimens there is a considerable concentration of 
pigment along the bases of the dorsal and anal fins, the pigment spots having 
their longer axes horizontal in those beneath the dorsal. A line of elongated 
horizontal pigment spots present along the posterior half of the body. Upper 
surfaces of the body peppered with minute chromatophores, especially prominent 
above the brain and a few on the posterior half of the body beneath the lateral 
line pointing backward toward the tail. These spots tend to become elongate. 
A few scattered chromatophores on the anal and lower caudal rays. Through 
the transparent skin a number of chromatophores are visible on the peritoneum. 

In a 7.5 mm. fish the coloration is much the same, except that the spots above 
the anal fin are concentrated so that they form a continuous line, and some of 
the pigment spots on the lower posterior part of the sides, follow the direction 
of the myomeres. 

In a 23 mm. fish the spots are more numerous, and they are especially abund- 
ant on the upper part of the sides. The chromatophores along the base of the 
anal and ventral fins are not as noticeable. Chromatophores are visible on the 
dorsal fin, there are very few on the anal, and quite a number on the caudal. 

General Range: Cape Cod to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Generally distributed over the bay, 
and especially along the coast north of Port-au-Prince. 

Abundance: Bumpers are among the most abundant of fishes to be found 
in the vicinity of Port-au-Prince, and they are taken in large numbers by the 
seine and net fishermen. Although a poor food fish, they are commonly seen 
in the market, either whole and fresh in the %iorning, or, later in the day, 
with slashed sides, which have been rubbed with salt and lime as a preservative. 

Method of Capture : Although practically all of our fish and especially the 
larger ones, were taken by seines and drift nets considerable distances from 
shore, all of the small ones (6 to 20 mm.) were captured at night as they came 
to our submerged lights. Three groups were captured in daylight with scoop 
nets placed under jelly fish, 303 specimens from 12.5 to 47 mm. under a Chirop- 
salmus (T. R. S. 27469) on May 10, 1927; 18 fish from 24 to 34.5 mm. from 
under the bell of Tamoya haplonema (T. R. S. 27324) on April 21, 1927, and 
twenty-two of an estimated 400 from beneath the tentacles of a Cyanea about 
3 feet across the disk. In the last mentioned instance the medusa was swimming 
about 4 feet beneath the surface under the poop of our schooner. When the 
jelly broke up during capture, clusters of fish gathered beneath each fragment. 
The fish that we captured and placed in an aquarium lived but a short time. 
In the first case mentioned, the 303 specimens under one bell, — the Bumpers were 
accompanied by a 22 mm. Harvest-fish ( Peprilus paru)\ in the second case 
with several small fish of the same species. 

In the first and second captures a fine meshed net was lowered beneath the 
medusa and the captures can be definitely stated as containing all of the fish 
beneath the jelly, the fish crowding up as close to the coelenterate as they 
could, when they observed the net approaching them. 

Food: This species apparently feeds mostly in daylight, as the examinations 
of the stomachs of dozens of specimens caught during the hours just before 
dawn revealed little or no food. However those that did, had mostly planktonic 


112 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 


forms and our notes lists the following organisms as contributing toward the 
diet of these fishes. Mass of stalk-eyed shrimps; pure culture of crustaceans 
resembling Lucifer; shrimps; many small transparent shrimps, megalops; 
in short a truly planktonic diet, specializing in Crustacea. Two other specimens 
had fish scales in their stomachs, and a daylight captured fish had a polychaete 
worm. 

Enemies: Nematodes were found rather sparsely in the alimentary tract. 
Two fishes had a number of purplish punctures on the sides and especially 
on the caudal peduncle. These, apparently, were the result of contact with 
the spines of purplish sea-urchins. Whether this ever results disastrously 
we do not know. 

Size at Maturity: Specimens 80 mm. long carry well developed gonads, 
and it is possible that they mature at a still earlier stage. 

Spawning Season: Eggs were mature during March and April, but we have 
no evidence of their being laid, or of the duration of the spawning season before 
or after these dates. 

Eggs: Eggs .17 to .34 mm. in diameter observed on March 19. 

General Habits: The habits of the young living beneath medusa have 
already been mentioned. 

Study Material: Photograph, 3878; Specimens, 1500 individuals; 6.5- 
180 mm., including Nos. 6830, under medusa, 6842, 7006, 7024, 7050, 7054, 
7087a, 7183, 7184, 7185, 7192, 7193 under medusa, 7203, 7243, 7250, 7259, 7281 
under medusa. 

Oligoplites Gill, 1863 


Leather Jacket, Kal 

Oligoplites saurus (Bloch and Schneider) 


References: Scomber saurus, Bloch and Schneider, 1801, Syst. Ichth., p. 321. 

Oligoplites saurus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 390, Plate XXXIX. 

Field Characters: Medium, compressed, lanceolate fishes with unarmed 
lateral line, long second dorsal and anal fins, the membranes very deeply cut 
down, so that the depressed fin resembles a series of finlets, similar to those of 
the mackerels. Skin leather like. Bluish above, sides silvery, fins mostly 
yellowish. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 12 inches. Our 233 mm. fish weighed 132 
grams. 

General Range: Both coasts of tropical America, extending north to New 
York and Lower California. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Small specimens fairly common at 
light, the adults seen in the market rarely. 

Abundance: Rather a rare species. 

Method of Capture : Our large specimen was seined. The smaller ones were 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 113 

taken with scoop nets at the surface, both at light at night and during the day 
time. 

Food: Small anchovies found in stomach. 

Study Material: Specimens, 4; 13.5-233 mm., Nos. 6968, 7113, 7163 and 
7243. 


Alectis Rafinesque, 1815 


Threadfish 

Alectis ciliaris (Bloch) 



References: Zeus ciliaris, Bloch, 1787, Naturg. Ausl. Fische, III, p. 36, 
Plate CXCI. 

Alectis ciliaris, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 364. 

Field Characters: Adults: elongate, very strongly compressed fishes with 
outline everywhere trenchant, scales very small; anterior profile convex; 
dorsal and anal filamentous. Young: body strongly ovate; dorsal and anal 
filaments exceedingly long and thread-like. 

Description: The maxillary in our specimen is narrow and barely reaches 
the front of the eye. 

Size: Grows to 22 inches and possibly larger. 

Color: The 2nd, 3rd and 4th dorsal filaments and the 2nd and 3rd anal 
filaments black. All others white. 

General Range: Cosmopolitan in tropical seas. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Our single specimen seined close 
along shore. 

Method of Capture: Our single small specimen was taken in a seine. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H20, No. 6872; Specimen, 1; 118 mm. 
No. 6872. 


114 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


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Vomer Cuvier, 1817 



Vomer setapinnis cubensis Nichols 


Bristle-finned Moonfish 


References: Argyreiosus setipinnis, var. a (In part) Gunther, 1860, Cat. 


Fishes Brit. Mus., II, p. 459. 

Vomer gabonensis (Not of Guichenot), Jordan and Evermann, 
1896, Bull 47, U. S. National Mus., I, p. 934. 

Vomer setapinnis cubensis Nichols, 1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., XXXVIII, p. 672. 


Field Characters: Very much compressed, bright silvery fishes with 
vertical forehead, soft dorsal and anal fins low anteriorly, not falcate. Jaws 
weak, pectorals falcate. 

Description: All of the specimens of this genus in our collection can be 
assigned to this subspecies as it is described by Nichols. Our experience 
parallels that of Evermann and Marsh in Porto Rico, as all of their specimens 
were assigned to “ gabonensis, ” which Nichols has shown to be invalid as a name 
for this fish. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 12 inches. An 88 mm. fish weighed 16 grams. 

General Range: West Indies. 

Method of Capture: Taken with seines at night. 

Food: Several small anchovies and long, eye-stalked shrimps found in the 
stomach of one fish. 

Study Material: Specimens, 21; 59-181 mm., No. 6821. 


Selene Lacepede, 1803 



Look-down 

Selene vomer (Linnaeus) 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 115 

References: Zeus vomer , Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. Ed. X, p. 266. 

Selene vomer, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes of 
Panama, II, p. 372. 

Field Characters: Very deep, exceedingly compressed silvery fishes with 
falcate second dorsal and anal fins. Edges of the body trenchant. Anterior 
line of the head sloping backward. 

General Range: Maine to Uruguay. 

Method of Capture: In seine at night. 

Abundance: Rare. Not seen at the market. 

Study Material: Photographs, 3775, 4000, 4001; Specimen, 1; 123 mm., 
No. 6836. 

Trachinotus Lacepede, 1802 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Body deep ovate, the depth 1.3 to 1.8 in the length, sides without black 

cross bars .falcatus 

AA. Body moderately elongate, depth 1.9 to 2.65 in the length, sides with 
cross bars, except in the very young glaucus 


Round Pampano; Palometa, 
Kareng-a-plime 

Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus) 


References: Labrus falcatus, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 284. 

Trachinotus falcatus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 378, Plate XXXIII. 

Field Characters: Small to medium compressed, rather deep fish without 
enlarged keeled scales on the sides; abdomen rounded, never trenchant; anal 
fin about as long as soft dorsal; pectoral fins not falcate; adults with lobes of 
soft dorsal and anal fins elongate, sometimes reaching to the caudal fin. 

Description: With the exception of one fish, all of our specimens have been 
small. Our fish differs from the photograph (Plate XXXIII) of a 48 mm. 
fish given by Meek and Hildebrand in that the depression over the eyes is not 
so marked. In all the specimens the profile from the nostrils to the dorsal 
fin is almost straight, with a slight convexity on the posterior part. The spines 
on the opercles are considerably more in evidence than they are in the illustra- 
tion mentioned above. In a 13 mm. fish there is a large spine, one-half the 
diameter of the eye, at the lower angle of the preopercle, flanked above and below 
by a smaller one; 3 small spines are present on the lower and 6 on the upper 
limb of the preopercle. A 10.5 mm. fish differs in having 4 spines on the upper 
and 2 on the lower. 

In all of our small specimens the two spines preceding the anal fin are con- 
nected by membrane with the fin. 



116 


Zoologica: N. Y . Zoological Society 


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Size and Weight: Grows to 12 inches and a weight of 3 pounds. Our 
specimens ranged from 10.5 mm. to 180. Our 180 mm. fish weighed 206 grams. 

Color: Great variation exists among the small specimens taken in Haiti, 
and the variations change while the fish is being watched. Some of these 
small fishes instead of being silvery, have parts of the sides a warm brown, 
usually unsymmetrically. Descriptions from life of a 13, 15 and 45 mm. speci-, 
mens are given below: 

13 mm. Entire body thickly covered with small brown spots, so close 
together that the paler ground color is- almost obliterated; the brown color 
absent on the maxillary, premaxillary and on the branchiostegal membranes. 
Top of head brick-red. Membrane of the spinous dorsal and base of the 
anterior membranes of the soft dorsal black, the black on the soft dorsal be- 
coming less as it progresses backward. A few black dots on the dorsal spines. 
Base of the anal, membranes between the anal spines and the anterior membranes 
of the anal fin black. All other fins pale. 

15 mm. Two specimens of this length were recorded as being iridescent 
bronze throughout ; the iris and thickened web about the dorsal and anal spines 
grenadine red; the web between these spines and the basal half of the dorsal 
and anal rays black. 

45 mm. Bluish silvery, with minute blackish punctulations over the entire 
body with the exception of the lower chin, isthmus and just before the ventrals. 
Dorsal membranes dusky. Anal membranes dusky basally, the duskiness 
decreasing posteriorly. Pectorals clear. Tips of the ventrals, the anal spines 
and tip of the anal lobe orange-red. 

General Range: Cape Cod to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Small specimens were not uncommon 
inshore over shallow, weed-covered beaches and about shallow coral reefs. 
Other small fish of 15 to 20 mm. came to light at our ship, which was anchored 
one quarter of a mile offshore in from 40 to 60 feet of water, so that the young 
are very likely surface forms, quite widely distributed. 

Abundance: Uncommon, rarely seen at the markets. 

Method of Capture : Seined near shore, and taken in scoop nets at surface 
near lights at night. 

General Habits: The small specimens captured by us demonstrated the 
most amazing vitality and powers of motion. Two or three that were placed in 
aquariums for observation, kept whirling about at a rapid rate for long periods 
at a time, the one that persisted longest maintaining this whirling for several 
days. We could see no reason for this habit, and the fish were not injured when 
captured. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H59, No. 7018; Specimens, 6; 13-180 mm.; 
Nos. 6906, 7018 and 7120. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


117 


Gaff-topsail ; Pampano ; Palometa 

Trachinotus glaucus (Bloch) 


References: Chaetodon glaucus, Bloch, 1787, Naturg. Ausl. Fische, III, p. 
112, Plate CCX. 

Trachinotus glaucus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 382, Plate XXXVI. 

Field Characters: Medium sized, somewhat elongate, strongly compressed 
fishes with blunt snout and with the profile over the snout very steep. Color, 
variable, bluish black to pale brown above, silvery below; sides with 4 or 5 
cross bars, varying much in width and intensity and wanting in fishes smaller 
than 75 mm. 

Description: Two small specimens of 22 mm. length are assigned to this 
species. The lateral line in both is somewhat straighter than is shown in the 
illustration given of an adult by Meek and Hildebrand. 

-Size and Weight: Grows to 12 inches. 

General Range: Virginia to Argentina. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Our 2 specimens were taken over 
a smooth sandy beach at Source Matelas. We did not take it along the southern 
shore of the Bay. 

Method of Capture: Seining. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 22 mm., No. 7106. 

Naucrates Rafinesque, 1810 


Pilot Fish 

Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus) 


References: Gasterosteus ductor, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 295. 

Naucrates ductor, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 400. 

Field Characters: Small, rather elongate cigar-shaped fishes with small 
mouth; spinous dorsal with 3 to 4 low disconnected spines; young and old 
with 6 vertical cross bands. 

This species is included on the basis of a 5-inch specimen which was seen 
three times while diving at Sand Cay in Port-au-Prince Bay. It was swim- 
ming in the midst of a school of Caranx ruber, came close to me for five 
minutes, and measured from 10 to 16 inches. (W. B.) 




118 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Family Amiidae; the Cardinal Fishes 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Margin of preopercle serrate; ventral fins not reaching to base of anal. 

Amia 

AA. Margin of preopercle not serrate; ventral fins reaching to middle of anal 
fin Apogonichthys 

Amia Gronow, 1763 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Color scarlet, with a black band from posterior portion nf soft dorsal 


to anal fin, and a similar bar on the caudal peduncle binotatus 

AA. Color pinkish iridescent coppery, an oval dark blotch on the caudal 
peduncle. Small pigment spots over entire body .pigmentarius 


Two-spotted Cardinal Fish 

Amia Mnotata Poey 


References: Amia binotata, Poey, 1867, Repertorio, II, p. 234. 

Apogon binotatus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 416. 

Field Characters : Small, compressed, large-mouthed fishes with continuous 
lateral line; large scales; dorsal fins separated; scarlet, with narrow black band 
on sides from posterior dorsal rays to anal fin and another on caudal peduncle. 

Description: A 93 mm. fish from Haiti agrees with the description of similar 
sized specimens from Panama with the following slight differences in propor- 
tional measurements: 



Haiti 

Panama 

Depth 

3.15 

3 

Head 

2.5 

2.58 

Eye 

3.1 

2.9 

Interorbital 

5.3 

5 

Snout 

4.2 

4.6 

Maxillary 

1.8 

1.85 

Pectoral 

1.65 

1.6 

Caudal peduncle 

2.8 

2.75 


A second fish, 53 mm. long, is provisionally identified as this species, although 
differing considerably in a number of details. In color (we possess a drawing 
of the specimen in life) it agrees perfectly with the description of the species. 
It differs in having the maxillary shorter, reaching only to between the center 
of the eye and the posterior margin of the pupil; the lower profile is not angulated 
at the angle of the jaw, but at the ventral fins. In contrast to the larger 
Haitian fish, the dorsal profile is absolutely straight from snout to dorsal fin. 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 119 

Whether these differences can be laid to age is a question, and in the present 
state of our knowledge of the growth stages of these West Indian fishes, it 
seems better to assign this specimen to this species. 

Size and Weight: Grows to less than 4 inches. A 93 mm. fish weighed 25 
grams. 

Color: Scarlet, including the fins, which are especially rich in color. Upper 
surfaces of head and body with dark punctulations. A blackish bar from 
posterior rays of dorsal fin to the anal and a similar bar on the caudal peduncle. 

General Range: Haiti, Cuba, Panama, Curacoa and Venezuela. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken by us on the coral reefs. 

Abundance: Rare. 

Method of Capture: Dynamite. 

Food: The smaller fish had swallowed an enormous shrimp, creamy white, 
variegated and banded with scarlet. Its stomach was extended greatly by this 
prey. 

Breeding: The ovaries in the 53 mm. fish captured April 30 were well devel- 
oped and contained about 200 round white eggs, averaging .25 mm. in diameter. 

Study Material: Colored Plate, H109, No. 7205; Photograph, 4249; 
Specimens, 2; 53-93 mm. including Nos. 7256, 7267. 


Peppered Cardinal Fish 

Ami a pigmentarius (Poey) 


References: Monoprion pigmentarius, Poey, 1860, Memorias, II, p. 123. 

Apogon pigmentarius, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 418. 

Field Characters : Small, compressed, large mouthed fishes with continuous 
lateral line, large scales, dorsal fins separated; coppery colored, with a dark 
peduncular spot, and a dark line from eye downward and backward. Lives 
in sponges. 

Description: 30 Haitian fishes in the collection ranging from 23 to 43 mm. 
are assigned to this species. When compared with the descriptions given by 
Meek and Hildebrand, Jordan and Evermann (except color) and in the key 
to West Indian forms of Amia given by Breder (1927), we are unable to separate 
our specimens from pigmentarius. Poey, in the original description, however, 
nlakes the statement that pigmentarius, is “ rouge carmine dore,” which the 
Haitian specimens never were, either in life or preservative. Jordan and 
Evermann translate this as carmine red, but it is possible that the “dore” of 
Poey, may be the coppery bronze appearance of our fish. Our preserved 
fish agree with the description of similar fish taken by Meek and Huldebrand. 

One pattern, present on our fishes, is not mentioned by anyone, and we have 
not been able to obtain specimens to compare with our fishes. This is a dark 
bar which runs downward and backward from the eye across the opercle. 



120 


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This is present in the majority of our fish, and is vaguely indicated in all but 
the very palest of our specimens. Four of the fish are very pale, lacking all 
pattern but a few scattered pigment cells. 

The present series without exception came from the interiors of tubular 
sponges, and this may be significant in relation to Poey’s statement as to the 
rarity of examples. Our experience in Haiti was that without a diving helmet 
it is practically impossible to capture these fish. 

Because of the difference in color and habitat there is a temptation to describe 
these fishes as new, but it is felt that further knowledge will demonstrate these 
fishes to be pigmentarius. 

Size and Weight: Grows to two inches. A 40 mm. fish weighed 2 grams. 

Color: Iridescent, changing from coppery to silvery, bronze and violet on the 
maxillary, sides of head, opercles, anterior half of the body and on the mid- 
sides to the caudal, the general effect being pinkish gold. The back and 
posterior sides and belly pinkish flesh. The whole head, except the crown is 
thickly speckled with reddish brown, rayed pigment spots. The whole body has 
a scattering of these spots, which can be closed up, leaving a sparse peppering 
of minute black specks. Two distinct pattern spots are always present, an 
elongated upright blotch at the base of the caudal, and a broad dark bar of 
pigment spots, down and back from the eye to the lower edge of the preopercle. 
The fins are pink finely dotted with pink and black, the bases of the vertical 
fins darkly pigmented. Iris dull gold. 

General Range: Cuba, Haiti, St. Eustatius, Curacoa and Panama. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found only in tall, tubular sponges. 

Abundance: Fairly common in their restricted habitat, more than fifty 
percent of the sponges being inhabited by these fish. 

Method of Capture : Diving and stuffing cotton into the efferent ape Tures 
of the sponges, and then sending the sponges to the surface whence the fish were 
removed. Dynamite often killed these fishes while they were in their sponges, 
even though fifteen to twenty feet or more away from the explosion. 

Eggs: About 285 eggs in a 40 mm. fish taken on February 11th measured 
.35 mm. in diameter; there were about 770 eggs altogether in the ovary. In 
a second individual examined there were about 750 eggs, most of them measuring 
about .4 in diameter. 

Enemies: A proportionately large number of these fish are attacked by 
parasitic isopods. On one fish a pair of these crustaceans had been firmly 
attached to the side of a fish in front of the dorsal fin. They were removed 
with difficulty long after the fish’s death, and left a bare area, free of scales, 
eaten into the flesh. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H104; No. 7179; Photographs, 3813, 3856, 
4053; Specimens, 30; 23 to 43 mm., including Nos. 6869, 6911, 6912, 6919, 
6964, 6986, 6989, 7179, and 7180. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


121 


Apogonichthys Bleeker, 1859 


Spot* finned Cardinal Fish 

Apogonichthys stellatus Cope 


References: Apogonichthys stellatus, Cope, 1866, Trans. Amer. Philos. 
Soc., p. 400. 

Apogonichthys stellatus, Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, I, p. 1110. 

Field Characters: Very small, rather deep, large-eyed fishes with separate 
spinous and soft dorsal fins; margin of preopercle smooth; ventral fins long; all 
fins except pectorals and caudals with a dark blotch; body with minute black 
punctulations. 

Description: A single 14.4 mm. fish is believed to belong to this species. 
Color: Dark golden, much like Amia pigmentarius . At death the pigment 
cells contract and are visible only as small points. 

General Range: Bahamas, Haiti and St. Eustatius. 

Abundance: Rare. 

Method of Capture: Seine. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 14.4 mm. No. 7114. 

Family Centropomidae* the Robalos 
Centropomus Lacepede, 1803 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Scales small, 67 to 90 in lateral series from supraclavicle serrae to base 

of caudal; pectorals short, not nearly reaching tips of ventrals, 1.5 to 2.2 
in head. 

B. Gill rakers on lower limb of first arch 13 to 15, exclusive of rudiments. 

pectinatus 

BB. Gill rakers 7 or 8 on lower limb of first gill arch, exclusive of rudiments. 

undecimalis 

AA. Scales larger, 50 to 56 in lateral series from supraclavicle serrae to base of 
caudal, pectorals longer, reaching to or nearly to tips of ventrals. 

ensiferus 


Comb-toothed Snook 

Centropomus pectinatus Poey 




122 


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References: Centropomus pectinatus, Poey, 1860, Memorias, II, p. 121. 

Centropomus pectinatus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 421. 

Field Characters: Medium sized, elongate, compressed fishes with rather 
low head and snout, and prominent, lateral line; second and third anal spines 
of equal length; pectoral fin tips not reaching tips of ventrals; 13 to 15 gill- 
rakers on lower limb of first arch exclusive of rudiments. 

Description: Our specimens agree perfectly with typical descriptions. 

Size and Weight: Seldom grows larger than a foot. Our four specimens 
measure and weigh as follows: 


Length 


Weight 


Number 7236 281 mm. 

“ 6936 272 “ 

“ 7324 272 “ 

“ 7327 236 “ 


327 grams 
325 “ 

320 “ 

202 “ 


Color: The black lateral line is especially conspicuous in our specimens, 
although it is supposed to fade out in larger individuals. 

General Range: Known from both coasts of tropical America, ranging 
in the Atlantic from the West Indies to Bahia, and in the Pacific from Guaymas, 
Mexico to Buenaventura, Colombia. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken by fishermen generally. 

Method of Capture: Mainly by seines. 

Food: The stomach contents of four specimens contained an almost pure 
culture of shrimps and anchovies, the latter group containing specimens of 
Anchoviella sp. and Centengraulis edentulus, up to 90 mm. in length. 

Breeding: Two males and two females taken in February showed practically 
no indication of breeding. 

Study Material: Specimens, 4; 236 to 281 mm. including Nos. 6936, 7236, 
7324 and 7327. 


Common Snook 

Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch) 


References: Sciaena undecimalis, Bloch, 1792, Naturg. Ausl. Fische, VI, 
p. 60, Plate CCCIII. 

Centropomus undecimalis, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, 
Marine Fishes of Panama, II, p. 425. 

Field Characters: Medium to large, elongate, somewhat compressed 
fishes, with long, low head and projecting lower jaw; scales rather small, 67 
to 77 in lateral series to base of tail; gill rakers 7 or 8 on lower limb of first arch. 

Description: Our specimens are typical. The smallest and largest examined 
measured as follows: 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 123 


Number 

6857 

7252 

Length 

83 mm. 

795 mm. 

Depth 

21 “ 

192 “ 

Head 

33 “ 

274 “ 

Eye 

7 “ 

26 “ 

Snout 

9 “ 

19 “ 


Size and Weight: A female measuring 31 inches or 795 mm. weighed 
16 pounds. 

General Range: Florida and the West Indies to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken generally by the fishermen in 
the Bay and seen sparingly in the market. Small ones were taken in brackish 
streams, and several in the land-locked, brackish, sulphurous lagoons inhabited 
by small tarpon at Source Matelas. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Method of Capture: Taken in seines. 

Food: Specimen 6857, length 83 mm., from land-locked tarpon lagoon, had 
eaten 41 water boatmen, Trichocorixa reticulata (Guerin), and a small fish, 
somewhat comminuted, but resembling a small Centropomus. 

Size at Maturity: A female 795 mm. was in full breeding condition. 

Spawning Season: The above individual was taken on May 3rd. 

Eggs: In the 795 mm. female, each ovary is 210 by 45, by 25 mm. high, 
and weighed 206 grams. Conservative count of 200 to each fortieth of a gram 
worked out at 1,648,000 eggs. Average diameter of the round, white eggs .5 mm. 

Study Material: Photographs, 3910, 4253; Specimens, 5; three small ones 
72 to 83 mm., Nos. 6857, 7330, 7331, two large ones, 665 and 795 mm., Nos. 
7129 and 7252. 


Sword-spined Snook 

Centropomus ensiferus Poey 


References : Centropomus ensiferus, Poey, 1860, Memorias, II, p. 122, 
Plate XII, fig. 1. 

Centropomus ensiferus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 433. 

Field Characters: Rather small, elongate, moderately compressed fishes 
with rather long, depressed head; scales rather large, 50 to 56 in lateral line 
to base of tail; second anal spine much enlarged, reaching to or beyond base of 
caudal fin when deflexed. Pectoral fin reaching to or nearly to tip of ventrals. 

Description: All of our specimens are typical. 

Size and Weight: Our largest and smallest specimens; Length 173 mm., 
weight 102 grams; 212 mm., weight 212 grams. 

General Range: West Indies and the Atlantic coast of tropical America, 
from Cuba to Rio de Janeiro. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken generally near shore, and 
also in center of bay. 



124 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 


Abundance: Uncommon. 

Method of Capture: Taken by seines, and on hooks and lines. 

Food: Like the other Snooks, this species also devoured shrimps and anchovies. 
Breeding: In a 260 mm. fish taken on March 3rd, the ovaries measured 
60 x 26 mm. and the eggs were well developed. 

Study Material: Specimens, 5; 173-212 mm., including Nos. 6834, 7057, 
7325, 7328, and 7329. 

Family Epinephilidae; Sea-Bass; Groupers 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Anal fin with 3 spines. 

B. Dorsal fin normally with 9 spines. Caudal fin rounded; dorsal fin rather 

high, with 14 to 17 soft rays; gill rakers rather short, fewer than 18 on 


the lower limb of the first arch. 

C. Dorsal fin IX-15 to 17; anal rays III— 9 Cephalopholis 

CC. Dorsal fin IX-14; anal rays III— 8 Petrometopon 

BB. Dorsal fin normally with 10 or 11 spines. 

D. Anal fin with 11 or 12 soft rays Mycteroperca 

DD. Anal fin shorter, with 7 to 9 soft rays. 


E. Posterior margin of the preopercle serrate, the lower limb entire; no 

antrorse spines. 

F. Scales of the lateral line normal. 

G. Cranium narrow above the interorbital space, deeply concave; occipital 

crest meeting the interorbital region Epinephilus 

GG. Cranium very broad and flat above, the interorbital space little concave; 
the occipital crest disappearing before reaching the interorbital region. 

Garrupa 

FF. Scales of the lateral line with 4 to 6 strong radiating ridges; cranium short, 
extremely broad and depressed between the eyes; anterior profile of the 
head a little concave; dorsal spines low, dorsal fin XI-16. . .Promicrops 
EE. Posterior margin of the preopercle serrate; a single antrorse spine on 


the lower posterior angle Alphestes 

AA. Anal fin without spines; dorsal fin with 2 or 3 spines only Rypticus 


Cephalopholis Bloch and Schneider, 1801 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Subspecies 

A. General color red ruber 

AA. General color brown punctatus 


Red Guativere ; Outalibi 

Cephalopholis fulvus ruber (Bloch and 
Schneider) 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van : The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 125 

References: Gymnocephalus ruber, Bloch and Schneider, 1801, Syst. Ichth., 
p. 346, plate 67. 

Bodianus fulvus ruber, Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, I, p. 1145. 

Field Characters: Scarlet sea-bass; sides and back with small black or 
bluish spots. Two black spots on upper part of caudal peduncle and two 
black spots on the tip of the lower jaw. 

Description: Some of our fish have a slightly smaller eye than has been 
published for the species. 

Size and Weight: Grows to about a foot. Our three examples measure 
and weigh as follows: 

Length Weight 

172 mm. 104 grams 

194 “ 190 “ 

209 “ 250 “ 

Color: Reddish with an orange tone, deepest on the dorsal surfaces and 
especially on the head. Small blue spots, surrounded by a narrow brownish 
line, scattered over the entire surfaces except below and on the tail. In some 
specimens these spots are black, and occasionally they are white. Tips of the 
ventral and anal fins especially brilliant. 

General Range: West Indian fauna; Florida Keys to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Seen rarely on reefs, rather common 
on the banks at the eastern end of Gonave Island. 

Abundance : This is a common species, especially about the banks of Gonave 
Island, as mentioned above. It is often seen in the fish markets of Port-au- 
Prince. 

Method of Capture: Hook and line and traps. 

Food: Most of our specimens contained crustaceans, mostly shrimps. One, 
however, was filled with algae. 

Enemies: In two fish small cysts (?) were found loosely attached to the 
intestine near the anus. They were grape-like in consistency, mainly metallic 
blue and gray in color, the largest measuring 6 by 7 mm. Three of them 
collapsed when removed from the fish. 

Study Material: Colored Plate, H58, No. 6992; Specimens, 3; 172-209 
mm. including 6992. 


Nigger-fish; Negro-fish; Black 
Guativere 

Cephalopholis fulvus punctatus (Linnaeus) 


References: Perea punctatus, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., X, p. 291. 

Bodianus fulvus punctatus, Jordan and Evermann, 1896, 
Fishes of North and Middle America, I, p. 1146. 



126 


Zoological N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X;l 


Field Characters: Brown sea-bass; sides and back with small black or 
bluish spots. Two black spots on upper part of caudal peduncle and two 
black spots on the tip of the lower jaw. 

Size and Weight: Grows to about a foot. Our 177 mm. fish weighed 143 
grams. 

General Range: West Indies. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found on reefs. 

Abundance : As far as we were able to observe this fish is not as common as 
the red variety. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 143 mm., No. 7238. 


Petrometropon Gill, 1865 


Brown Hind ; Petit Negre 

Petrometopon cruentatus coronatus (Cuv- 
ier and Valenciennes) 


References: Serranus coronatus, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828, Hist. Nat. 
Poiss., II, 371. 

Petrometopon cruentatus coronatus, Jordan and Evermann, 
1896, Bull. 47, U. S. National Museum, I, p. 1142. 

. Field Characters: Small, compressed sea-bass with nine dorsal spines and 
rounded tail; brown with very dark, red, round spots on lower part of sides 
and head; a jet black spot on the back just below the base of first soft dorsal 
rays; sometimes with several dark spots on back just below base of dorsal. 

Size and Weight: Grows to about a foot. None of our specimens were 
larger than 166 mm., such a fish weighing 114 grams. A 59 mm. fish weighed 
6 grams. 

General Range : Florida to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found more or less all over the Bay, 
and especially common on the banks just east of Gonave Island. It was by 
far the most abundant species taken at our schooner anchorage, where the 
bottom ranged from 40 to 60 feet beneath the surface. Authors speak of finding 
it among rocks, but we found it most common over mud. 

Abundance: Common, seen every day at the market. Especially abundant 
in the deeper waters away from shore. 

Method of Capture : Taken almost entirely by hook and line, but it is also 
captured in wicker traps. 

Food : One fish caught with a stomatopod in its mouth. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H7, No. 6831; Photograph, 3760; Specimens, 
59; 59 to 166 mm., Nos. 6831 and 7241. 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


127 


Mycteroperca Gill, 1862 


Bonaci Cardinal 

Mycteroperca venenosa apua (Bloch) 


References: Bodianus apua, Bloch, 1790, Naturg. Ausl. Fische, IV, 50, 
Plate CCXXIX. 

Mycteroperca venenosa apua, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, 
Marine Fishes of Panama, II, p. 446. 

Field Characters: Medium-sized sea-bass with long anal fin of 11 rays. 
General color red or scarlet with large blackish spots on upper part of sides, and 
with red spots on a gray background on lower sides. Soft dorsal, anal and 
caudal fins with a black sub terminal band. 

Size and Weight: Grows to to 3 feet. Our specimen measured 406 
mm. and weighed four pounds. 

Color: General color above scarlet, becoming gray on sides of head and 
body and under parts; the red below the soft dorsal somewhat paler than the 
rest. Scales on the upper part of the caudal peduncle with conspicuous, small 
black spots. Sides of the head and chin with small reddish spots becoming 
paler below. Upper parts and sides of body from the beginning of the dorsal 
fin backward with rather large black spots. Lower parts of sides with red 
spots becoming elongate between the ventral and anal fins. Spinous dorsal 
reddish with an orange tone toward the tips of some of the spines and mem- 
branes, the central portion mottled gray and pinkish. Soft dorsal with medium 
sized pinkish spots along the base, pink and white medianly and with a rather 
wide, subterminal black band and a very much narrower terminal white band. 
Caudal fin brilliant scarlet mottled with gray and pinkish yellow and also with 
a wide subterminal black band and a narrow terminal white one. Anal fin 
scarlet with grayish markings, and tipped in the same way as the soft dorsal 
and the caudal. Pectoral fins pinkish at base and yellow on their distal half. 
Ventral fin red with a narrow black edge anteriorly. Eye with an orange pupil 
rim. 

General Range: Florida to Brazil. 

Occurrence and Abundance in Port-au-Prince Bay: Uncommon. 
Only a single specimen seen at the fish market. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H73; Specimen, 1; 406 mm., No. 7078. 

Epinephelus Bloch, 1793 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Second dorsal spine nearly as long as third; posterior spines not noticeably 
reduced in length; caudal fin with straight or concave margin; color 
nearly uniform brownish morio 



Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


128 


[X; 1 


AA. Second dorsal spine noticeably shorter than third; posterior spines more 
or less reduced in length. 

B. Soft dorsal noticeably higher than spines; sides with 5 or 6 dark cross 

bars; no red spots striatus 

BB. Soft dorsal lower than longest spines; soft dorsal, anal and caudal fins 
broadly edged with black guttatus 



Red Grouper; Cherna Americana ; 
Negue coleur rouge 

Epinephelus mono (Cuvier and Val- 
enciennes) 


References: Serranus morio, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828, Hist. Nat. 
Poiss., II, p. 285. 

Epinephelus morio, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 455. 

Field Characters: Large, somewhat compressed sea-bass, with second 
dorsal spine almost as long as third; caudal fin with posterior margin straight 
or slightly concave. Brown with more or less distinct paler blotches; well 
defined dark spots around eye; an indistinct saddle-like blotch on the caudal 
peduncle. 

Description: Some of our specimens have the tail slightly rounded. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 1 to 3 feet. A 265 mm. fish weighs 460 grams. 

Color: Our fishes have been colored as in typical descriptions, but in many 
the saddle-like blotch on the caudal peduncle has been absent, and the pectoral 
fins have been lemon yellow on the basal half, the outer end tipped with orange. 

General Range: Massachusetts to Brazil. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found usually on the banks along 
shore. 

Abundance: Uncommon, but seen occasionally at the markets. 

Method of Capture: Hooks and lines. 

General Habits: The vitality of this fish is quite remarkable and they are 
able to live under poor conditions for a long time. Very often, these fish were 
placed in milk cans containing from 2 to 5 gallons of water with 30 to 50 other 
specimens, mostly dead, and shipped to us by the fishermen. They almost 
invariably arrived alive, thrashing about in the tanks and in full possession 
of their faculties. 

Study Material: Photograph, 4006; Specimens, 7; 145 to 255 mm., 
No. 6904. 



Nassau Grouper, Hamlet, Negue 

Epinephelus striatus (Bloch) 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


129 


References: Anthias striatus, Bloch, 1792, Naturg. Ausl. Fische, VI, p. 
92, Plate CCCXXIV. 

Epinephelus striatus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 460. 

Field Characters: Large, compressed sea-bass with rays of soft dorsal 
somewhat longer than spines and with gently rounded posterior margin of 
tail . Brown above, sometimes gray or green, paler below, a black spot on the 
caudal peduncle; black dots about the eye; a dark stripe from eye to upper 
angle of gill opening. 

Size and Weight: Grows to three feet and to a weight of 50 pounds. 

Color: When excited this fish becomes a dark brown or uniform black; 
in aquarium when it quieted, the pattern returned and soon it was marbled 
in strong contrast of black and white.; before death and afterward it turned 
a uniform pale olive green, with the pectoral fins tinged with orange. 

General Range: North Carolina to Brazil. 

Abundance: Fairly common, seen quite often at the fish market. 

Food: Small fish. 

Study Material: Colored Plate, H8; Photographs, 3978, 4002; Specimens, 
1; 61 mm. 

Red Hind; Cabrilla; Grandgele 
Grand forte 

Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus) 



References: Perea guttata, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 292. 

Epinephelus guttatus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 461. 

Field Characters: Small to medium sized compressed sea-bass, with 3 
broad oblique, obscure olive bands running upward and backward on side; 
spots on body scarlet, darker above; soft dorsal, anal and caudal fins widely 
edged with black; pectoral fins yellow with rows of small scarlet spots. 

Size and Weight: Rarely exceeds 18 inches in length. Our two specimens 
measure and weigh as follows: 

Length Weight 

138 mm. 58 . 5 grams 

235 “ 303 

Color: Our two preserved specimens differ widely in body coloration al- 
though agreeing in all essentials with the published descriptions. In the 
larger specimen the spots are pale, leaving the surrounding darker net work 
of color dominant, while in the smaller fish small dark spots against a lighter 
background are the conspicuous features of the color pattern. Otherwise 
these fish agree in all other phases of coloring. 

The difference in coloration mentioned above caused us to separate these 
two specimens as different species, until we found two Petrometopon cruentatus 


130 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X;l 


coronatus, each of which exhibited this same difference in color, the anterior 
parts of their bodies being light spots on a dark background and the posterior 
dark spots on a light background. 

General Range: Carolinas through the West Indies to Brazil. 

Abundance: Apparently rare as the two specimens purchased in the market 
were the only ones seen during our visit. 

Method of Capture: Taken with hook and line. 

Food : 1 specimen contained unrecognizable animal matter, while the second 
contained a small parrot-fish and shrimps. 

Breeding: A 235 mm. female captured on March 1, 1927 had the ovaries 
well developed. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 138 and 235 mm., No. 6993. 

Garrupa Jordan, 1890 


Black Jewfish; Black Grouper; 
Mero de la Alto 

Garru-pa nigrita (Holbrook) 


References: Serranus nigritus , Holbrook, 1856, Ichthyol. South Carolina, 
Ed. I, p. 173, Plate XXV, fig. 11. 

Garrupa nigrita , Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes of North 
and Middle America, I, p. 1161. 

This species is included on the following evidence. After a dynamite explo- 
sion at Lamentin Reef on May 4, 1927, a large fish took a dead victim at the 
surface. When we dived a few minutes later, we found a huge olive-grav 
grouper at least five feet long, searching for dead fish in the coral. The distal 
parts of its fins were dusky and the eyes dull yellow. The teeth were irregular 
and seemed to be at least an inch in length. The fish showed practically no 
fear of us, and remained from 8 to 10 feet away, advancing and retreating as we 
moved away or toward it, and showing much interest in our operations. 

From the close contact with this fish, and careful observation of its grouper 
characters, color and size, the identification seems beyond question. 

Promicrops Poey, 1868 




Spotted Jew-fish 

Promicrops itaiara (Lichtenstein) 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 131 

References: Serranus itaiara, Lichtenstein, 1821, Abh. Ak. Wiss. Berlin, p. 
278. 

Promicrops itaiara, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 450. 

Field Characters: Very large sea-bass with broad cranium, narrower 
in the young, depressed between the eyes. Scales of the lateral line with 4 to 
6 strong radiating ridges. Brown, sometimes with a greenish shade, 4 or 5 
crossbands on sides; head, body and fins with many black spots. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 8 feet and a weight of 693 pounds. A 122 mm. 
specimen weighed 45 grams. 

General Range: Both coasts of tropical America. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found on rather deep banks. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Method of Capture: Both specimens taken on a hook. 

Food: The stomach of the 367 mm. fish contained the remains of a parrot 
fish, the solidified teeth being quite evident. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 122 and 367 mm., Nos. 6876 and 7050. 

Alphestes Bloch and Schneider, 1801 


Guaseta; Cherna 

Alphestes afer (Bloch) 


References: Epinephelus afer, Bloch, 1793, Ichthyologia, Plate 327. 

Alphestes afer, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 463, Plate XLIII. 

Field Characters : Small, rather large-eyed sea-bass with a forward curved 
spine on the lower angle of the preopercle. Brownish with indistinct darker 
blotches. 

Size and Weight: Grows to a foot or more. Our specimen measured 145 
mm. and weighed 102 grams. 

General Range : West Indies to Brazil. Also found at the Falkland Islands. 

Abundance: This species seems to be rather rare. It was not seen during 
the expedition, and only a single example was purchased or seen at the market. 

Food: The stomach contents of our single fish contained one crustacean and 
a lump of coral mud. 

Study Material: Specimens, 1; 147 mm. 

Rypticus Cuvier, 1829 

Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species of Rypticus 

A. 3 spines on the opercle; brown, the anterior part of the body grayish with 

good sized black spots bornoi new species 

AA. 2 spines on the opercle, plain brown, edges of the vertical fins dusky. 

coriaceus 



132 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


Haitian Soap-fish 

Rypticus bornoi sp. nov. 


[X I 



Type: No. 7206; Length 51 mm.; Lamentin Reef, Port-au-Prince Bay, 
Haiti; dynamited among coral; 27-1' V-l 927. 


Measurements 

and Counts: 



Length 

51 mm. 

Dorsal fin 

11-26 

Head 

20 (2.5) 

Anal fin 

15 

Depth 

14 (3.6) 

Pectoral rays 

13 

Eye 

5.1 (3.9) 

Pectoral length 

11 (1.8) 

Snout 

4.6 (4.3; 1.1) 

Ventral length 

5.5 

Maxillary 

8.1 (2.4) 

Ocular angle 

30° up 

Interorbital 

1.6 (3.2) 

Mouth angle 

50° down 

Weight 

2.5 grams 

Scale count 

92 

Lateral line pores 

70 


Description: 

Body: Rather elongate. 

Back: Slightly elevated. 

Anterior profile: Convex. 

Mucous pores: Abundant on head. 

Interorbital: Flat, 3.2 in eye. 

Snout: Short, strongly convex in front of eye. 

Eye: Large, directed obliquely upward. 

Mouth: Medium, oblique. 

Lower jaw: Projecting. 

Maxillary: Reaches between pupil and posterior edge of eyeball. 

Gill-rakers; 9, Slender, graduated from lower rudiment to uppermost, which 
is 2 mm. long. 

Teeth: Sharp, recurved; in each jaw forming a wide patch of several rows 
near the symphyses, narrowing to two rows along the side of the jaws; round 
patch on vomer, thin line along palatines. 

Tongue: Free, very long and slender, parallel-sided. 

Preopercular margin: 3 spines, far apart, upper small, others subequal. 
Opercular margin: 3 spines, upper smallest, middle largest. 

Dorsal fins: Close together but not united. 1 
Dorsal spines: Subequal. 

Pectorals: Twice length of ventrals. 

Ventrals: Small, slightly larger than eye. 

ir The gap between soft dorsal and spinous is somewhat less marked than is shown in the 
figure. 


1928| Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 133 

Color: General color wood brown, the body uniformly immaculate, except 
for three large round spots of darker olive brown just behind the pectorals, 
two above them, and three more close in front. The body color is continued 
over the head to the snout, and extends down over the upper third of the 
opercles. The remainder of the head is greyish white, the branchiostegals 
immaculate. A few large, round, olive brown spots on head as follows: 2 on 
lower operculum, 3 on preoperculum, 2 on maxillary, 5 on premaxillary, and 
5 on each side of the rim of the lower mandible. Iris golden, with the outer 
rim sepia. The spots on each side of the head are slightly unsymmetrical in 
number and placing. 

Study Material: Type specimen, Color Plate H107. 

Comparison: This species approaches nearest to arenatus , but differs radically 
in pattern, in possessing two dorsal spines, in the larger head and eye, the 
concentration of teeth at the symphyses, in the longer, much narrower tongue, 
in the longer ventrals, in three opercular spines, and in the upper opercular 
spine being the smallest. 

Type Name and Location: The name is given in honor of President Borno 
of Haiti, who did everything to further our work. The type and only specimen 
is deposited in the collection of the Department of Tropical Research of the 
New York Zoological Society. 


Soap-fish 

Bypticus coriaceus (Cope) 


References: Eleutheradis coriaceus , Cope, 1870, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., 
p. 467. 

Rypticus coriaceus, Jordan and Evermann, 1895, Bull. U. S. 
National Museum 47, I, p. 1233. 

Field Characters: Small, compressed fish with pointed head and rounded 
tail; dorsal fin with 3 spines, no spines in anal fin. Brown with paler spots, 
tips of fins dark. 

Description : All of our large soap fishes agree in possessing the weak arma- 
ture and other characters of this species as contrasted with those of saponaceus. 

Size and Weight: A 129 mm. fish weighed 47 grams. 

General Range: West Indies. 

Abundance: Fairly common, occasionally seen in the market, but not an 
especially good food fish. 

Food: All fishes of this species examined had been feeding upon shrimps. 

Study Material: Photograph, 3774; Specimens, 8; 112-120 mm., including 
No. 6806. 

Family Serranidae; Sea-Bass 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Ventral fins inserted a little behind the pectorals. 

B. Dorsal fin normally with 9 spines. Caudal fin deeply forked. 19 or 20 

soft rays in the dorsal fin. Gill rakers long and slender, about 25 on 
the lower limb of the first arch Paranthias 



134 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

BB. Dorsally fin normally with 10 or 11 spines, anal fin with 7 to 9 soft rays; 

jaws without enlarged depressible teeth Hypopledrus 

AA. Ventral fins inserted below or a little in advance of the base of the pectoral 
fins. Dorsal fin with 7 to 10 spines. 

C. With 7 branchiostegal rays Prionodes 

CC. With 6 branchiostegal rays, and truncate caudal fin Eudulus 


Paranthias Guichenot, 1868 


Creole Fish; Rabirubia de la Alto 

Paranthias furcijer (Cuvier and Valencien- 
nes) 



References: Serranus furcifer, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828, Hist. Nat. 
Poiss., II, p. 196. 

Paranthias furcifer, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 436. 

Field Characters: Small, short-headed, short-snouted seabass with long, 
deeply forked tail and low dorsal fin with 9 spines and 19 to 20 rays. Bright 
red or salmon color, with small violet spots, 1 on side of the back and 1 or 2 
on the sides of the tail. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 10 inches. A 164 mm. fish weighed 96 grams. 

Color: Our fish agreed with the following description given by Jordan and 
Evermann (Bull. 47, U. S. National Museum, p. 1222). ‘ ‘Color bright red or 

salmon color, with 3 small violet spots, 1 on side of back and 1 or 2 on side of 
tail; a bar of similar color extending from upper corner of pectoral across the 
humeral process; sides with faint oblique streaks along the rows of scales; 
dorsal fin with a longitudinal blackish streak” with the following exceptions: — 
in a number of fish the small violet spots on the tail and body were practically 
obsolete; under surfaces of head and body pale pinkish. Center of spinous 
dorsal dark greenish yellow; center of soft dorsal yellowish and dusky. 

General Range: Both coasts of tropical America from Cuba to Brazil and 
from Cape San Lucas to Peru. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken by us only over the deeper 
coral reefs. 

Abundance: Rather uncommon, observed occasionally in the fish markets. 

Method of Capture: As far as known all our specimens were taken on a 
hook and line on fairly deep banks. 

Food: The stomach contents of one fish were recorded as masses of small 
shrimps and other Crustacea, mainly plankton. 

Breeding: A 170 mm. female on March 11, had moderately developed 
ovaries. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 167-170 mm., including No. 7034. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 135 

Hypoplectrus Gill, 1862 


Vaca; Petit Negre 

Ilypoplectrus unicolor (Walbaum) 


References: Perea unicolor , Walbaum, 1792, Artedi Piscium, Part III, p. 
352. 

Ilypoplectrus unicolor, Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, I, p. 1190. (plus forms listed 
on following pages.) 

Field Characters : Small, rather deep, compressed sea-bass without depres- 
sible inner teeth; with short, tapering head and slightly emarginate caudal fin. 
Color extremely variable, the commonest varieties with six vertical dark 
bands on side, the one below the spinous dorsal widest; head and body spotted 
and lined with blue. Other varieties are with or without pattern of various 
colors, sometimes plain or with black and other colored blotches on snout or 
caudal peduncle. 

Description: Although differing widely in appearance, our series of 109 
specimens agree in all essentials with the description given in Jordan and 
Evermann. However, in measuring a series of different color forms, the follow- 
ing range of variations in proportions were found: 


Depth in Body 

2 

to 

2.25 

Head in Body 

2.6 

it 

2.8 

Eye in Head 

3.45 

6( 

4 

Snout in Head 

2.8 

(( 

3.4 

Maxillary in Head 

1.8 

(C 

2.06 


Size and Weight: Grows to 12 inches. In Haiti specimens over 5 inches 
were very rare. 

Color : The unraveling of the many color phases of this fish is a tremendous 
problem, and to write a color description that would fit all the specimens 
observed by us in life or preserved in our collection is almost impossible. Never- 
theless, widely differing though these patterns and colors are, the extreme 
forms can be linked to each other in one way or another, and if sufficient speci- 
mens were at hand there is little doubt that the gaps in a series such as ours 
could be filled, and that all the variations would be connected by intermediates. 

The seven extreme forms in the Haitian collection are described herewith: 

Form A . — ( = Hypoplectrus puella Cuvier and Val.) Spec. 6866 — Port-au- 
Prince Bay, Feb. 5, 1927. 

General color of head and body olive buff, paler below, body and head crossed 
by six dark vertical bands, the third widest and almost black. These bands 
are distributed as follows: 



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[X; 1 


1. From eye through center of preopercle. 

2. From nape through base of pectoral fin to just in back of the base of the 
ventrals. Broad above, narrower on sides. 

3. From spinous dorsal to anus and anterior end of anal. This is very 
broad and becomes slightly narrower on the belly. 

4. A narrow weak band from the middle of the soft dorsal to the middle of 
the anal fin. 

5. A slightly stronger band from the end of the soft dorsal downward. 

6. A well marked band on caudal peduncle. 

The following narrow blue lines and small spots are also found: — 

1. A lavender blue line beginning beneath the eye posteriorly, running back 
and completely around it and then to the lower edge of the preopercle. 

2. Four vertical blue lines on the opercle, the first short, the second beginning 
back of the upper level of the eye, running across the opercle and connecting 
with the blue anterior edge of the ventral fins; the third back of the second 
and ending at the edge of the opercle, and the fourth beginning at the spines 
on the opercle, crossing the edge of the branchiostegal membrane and ending 
in front of and at the lower insertion of the pectoral. 

3. Faint lavender blue vertical bands on the sides, paler and often not visible 
in the dark bands. 

4. Seven blue spots on each side of the snout. 

5. One blue spot on front of lower lip. 

6. Four round blue spots on top of snout. 

7. Two short lines of blue spots on top of the head. 

Spinous dorsal dark on the basal fourth continuing the wide dark band below 
it, dark yellow above with narrow blue edge. Soft dorsal with many irregular 
oblique bands and lines of pale blue and lemon yellow. Caudal fin pale yellow- 
ish green. Pectorals hyaline. Ventral fins dark green with narrow blue anterior 
edge. 

Pupil pear-shaped. Iris dull golden yellow, with a small bright gold streak 
above and below pupil; a broad band of lavender blue across the upper iris. 

The immediate variations upon this ground color and pattern are numerous, 
and no one of the specimens assigned to puella is quite like any other. However, 
they all agree in possessing the dark vertical bands and bluish stripes, in most 
cases possessing all the above mentioned lines or at least the great majority 
of them. The most important variations in this type are concerned with the 
general body color. This varies considerably but with no correllation to the 
pattern. Thus in one fish the general color was quite brownish, while the 
central broad vertical band was bright blue, this color being continued to the 
tips of the dorsal fin. In another the anterior half of the body was bluish 
lavender and the posterior part a lilac gray. 

Cuvier and Valencienne’s colored plate (Hist. Nat. Poiss., II, pi. 37) repre- 
senting a fish of this variety is fairly typical. It differs in that the membrane 
of the spinous dorsal is pinkish with blue spots; the blue vertical lines along the 
sides are absent; two short oblique bands are present on the upper parts of 
the sides just anterior to the large vertical dark bar. These characters, especi- 


1928J Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 137 

ally the first and the last have not been observed in the Haitian fishes, but very 
likely ought to be considered as other patterns belonging to this variety. 

Poey’s uncolored plate (Memorias, Vol. I, PI. 9, fig. 2) also shows a form 
like ours, differing in that the pale vertical blue lines on the sides are much 
stronger, and the blue line on the head does not start immediately below the eye 
but is a continuation of a line which comes up abruptly from below. This 
can be considered as a variation in which the blue lines are especially brilliant 
and well marked. 

Form B. — Dark bluish purple or purplish blue; all fins, except the hyaline 
pectorals, black. Dark broad vertical bands of puella are retained, those on 
the head merged with each other so that the head is completely black. All 
of the narrow blue lines and spots of puella are absent. 

Form C. — Dark brown, more or less unicolor, with dark fins. Bluish line 
about eye present. 

Form D. — Brown above with brown dorsal fin; pectorals dusky; orange 
yellow beneath with orange-yellow pelvic, anal and caudal fins. Oblique 
cross bars of dull orange on dorsal fin. The blue line partly surrounding eye 
present, pale lilac in one specimen instead of blue. 

Form E. — Brilliant yellow, with traces of oblique bluish bands on soft dorsal 
fin. A black spot on caudal peduncle and one on each side of snout. 

Form F. — Same coloration as E., but lacking the spot on the snout. 

Form G. — Orange with remnants of the blue line that partly surrounds the 
eye and descends to the opercle. An irregularly-shaped black spot on snout 
surrounded by bluish lines and dots. The variations in the form of this spot and 
the surrounding lines is very great, and two sides of the same fish only remotely 
resemble each other. 

This fish is close to Poey’s gummigutta. 

It will be noticed that the color form A ( puella ) has been described in consider- 
able detail, more so than any of the others. This has been done because the 
patterns of this fish seem to be the basic ones within the species and after 
studying the materials the suggestion can be made that all of the many varieties 
in the Haitian collection have arisen by the suppression or obliteration of 
parts or of all this pattern, usually by means of or accompanied by a changed 
or intensified body color, the great majority of specimens retaining at least 
a remnant to prove their relationship. 

It may also be significant that this form (puella) is by far the most abundant 
of all the varieties taken in Haiti. It must be remembered however that the 
specimens grouped under Form A. vary tremendously within themselves, the 
character holding them together being the possession of the majority of pattern 
elements. 

At first glance the variation among the Vacas seems to be a radial one, but 
closer study seems to indicate that a three dimensional variation would be a 
better way to describe it — with typical form A placed at the center of a sphere 
and the different forms at varying intervals toward and at the surface. 

The tendency of this species to vary in color was first noticed in systematic 
ichthyology, by the describing of some 15 species. 


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Jordan and Evermann in 1896, (Fishes of N. and M. America I, p. 1190) say 
of these many nominal species; “We have examined large numbers of specimens 
of this type in the Museum at Cambridge and elsewhere. The best series 
seen is that sent from Havana by Poey to the Museum at Cambridge. So 
far as we can discover, the various nominal species of this type are absolutely 
identical in all respects except in color. Many of them — e. g. puella, indigo , 
colorurus, — seen at first sight to be certainly different. Nevertheless, each 
of these forms is subject to wide variations, and from the material which we 
have seen, we can draw no other conclusion than this: All belong to a single 
species, which varies excessively in its coloration. Blue, yellow and black 
are arranged in a great variety of patterns, in different specimens, and the cause 
of such variation is still unknown ... ” 

Breder, 1927, has resurrected one of these forms, nigricans, differing in color 
from puella, in possessing 10 scales from the dorsal to the lateral line instead 
of 11 to 12 and a few other characters. He suggests that there are possibly 
two variable species in the West Indian fauna. 

Specimens similar to Breders nigricans are not present in the Haitian collec- 
tion, so his suggestion is quite possibly right. 

The problems offered by the fishes of this genus, must, because of the changes 
after preservation, be solved in the field, where specimens can be watched in 
life, and where their breeding habits can be observed. The rearing of a single 
batch of eggs would solve many of our problems, and this would not be exception- 
ally difficult in their native surroundings as the fishes live quite well in captivity. 
Such a procedure would answer questions as to whether dark purple forms 
spring directly from puella types or not or whether the variations can be laid 
to age, habitat, temperature or other conditions. It is of interest in this 
light, to note that the larger dark fishes of Form B. and the orange fish of Form 
G. came from much deeper water than the others; all of the other fishes having 
been taken in shallow water along shore and on the reefs down to 30 or 40 feet. 

Although the variation in color in the species is tremendous, there is but little 
change in the individual fishes. Certainly color changes such as individual 
Pomacentrids demonstrate were never observed in Hypoplectrus. 

Interesting problems and questions as to the correlations of colors constantly 
intrude as the specimens are looked over, — the problem of why the line about 
the eye in some brown and yellow fish should be changed to lilac instead of 
blue, as in most of the other fish, being but one indication of the many fascinating 
aspects of the coloration of these fish. 

One other problem can be mentioned here. In some of the fishes intermediate 
between puella and the extreme forms the intensity of the dark bar under the 
eye seems to directly control the presence or absence of the light blue bands in 
front of and behind it. It almost seems as if the fish had a limited amount of 
pigment and that when the amount taken by the dark bars increased beyond 
a certain limit it was necessary to take pigment from the blue line, thus making 
a direct balance between the amounts of blue and black pigments. 

This suggestion also applies to the forms with black spots on caudal peduncle 
and snouts. In these fishes the complicated body pattern of puella is reduced, 
usually only the lines on the dorsal being present. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


139 


The above paragraphs can do little more than indicate the vast field offered 
to the student of color and variation by this species. Unfortunately, the 
lack of time on the Haitian expedition precluded doing more with these fish. 

(J.T-V.) 

General Range: Florida, West Indies, Grenada, Panama. 

Occurrence and Abundance in Port-au-Prince Bay: One of the most 
abundant of Haitian Fishes, being found practically everywhere along shore and 
on the various reefs. It is especially abundant near the Thalassia covered 
bottoms on the shallower, slowly shelving beaches. 

Method of Capture: Taken by seining weed-covered shore zones, traps 
and by dynamiting. 

Food: Crustaceans, fishes.- 

Proportions of Sexes: All of the extreme types of coloration with the 
exception of one of the indigo forms were females. The central color form seems 
to average a few more females than males. 

General Habits: This species seems to be found everywhere along shore 
where the bottom is sufficiently diversified to enable it to hide. They were 
often observed hiding among the leaves of the weed Thalassia, not only in 
the shallows in water two to four feet deep, but also farther out in depths of 
fifteen to twenty feet. However, it must be noticed that only the puella and 
the solid yellow forms were found here. The orange and indigo forms were 
taken from deeper water. 

Although this fish likes to hide under weed, it is far from shy. When we 
were diving on the coral reefs, they were most inquisitive and often came very 
close. 

Study Material: Colored Plates, H10, 17, 47, 93, No. 7161; Photographs, 
3732, 3772; Specimens, 109; 42-113 mm., including Nos. 6866, 6867, 7280, 
7161, 6945, 7135. 

Prionodes Jenyns, 1842 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Sides yellow, body conspicuously marked with cross-bands, bars and 

spots of black tigrinus 

AA. Reddish brown, with 5 or 6 yellowish white blotches on upper surfaces; 
a brown bar on each lobe of the caudal fin tabacarius 


Harlequin Serranid 

Prionodes tigrinus (Bloch) 


References: Holocentrus tigrinus, Bloch, 1790, Ichthyologia, PI. 237, after 
Seba, Thesaurus, III, plate XXVII, fig. 5. 

Prionodes tigrinus, Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Bull. U. S. 
National Museum, 47, I, p. 1214. 




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Field Characters: Small, compressed sea-basses with pointed head and 
lunate caudal fin. Sides yellow, the entire body and fins very conspicuously 
spotted, barred and marked with black. 

Description: Some of our specimens differ in having the dorsal fin X-12. 

Size and Weight: A 73 mm. fish weighed 7.5 grams. 

Color: Our specimens agree with the description in Jordan and Evermann 
(1. c.) in most particulars, the differences being that the anal was not plain in our 
specimens, and that a certain amount of regularity exists in the pattern of the 
black. The following description is taken from a typical example from the 
Haitian reefs: 

Length 72 mm. Upper surfaces of head and body anterior to the dorsal 
fin, grayish brown. Remaining body color yellowish to grayish white, more 
yellowish beneath. A wide yellow band from maxillary and mandible under 
the eye to end of opercle, continued more or less in the coloration of the sides to 
the caudal fin. Upper part of head spotted with subcircular spots of black. A 
series of black spots from the upper part of the eye, along the top of the head, 
continued on the sides as smaller spots, and ceasing somewhere under the center 
of the soft dorsal. A band of black from the snout through the eye, continued 
across the opercles and thence, as a paler series of spots, to the caudal. Under 
surfaces of head with large irregular black spots, two especially large ones on the 
posterior part of the preopercle and on the opercle, followed by one on the 
anterior base of the pectoral fin, — this line continued as a vague series of dots 
to the caudal. A large irregular black spot beneath the pectoral continued 
under the belly to meet its fellow. Sides with six black bands, each one meeting 
its fellow of the opposite side beneath, blackest inferiorly. These bands are 
displaced somewhat forward above the lateral line, so that in the case of the 
anterior bands, the portion above the lateral line is almost between the bar to 
which it belongs and the bar just anterior to it. These bars are placed as 
follows: — one beneath the anterior end of the spinous dorsal, 2 others beneath 
the spinous dorsal, 2 beneath the soft dorsal and one at the base of the caudal fin. 
Dorsal fin yellowish white, — a series of pale blackish spots along the base of 
the posterior % of spinous dorsal and the first few rays of the soft dorsal. 
A large black spot on the membrane between the 3rd and 5th spines followed by 
a row of smaller spots about % the way up the fin. Membranes following the 
5th to 9th spines with a black spot at the tip followed by a yellow spot. A 
narrow band of yellow along the outer border of the soft dorsal, the remainder 
of the fin with blackish spots, largest anteriorly. Pectorals salmon color. 
Ventrals yellowish. Anal milky white basally, yellow distally, with small 
black spots on the distal portion. Caudal spotted with black, forming 3 or 
4 more or less regular vertical bands. Tips of the caudal lobes yellowish 
orange. 

The variation in pattern in this species, however, is quite large and spots 
in some specimens are found forming lines in others, or the opposite may be 
true and lines can easily be transformed into a group of spots. 

General Range: West Indies. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: The only place that we have seen 
this fish is on the coral reefs, both inshore and out in the center of Port-au- 
Prince Bay. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


141 


Method of Capture: Traps and hooks and lines seemed to be of no value 
whatsoever in catching these fish, and our only successful method was by 
employing dynamite. 

Food: Most of our fish had fed upon shrimps and other small crustaceans. 

Eggs and Breeding: A 72 mm. fish carried roe in a fairly advanced state, 
the diameter of the largest eggs averaging .41 mm. 

General Habits: This fish was observed for many days on the reefs before 
we could capture one. They usually kept close to the ground or to the larger 
coral lumps, sometimes waving in and out among the sponges and gorgonians. 
In movement they slightly resemble the elongate wrasses. 

Metzelaar mentions taking it in sponges, but we have seen no indications 
of the Haitian specimens possessing this interesting habit. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H100, No. 7171; Photograph, 4166; Speci- 
mens, 2; 72 mm., No. 7171. 

Jacome; Tobacco-fish; Bout-de- 
tabac 

Frionodes tabacarius (Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes) 



References: Centropristes tabacarius, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829, 
Hist. Nat. Poiss., Ill, p. 44. 

Prionodes tabacarius, Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, I, p. 1215. 

Field Characters: Small, compressed, large-eyed, sea-bass. Reddish- 
brown, with 5 or 6 yellowish white blotches on upper surfaces; a brown stripe 
on each lobe of the caudal fin. 

Description: Our specimens agree fully with the description given by 
Boulenger, 1 but not so well with Jordan and Evermann (Bull. 47, U. S. Nat. 
Mus.). The latter give the depth as 3.75 while Boulenger states it as 334 to 
334 in the total length, which happens to be the case in our fishes. In addition 
the eye is given as 3.25 in Jordan and Evermann, and 3.5 to 3.66 by Boulenger. 
Our fish average from 3.45 to 3.7. 

Size and Weight: The following are the sizes and weights of our fish: 


Length 
107.5 mm. 
107.5 “ 
105 


Weight 
29 grams 
34 

26.4 “ 


General Range: West Indies. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found occasionally along shore in 
fairly shallow water and also seen while diving on the reefs along shore. It is 
also taken in deeper water by the fishermen, and can practically always be 
found in the market, although never more than five or six a day. 

Abundance: Fairly common. 

Method of Capture : Taken by hook and line, in traps and by dynamiting^ 


J Cat. Fish Brit. Museum, 2nd ser., I, p. 291. 


142 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Food: An engraulid, too far gone to identify was found in the stomach of 
one individual. 

Breeding: A 107 mm. fish had its ovaries quite well developed, the entire 
organ measuring 20 mm. long by 3.5 mm. in diameter. 

Study Materials: Specimens, 3; 105 to 107.5 mm., Nos. 6954 and 7111. 

Eudulus Fowler, 1907 


Mottled Sea-basslet 

Eudulus dispilurus (Gunther) 


References: Centropristes dispilurus , Gunther, 1867, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, p. 99. 

Dules dispilurus , Jordan and Evermann, 1896, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, I, p. 1219. 

Field Characters : Small, somewhat compressed sea-bass with six branchio- 
stegal rays and truncate tail; a conspicuous, rather sharply defined creamy 
white bar extending upward on each side from just before the vent; two small 
black spots at the base of the tail. 

Description: The following variations in measurements were found in our 
fish; depth 2.72 to 3; head 2.6 to 2.78. All have the dorsal fin X-12. 

Color: Our specimens agreed in life with the description given by Jordan 
and Evermann, and especially with the somewhat better description given by 
Evermann and Marsh in the “Fishes of Porto Rico.” Some were especially 
brilliant in life, the mottlings on the anal, caudal and soft dorsal fins being 
quite scarlet; the lower surfaces of the cheeks and face were also spotted with 
red. The brown line from the shoulder through the eye was especially well 
marked in our fish. In some specimens the base of the dorsal fin, both spinous 
and soft, was quite greenish. 

While there has been a considerable amount of discussion and changes in the 
validity of the three West Indian species of this genus, we are unable to add 
anything to it. In coloration our fishes are certainly nothing like the plate 
given by Fowler of Dules subligarius or of Cuvier and Valenciennes’ plate in 
“Hist. Nat. Poiss.,” of Dules auriga. In Jordan and Evermann’s key our speci- 
mens run straight to dispilurus, and agree especially well with the somewhat 
complicated color description of that species. As our 49 mm. specimens carry 
eggs of quite good size, it is possible that this species is quite valid. 

Size and Weight: This species apparently never grows to a large size. 
Evermann and Marsh report a 2% inch fish. None of our specimens were 
longer than 60 mm. A 58 mm. specimen weighed 5.5 grams. 

General Range: Trinidad, St. Eustatius, Jamaica, Haiti and Porto Rico. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: This fish lived mostly inshore, 
over weed covered shallow banks, in company with small snappers, and in 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 143 

localities that we called “Nurseries.” They were especially common about 
the fronds of a weed Thalassia, and could be usually seen with a water-glass 
winding in and out among the leaves. 

Abundance: Fairly common, Usually 3 or 4 could be taken in each haul 
over the shallow inshore weedy banks when using a small seine. Evermann 
and Marsh found this species at Porto Rico in 7 fathoms, and also one nine 
miles from Mayaguez in 220 fathoms on rocky bottom. 

Eggs: A 49 mm. fish had the ovaries quite well developed, the largest eggs 
averaging .35 to .4 mm. 

Study Material: Colored Plate, H70; Specimens, 7 ; 28.5-50 mm., including 
No. 6902. 

Family Pseudochromidae. 

Gramma Poey, 1868. 


Purple and Gold Fairy Bass 

Gramma hemichrysos Mowbray 


References: Gramma hemichrysos, Mowbray, 1927, in C. M. Breder, Bull. 

Bingham Oceanographic Coll., Vol. 1, Art. 1, p. 42, figure 2. 

Field Characters: Small, compressed, sea-bass-like fishes, with lateral 
line running concurrently with the back and ending under the 6th or 7th dorsal 
ray, beginning again on the caudal peduncle; conspicuously colored, the anterior 
half of body rhodamine purple, the posterior half lemon yellow; a black blotch 
on anterior rays of spinous dorsal. 

Description: Our single fish, when compared with Mowbray’s figure, (1. c.) 
disagrees considerably in the relation of the placing of the dorsal, pectoral and 
pelvic fins. We have compared it with all of Mowbray’s original specimens 
except the type (No. 526, Bingham Coll.) and one paratype (No. 215 Bingham 
Coll.). 

All of these Bingham fish agree with ours and differ from the figure in having 
the pectoral fins proportionately longer and in having their origin further 
forward. This change of position alters the relation of the origin of the dorsal 
and pelvic fins. Both of these arise under or over the base of the pectorals, or 
very slightly in advance, never in all the specimens examined by us, as far away 
from the pectoral base as shown by Mowbray’s figure. 

This figure is of the type, which we have not been able to examine, and it is 
possible that this fish may be different from the rest of the specimens. How- 
ever, Mr. Albert C. Parr, in shipping the specimen to us, mentions that the 
type which he had examined, differs in no way from the remaining specimens. 

The Haitian fish differs from the paratypes examined in being slightly deeper, 
2.9 instead of 3.5, a condition due possibly to its carrying eggs, in having a 



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slightly shorter maxillary, reaching to the posterior edge of the pupil instead 
of the posterior edge of the eye, in having 11 dorsal rays instead of 9 or 10, 
and in the color pattern. Our fish has the purple extending considerably 
further back than the Bingham specimens, this color reaching to the origin of 
the soft dorsal. The purple extends onto the spinous dorsal, making this fin 
markedly darker than in the Bingham fish. 

It is possible that the Haitian fish represents a different species or sub- 
species but the paucity of our material does not allow us to do more than point 
out the differences. 

Twelve or fifteen of these fish were constantly seen about a tall clump of 
millepore corals on Lamentine Reef. We were unable to trap them, and only 
a single individual was obtained by using dynamite. 

Size: Grows to a little more than two inches. 

Color: Anterior part of body as far back as origin of soft dorsal and anal, 
including the spinous dorsal and pelvic fins, rhodamine purple; posterior part 
of body, including the soft dorsal, caudal and anal fins, cadmium yellow. A 
small yellowish spot below eye extending on maxillary. A black spot on 
anterior spines of dorsal; a narrow band of reddish along tip of anterior dorsal 
rays. Anal spines pinkish, the border of the fin with a very narrow pinkish 
line. A narrow diagonal line of reddish from base of anal spines extending 
downward and backward over middle of fin. Pectoral rays yellowish, the 
fin transparent. 

Mowbray gives the color of the anterior part of his fish as royal purple, 
which in Ridgway’s color key is quite different from the living color of the 
Haitian specimen. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Method of Capture: Dynamite. 

Food: Small crustaceans. 

Study Material: Color Plate, HI 12; Specimen, 1; 47 mm., No. 7225, 
Lamentin Reef, Port-au-Prince Bay. 

Family Priacanthidae; the Big-Eyes 
Priacanthus Oken, 1817 


Spineless Big-eye, Juif 

Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes 



References: Priacanthus arenatus, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829, Hist. 
Nat. Poiss., Ill, 97. 

Priacanthus arenatus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 487, Plate LI. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


145 


Field Characters: Elongate, considerably compressed, bright red fish with 
extremely large eyes, very long ventral fins, and with a single small indentation 
on the opercle just above the flat preopercular spine. 

Size and Weight: A 240 mm. fish weighed 357 grams. 

General Range: Tropical Atlantic, from Gulf Stream northward as far 
as Rhode Island and southward to Brazil. 

Abundance: Not uncommon, usually one or two being brought to the 
market each day and sometimes more. However, we never saw this species 
while diving on the shallower inshore reefs. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 240 mm., No. 6947. 


References: Holocentrus surinamensis, Bloch, 1790, Naturg. Ausl. Fische, 
IV, 98, Plate CCXLIII. 

Lobotes surinamensis , Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 485, Plate L. 

Field Characters: Rather large, deep, compressed, bass-like fishes with 
projecting lower jaw and serrate opercle. Soft dorsal and anal fins almost 
as large as the tail, combining with the caudal fin to give the fish its name of 
“ Triple-tail. ” Outline of body concave over eyes; scales small and rough. 

Size and Weight: Reaches three feet in length. Our specimens are from 
18 to 161 mm. in length. The 33 mm. fish weighed 1.2 grams, and the 161 
mm. fish 194 grams. 

Color: “Dark brown to pale brown, with more or less silvery, at least below 
the lateral line; an indistinct dark band from eye to occiput, 2 narrower bands 
or lines extending backward for a short distance from interorbital, another 
band from lower margin of eye to angle of preopercle; all the fins, except the 
dorsal, darker than the body, the caudal fin with an abruptly pale margin in 
young, which is not present in adult; pectoral fins pale translucent.” (Meek 
and Hildebrand, 1. c.) 

Our largest specimen agrees fully with the above description. The 33 mm. 
example also agrees with this except that the general body color was dull grayish 
green. All the fins except the pectorals were black, their bases the same color 
as the rest of the body. Caudal broadly and dorsal and anal narrowly tipped 
with grayish white. Five black spots at base of soft dorsal, the second and 


Family Lobotidae; Triple-Tails 
Lobotes Cuvier, 1829 


Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch) 


Triple-tail; Flasher 



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fourth much paler than the others. A black spot at base of posterior rays of 
the anal fin. A narrow grayish line continues forward from this spot along the 
base of the rays. 

The 18 mm. fish differed from the older examples in having the soft dorsal 
tipped with pinkish, the remainder of the fin being gray with a pinkish tint 
toward the base. Caudal with a very wide translucent terminal band. Snout 
pale, not black. 

General Range: Massachusetts to Uruguay. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Under Sargassum weed at surface. 

Abundance: Uncommon, only one specimen seen in the markets during 
four months of observations. 

Method of Capture : The two smaller fish were taken by scooping up 
Sargasso weed in a hand net, the fish being found among the fronds. 

Food: The 118 mm. fish contained the vertebrae of a small fish. 

General Habits: Our only notes relate to the young individuals being found 
under weed. The two smaller individuals were taken under separate patches 
of Sargassum, so that there can be but little doubt that the young are to be 
found living under these conditions. 

Study Material: Specimens, 3; 18 to 161 mm., No. 7227. 

Family Lutianidae; the Snappers 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Pterygoid teeth 1 wanting; dorsal spines 10 or 11. 

B. Gill rakers few and short, fewer than 12 on the lower limb of the first gill 

arch; the caudal lobes not especially produced in the adult; anal fin 

with 7 to 9 rays Lutianus 

BB. Gill rakers long and numerous, about 20 on the lower limb of the first 

arch; caudal lobes much produced in the adult Ocyurus 

AA. Pterygoid teeth present, at least in adult; dorsal spines about 12. Gill 
rakers long and slender, about 17 or 18 on the lower limb of the anterior 
arch ; color red or yellowish red Rhomboplites 

Lutianus Bloch, 1790 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Vomerine teeth in a crescent-shaped patch. Dorsal fin X — 14, anal fin 

III — 8. 55 to 60 scales in a lateral series. A small, jet black spot on 

the side analis 

A A. Vomerine teeth anchor-shaped, with a distinct median backward pro- 
jection. 

B. Dorsal fin normally with 12 rays; a black lateral spot, rarely as large as the 

eye; body chiefly greenish, with 3 golden stripes on the head and 9 on 


the body synagris 

BB. Dorsal fin normally with 14 rays. 

C. Gill rakers 10 or 11 on lower limb of the first arch. Color uniform rose- 
red; young with a black lateral patch campechanus 


1 A group of teeth found on the roof of the mouth, continuing backward the line of the 
palatines. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 147 

CC. Gill rakers fewer, 7 or 8 on the lower limb of the first arch. 

D. Scales rather small, series above the lateral line very oblique, 7 or 8 rows 

between the lateral line and the base of the first dorsal spine; a broad 

white bar from eye to angle of mouth jocu 

DD. Scales rather larger, the series above the lateral line usually fewer than 7; 
no white bar below the eye. 

E. Body rather deep, 2.45 to 2.7 in length; anterior profile notably concave 

in the adult; snout long, pointed, 2.4 to 3.25 in the head; 5 or rarely 6 
rows of scales between the lateral line and the base of the first dorsal 
spine; rows of scales not marked by dark lines or only faintly so; caudal 

fin not edged with black apodus 

EE. Body more elongate, 2.65 to 2.9 in length; anterior profile only slightly 
concave in the adult; snout less strongly pointed, 2.55 to 3.2 in the 
head; 6 or rarely 7 rows of scales between the lateral line and the base 
of the first dorsal spine; rows of scales on sides marked by dark lines; 
caudal fin edged with black griseus 


Mutton Fish; Card Claire 

Lutianus analis (Cuvier and Valen 
ciennes) 


References: 'Mesoprion analis, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828, Hist. Nat. 
Poiss., II, p. 452. 

Lutianus analis, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 501. 

Field Characters: Large, elongate, compressed snappers with rather deep 
head and long snout. Greenish brown above, yellowish green below with a 
tinge of red on chest and abdomen. Blue lines on head. Fins all reddish, 
caudal with a black margin. A small jet black spot, smaller than eye, on the 
lateral line under the anterior rays of the soft dorsal. 

Size and Weight: Reaches a weight of 25 pounds. A 542 mm. fish weighed 
10 pounds. 

General Range: Massachusetts to Brazil. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found mostly on the deeper banks, 
especially near the eastern end of Gonave Island. 

Abundance: Fairly common, practically always found in the market, al- 
though in small numbers. 

Method of Capture: Hook and line and with traps. 

Food: Strictly carnivorous according to the stomach contents examined, 
specializing in small fish, one specimen containing a porcupine fish ( Diodon 
hystrix), crustaceans such as shrimps and crabs, and mollusks. 

Breeding: A 542 mm. fish weighing 10 pounds and taken on March 11th, 
had ovaries measuring 88 by 20 mm. The eggs were not especially enlarged. 



Zoological N. Y. Zoological Society 


148 


[X;l 


The smaller specimens examined during the period of January to March gave 
few signs of breeding. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 204 mm., No. 7017. 



Lane Snapper; Argente 

Lutianus synagris (Linnaeus) 


References: Spams synagris, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 280. 

Lutianus synagris , Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 505. 

Field Characters: Medium, elongate, compressed snappers, with 9 hori- 
zontal golden bands on the sides and 3 on the head. A black spot present on 
the sides on and above the lateral line under the anterior part of the soft dorsal. 
Anal and ventral fins golden, dorsal and caudal fins reddish. Vertical bands 
present at times. 

Size and Weight: Reaches a weight of four pounds. Our largest fish 
measured 320 mm. A 285 mm. fish weighed 2 pounds, and a 128 mm. specimen 
50 grams. 

Color: The following notes were made on the colors of some of these fish: 

22 mm. length — In this fish the iris was silvery, and there were 5 golden 
lines along the sides, the black spot being smaller than the eye. Seven broad, 
faint dark vertical bands from the nape to the caudal, the black spot being in 
the 4th band counting from the head. Dorsal fin edged with red, the caudal 
faintly pink, and the ventral fins bright orange. 

Spec. 7011, about 300 mm. Body above the lateral line dusky silvery with 
shading of heliotrope gray. Below the lateral line pale silvery with shadings 
of pink, except the belly and the lower jaw which are silvery white. The 
pink color especially noticeable on the lower part of the caudal peduncle, on 
the opercle and preopercle and at the base of the pectoral. Nine rather wide 
golden stripes, each about ^ the width of the pupil, along the sides of the body, 
and 3 on head. Above the lateral line are numerous smaller irregular stripes 
of gold running obliquely upward towards the dorsal fin. A black spot on the 
sides twice the diameter of the eye, situated below the center of the soft dorsal 
fin. 

Lips brilliant grenadine pink as is also the caudal fin and the iris. The 
dorsal fin is lighter pink with a golden splotched band about the width of the 
pupil and with the tips of the fin edged with gold. Ventral fins, anal fin, 
mouth and tongue splashed with gold. Pectorals pale pinkish. 

Individual Change of Color: This was extreme. The permanent pattern 
was a pearly white background, with the conspicuous golden stripes extending 
lengthwise along the body and sides. There was also usually a faint black 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 149 

spot on the upper posterior sides below the center of the soft dorsal. Within 
one or two minutes in an aquarium, this spot might double in size and become 
intense black, while over the entire body would spread nine vertical dark 
bands, very wide and black along the back, becoming narrower and of a maroon 
color down the sides. The top of the head would change from pale pink to deep 
sepia, but the scarlet iris and the yellow and scarlet fins were never altered. 

General Range : Florida to Brazil. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: A widely distributed species found 
near reefs and along shore. It is also found on the reefs off Gonave Island, 
and practically everywhere else we were able to observe. 

Abundance : The Lane Snapper is by far the most abundant of its genus to 
be found within the bay, and also one of the most abundant Haitian fishes, 
regardless of species. It is to be found in large numbers in the markets, and 
was the commonest species brought to us by our Greek fishermen. 

Method of Capture : Seines, traps, hook and line and dynamite. 

Food: This species, like its relatives, is almost entirely carvivorous, and 
the vegetable records can most likely be regarded as accidental. The examina- 
tion of the stomach contents of 78 fish show an interesting combination of 
foods. Among these various elements, fish and crustaceans were dominant. 
In the following list the number denotes the number of times that the food was 
found: 

Eels 2 times, Silversides ( Atherina ) 5, Anchovies ( Anchoviella ) 5, Porcupine- 
fish ( Diodon ) 10, Unidentified Fish 8, Stomatopods 2, Crabs, 15, Shrimps 15, 
other crustaceans 3, Mollusks 1, Polychaete Worms 3, Purple Holothurians 1, 
Sponge spicules 1, and Seaweed 2 times. 

Proportion of Sexes: Of 80 specimens examined 47 were males, 22 were 
females. The remainder represented specimens in which the gonads were too 
small to be determined by macroscopic examination. 

Size at Maturity: In examining the 80 specimens ranging from 70 to 320 
mm. in length, our notes, made mostly during March, record that specimens 
less than 140 mm. in length do not have the gonads developed to any great 
extent. 

The greatest length and width of the ovaries were recorded in twenty-two 
fish. This varied in actual measurements from 40 by 7 mm. in a 180 mm. fish, 
to a maximum of 75 by 13 in a fish of 300 mm. Fish larger than 300 mm. 
seemed to be spent, a 320 mm. fish showing an ovary of only 38 by 20 mm. 

Eggs: In a 252 mm. fish with an ovary of 72 by 10 mm. the eggs varied in 
size from .22 to .45 in diameter, while in a 220 mm. fish they were larger, from 
.34 to .45 mm. 

Enemies: Red leeches were found in the stomachs of two fishes. These 
animals measured 6 x 15 mm., and were very active when removed from their 
host. 

Study Material: Colored Plate, Hll, figs A and B; Photographs, 3861, 
3944, 4072, 4106, 4107, 4108; Specimens, about 500; 22-320 mm. 


150 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoloogical Society 


[X;l 


Red Snapper; Sard Rouge; 
Ronde 

Lutianus campechanus (Poey) 


References: Mesoprion campechanus, Poey, 1860, Memorias, II, p. 149. 

Lutianus campechanus, Hildebrand & Ginsburg, 1926, Bull. 
U. S. Bur. Fish., XLII, 82. 

Field Characters: Large, elongate, deep-headed, pointed-snouted snappers. 
Deep rose-red; bluish streaks along the sides, fins brick red. A large black 
lateral spot on the sides in young specimens. 

Size and Weight: Reaches a length of three feet and a weight of 40 pounds. 
Our 217 mm. fish weighed 252 grams. 

General Range : Massachusetts south to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 
Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found mostly in the deeper banks 
in the bay, and especially off the eastern end of Gonave Island and along the 
north coast of the southern peninsula of Haiti. 

Abundance: Abundant, but not seen by us on the shallower inshore reefs. 
In the market it is one of the commonest of the larger fishes. 

Method of Capture: Mostly by hook and line. 

Food: Carnivorous, the stomach of two of our specimens containing anchovies. 
Study Material: Specimens, 3; 217 mm., No. 6931. 


Dog Snapper; Carde Roulesse 

Lutianus jocu (Bloch and Schneider) 




References: Anthias jocu, Bloch and Schneider, 1801, Syst. Ichthy., p. 310. 

Lutianus jocu, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes of 
Panama, II, p. 508. 

Field Characters: Medium-sized, elongate, long-snouted, deep-headed 
snappers. Brown above, reddish below, sides of head with a blue stripe below 
the eye. A broad, whitish bar from eye to angle of mouth, sometimes wanting 
in the young. 

Size and Weight: A 150 mm. fish weighed 107 grams. 

General Range: Massachusetts to Bahia, Brazil. 

Abundance: Rare, only one specimen seen in four months, seined by fisher- 
man. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


151 


Study Material: Specimen, 1; 150 mm. No. 6910. 


Schoolmaster 

Lutianus apodus (Walbaum) 


References: Perea apoda, Walbaum, 1792, Artedi Piscium, Plate III, p. 

351 (based on Catesby, Hist. Carolina, 1743, Plate XLI). 

Lutianus apodus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, 1925, p. 509. 

Field Characters: Medium, elongate, compressed snappers. Greenish 
above, pale below, no lateral spot. Fins, except the orange ventrals, pale 
yellow to green. Young with about 8 pale vertical bars and a blue stripe on 
the head below the eye. 

Size and Weight: Attains a weight of 8 pounds. The lengths and weights 
of the two extremes of our specimens are as follows : 

Length 114.5 mm., weight 42 grams; length 225 mm., weight 308 grams. 

Color: Like its congeners, this species is extremely changeable in color, 
the vertical bars practically disappearing in pale specimens. The line from the 
snout through the eye is also subject to great variation in intensity. The blue 
stripe below the eye was conspicuous in all of our specimens. 

General Range: Massachusetts to Brazil. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: A wide spread species inhabiting 
almost all of the localities visited. 

Abundance : Abundant during our stay in Haiti, but by no means as common 
as the Lane Snapper. It was always to be seen in the markets, and our seine 
fishermen constantly brought it to us in quite large numbers. 

Method of Capture: Seines, hooks and line, traps, and dynamite. 

Food: Strictly carnivorous, our records containing notes on crabs, shrimps 
of various kinds and numerous fish, most conspicuous of which were silver- 
striped anchovies (Anchoviella) , thread-herrings {Opisthonema oglinum ), and 
porcupine fish {Diodon hystrix). The latter were very commonly found in the 
stomachs of this fish, in fact they were taken from 15 out of 25 stomachs ex- 
amined. In one case the porcupine-fish was found fully inflated. We recorded 
of three other specimens that they were found facing toward the cardiac end 
of the stomach. The number of species of fish that consume these apparently 
unpalatable pincushions is quite amazing. The secretions of the captors are 
sufficient, however, to reduce most of the porcupine-fish to chyme but the 
spines are found intact. 

Breeding: Most of the specimens examined by us did not seem to be breeding 
(February to May). The testicles of a 245 mm. fish captured on March 18, 
1927, measured 35 by 3 mm. 



152 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X;l 


Study Material: Specimens, 78; 114.5-225 mm. 


Gray Snapper; Carde Gris 

Lutianus griseus (Linnaeus) 


References: Labrus griseus , Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 283. 

Lutianus griseus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 511. 

Field Characters: Large, elongate, compressed snappers. Dark green 
above, chest and abdomen dark red; scales on the sides with rusty centers, 
forming lines along the sides. Fins all red, vertical fins darkest. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 3 feet and a weight of 18 pounds. A 90 mm. 
fish weighed 13.5 grams. 

General Range: Massachusetts to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Widely distributed in the bay. 
Small specimens were found by us along shore, and larger ones taken in deeper 
water near Port-au-Prince and on the fishing banks off Gonave Island. 

Abundance: Very common, always seen at the Markets and captured 
sometimes in large numbers by the seine fishermen. 

Method of Capture: Seines, hand nets, hook and line, traps and dynamite. 

Study Material: Specimens, 4; 145 to 208 mm., No. 6863. 

Ocyurus Gill, 1862 


Yellow-tail; Kola 

Ocyurus chrysurus (Bloch) 


References: Spams chrysurus, Bloch, 1791, Naturg. Ausl. Fische, V, p. 28, 
Plate CCLXII. 

Ocyurus chrysurus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 515. 

Field Characters: Medium, elongate, compressed snappers with very 
compressed head and tapering snout, and a long and deeply forked caudal 
fin. Violet above, silvery below; a bright yellow-bronze stripe from the snout 
through the eye to the caudal peduncle. Caudal fin and peduncle golden 
yellow. 

Size and Weight: Grows to a length of two feet. 

Color: Most of our specimens have the ground color violet. Iris silvery, 
irregularly mottled with scarlet. 




1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 153 

General Range: Florida to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: A widespread species, the young 
being found in relatively large numbers along shore in weedy areas, and the 
larger ones further off shore. They were constantly present on the various reefs 
where we dived. 

Abundance: Very common, always seen in the markets. An excellent 
food fish. Small fish are found quite abundantly along shore in shallow water. 

Method of Capture: Seines, traps, dynamite. 

Food: Sixteen stomachs examined contained a general assortment of food, 
both vegetable and animal matter being represented. 

A 40 mm. fish had fed almost exclusively upon plankton, being full of cope- 
pods and 1 pteropod. The larger fish contained remnants of bottom detritus, 
with numerous coral fragments, sand grains, mud, algae, sponges, polychaete 
worms, Crustacea such as shrimps and crabs, and small fish, notably silver- 
striped anchovies. 

Breeding : The gonads were not developed to any extent in the few specimens 
examined by us during February to April. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H124; Photograph, 3750; Specimens, 20; 
40 to 251 mm., No. 6818. 

Rhomboplites Gill, 1862 


Golden-red Snapper; Fadate 

Rhomboplites aurorubens (Cuvier and 
Valenciennes) 


References: Centropristes aurorubens, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829, Hist. 
Nat. Poiss., Ill, p. 45. 

Rhomboplites aurorubens, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 517. 

Field Characters: Small, elongate, compressed snappers with moderate- 
sized oblique mouth, dorsal and ventral outlines equally curved. 12 dorsal 
spines, 11 rays. Pterygoid teeth present in adults. Color vermillion. 

Size and Weight: A 150 mm. specimen weighed 102 grams. 

Color: Vermillion, paler below. Caudal bright red. Iris gold. 

General Range: North Carolina to Southern Brazil. 

Abundance: Like the red snapper, this species is one of the most abundant 
of Haitian fishes. Strings of 20 to 30 are brought in by the fishing boats to the 
market, and are to be found there practically all of the time. 

Enemies: One of these fishes was found in the stomach of a tunny {Parathun- 
nus obesus). 

Study Material: Specimens, 4; 103-153 mm., Nos. 7036, 7041. 



154 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 


Family Haemulidae; the Grunts 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Preopercle strongly serrate, two of the spines at the angle enlarged, the 

serrae on the lower margin directed forward; body elongate, not much 

compressed Conodon 

AA. Preopercle rather finely serrate, none of the serrae directed forward. 

B. Soft parts of the dorsal and anal densely scaled. 

C. Dorsal spines normally 13; body elongate, the back little elevated. 

Bathy stoma 

CC. Dorsal spines normally 12, occasionally 11 or 13. 

D. Snout short, more than 3 in head; mouth small, more or less oblique; 

maxillary short, not curved. Sides with about 5 yellow horizontal 

stripes Brachygenys 

DD. Snout long, usually 3 or less in head; mouth large, nearly or quite hori- 
zontal, maxillary long and curved Haemulon 

BB. Soft parts of dorsal and anal not densely scaled, naked or with small 
scales on the inter-radial membranes. 

E. Body rather elongate; head long, snout pointed; lips thin. Anal fin 

with III, 6 to 8 rays; second anal spine somewhat enlarged. . .Pomadasys 
EE. Body short and deep; head short; snout blunt; lips thick; second anal 
spine notably enlarged Anisotremus 


Conodon Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830 



Large-toothed Conodon Grunt; 
Bureteado 

Conodon nobilis (Linnaeus) 


References: Perea nobilis, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 191. 

Conodon nobilis, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 521. 

Field Characters: Small, slightly compressed, elongate grunts with about 
8 vertical dark bands; preopercle serrate, the serrations largest at the angle, 
those below the angle pointing forward. 

Size and Weight. Our three specimens are as follows: 


Length 
139.5 mm. 
152 
169 


Weight 
78 grams 
100 “ 
135 “ 


Color: Meek and Hildebrand mention that the very young of this species 
have 3 or 4 indistinct horizontal bands. These bands persist in our 139 mm. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 155 

fish, which is 23 ^ times as long as their smallest specimen and almost half as 
large as their largest. This fish has 4 horizontal bands, the three lowermost 
being well defined, while the fourth is rather indistinct. The width of the 
lowermost bands is about one-third that of the eye. 

General Range: Atlantic, from Texas to Brazil; Pacific from Lower Cali- 
fornia to Panama. 

Abundance: Uncommon. Rare in the market, about 6 having been seen 
in four months. 

Method of Capture: Hook and line and by seining. 

Food: The stomach of one of our fishes was filled with rather large fish 
scales and with the remains of a shrimp. 

Study Material: Specimens, 3; 139-169 mm., No. 6863. 

Bathy stoma Scudder, 1863 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Body elongate, depth 2.85 to 3.1 in length; scales 50 to 59 in lateral series; 

a large black caudal spot present rimator 

AA. Body very elongate, the depth 3.4 to 3.85 in length; scales small, 65 to 72 
in lateral series; caudal spot wanting striatum 


Tom Tate; Red-mouthed 
Grunt 

Bathystoma rimator (Jordan and Swain) 


References: Haemulon chrysopteron, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830, Hist. 
Nat. Poiss., V, p. 240. 

Haemulon rimator , Jordan and Swain, 1884, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Museum, p. 308. 

Bathystoma rimator , Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 523. 

Field Characters: Small, rather elongate, red-mouthed grunts with two 
yellow stripes on side, one from interorbital to base of last dorsal rays, the 
other from eye to base of caudal where it ends in a large black spot. 

Description: Small specimens of 50 to 60 mm. occasionally have the depth 
3.3 to 3.4. 

Size and Weight: Our specimens range from 44 to 139 mm. 

Color: In fish of 50 mm. the deeper portion of the throat and the inner 
opercular rim is pink; in fish of 85 to 100 mm. this color has become scarlet 
and has extended to the sides and the whole floor of the mouth, the tongue and 
the posterior half of the lower tooth-bearing bones, both inside and out. 

In the small fish and increasingly so in some of the larger individuals, there 
are numerous, irregularly scattered patches of pigment dots. 



156 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Small fish have the iris silvery, except antero-posteriorly, where gold carries 
through the gold line from snout to caudal. 

The black peduncle spot is present in all our specimens, but it is exceedingly 
variable in strength. The peritoneum is black in all specimens examined. 

General Range: ^orth Carolina to Trinidad. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found usually close inshore in 
shallow water, especially over weed-covered patches. 

Abundance: Very common, taken in numbers in almost every seining. 
Occasionally seen in the market, but owing to its small size, not a common 
commercial fish. 

Breeding: A 110 mm. female examined on February 20 had eggs moderately 
developed. Two males, 80 and 125 mm. long dissected on March 21st seemed 
to be in full breeding; the testes of the 125 mm. specimen measured 15 by 3 mm. 

Food: This species is omnivorous, usually feeding near the bottom, but not 
necessarily confined to it. Our examination of stomach contents of this species 
reveals an amazing number of different foods, chief of which were the following: 

Sand, mud and bottom detritus, algae sometimes in very large amounts; 
worms of various kinds; mollusk shells, broken and entire; with one record of a 
small, brilliantly colored cardium; crustaceans, such as copepods, isopods, 
“plankton,” shrimps and small crabs. 

Study Material: Photograph: 3902; Specimens, 406; 44 to 139 mm., No. 
6822. 


Striped Grunt 

Bathystoma striatum (Linnaeus) 



References: Perea striata , Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 233. 

Bathystoma striatum, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 524. 

Field Characters: Very elongate, red-mouthed compressed grunts with 
5 or 6 greenish yellow stripes on sides and without a black caudal spot. 

Description: Our single specimen of this species does not agree entirely 
with the published descriptions, but for lack of other material we are assigning 
it to this species. It differs in the following particulars; eye 3.76 instead of 
2.6 to 3.35; snout 2.65 instead of 3.5 to 3.6. In other words it has a smaller 
eye and longer snout than is usual ly recorded for this species. It has eighteen 
gill rakers on the lower half of the first arch. 

General Range : Bermuda Islands to Brazil. 

Abundance : Apparently rather rare, our single specimen being the only 
one seen during the expedition. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 174 mm., No. 6933. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


157 


Brachygenys Scudder, 1868 


Small-mouthed Golden Grunt 

Brachygenys chrysargeus (Gunther) 


References: Haemulon chrysargeum, Gunther, 1859, Cat. Fish Brit. Mus. 
1, p. 314. 

Brachygenys chrysargeus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 527. 

Field Characters: Elongate, large-eyed, short-snouted, red-mouthed 
grunts, with 5 horizontal yellow stripes along sides, almost half as broad as the 
interspaces. 

General Range: Florida to Brazil. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: All of our specimens were taken on 
Sand Cay, a coral and Sand reef three miles from shore in Port-au-Prince Bay. 

Abundance : Uncommon, seen occasionally on the reefs, and now and then in 
the fish markets. 

Method of Capture: All of our fish were taken by dynamite. Two of 
them had evidently been very close to the explosive as they came to the surface 
with irregular patches of black oh various parts of their fins and bodies. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H96; No. 7166; Specimens 2; 153 mm., 
No. 7166. 

Haemulon Cuvier, 1829 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Scales below lateral line notably enlarged, very deep; sides with yellow 

stripes, parallel with lateral line above it, very oblique below it. 

flavolineatum 

AA. Scales below lateral line not especially enlarged. 

B. Scales above lateral line enlarged, four rows between the lateral line and 

the origin of the dorsal; about twelve well defined, more or less wavy, 
horizontal blue stripes, most prominent on the head, occasionally ex- 
tending on the upper body plumieri 

BB. Scales above the lateral line not enlarged, not fewer than 5 series between 
the lateral line and the origin of the dorsal. 

C. Maxillary reaching nearly or quite to middle of eye, 1.9 to 2.3 in head; 

sides with blue, black or golden stripes. 

D. Soft dorsal with strongly convex margin, the anterior rays scarcely longer 

than the posterior ones; head and body with about 10 horizontal blue 
stripes, becoming pale but not disappearing in spirits, well defined on 

snout and cheeks .sciurus 

DD. Soft dorsal with nearly straight margin, anterior rays nearly twice as 
long as the posterior ones; upper part of sides with 4 or 5 dark stripes, 
present at all ages, no stripes on snout and cheeks macrostomum 



158 


Zoological N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 


CC. Maxillary reaching to or slightly past anterior margin of eye, 2.2 to 2.8 
in head; sides with continuous dark stripes following the rows of scales, 
wavy above the lateral line. No caudal spot in adult bonariense 


French Grunt; Open-mouthed 
Grunt 

Haemulon flavolineatum (Desmarest) 


References: Diabasis flavolineatus, Desmarest, 1823, Premier Dec. Ichth., 
p. 35, Plate II, fig. 1. 

Haemulon flavolineatum, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 531. 

Field Characters: Small, somewhat elongate, compressed, fairly large 
mouthed grunts with very large and deep scales on the sides below the lateral 
line. Sides with yellow stripes more or less parallel with lateral line above 
it, those below the lateral line quite oblique. 

Color: The ground color in all of our specimens is bluish pearl gray as 
stated by Jordan and Evermann and not greenish as stated by Meek and 
Hildebrand. The yellow stripe from occiput along the base of the dorsal is 
not evident in our specimens. 

General Range: West Indies; Bermuda and Florida Keys to Brazil. 

Abundance: This species is fairly common on the various reefs in Port-au- 
Prince Bay, and is also brought in small numbers from the deeper reefs by the 
fishermen. 

Food: Echinoderms and crustacean remains. 

Study Material: Colored Plate, H4, No. 6890, H28, fig. B; Specimens, 9; 


Common Grunt ; Ronco-ronco 

Haemulon plumieri (Lacepede) 


References: Labrus plumieri, Lacepede, 1802, Hist. Nat. Poiss., Ill, p. 
480, Plate II, fig. 2. 

Haemulon plumieri, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 532. 

Field Characters: Medium, rather deep, large-mouthed grunts with very 
large scales above the lateral line. Bluish-gray, bases of scales above bright 


105 to 157 mm., Nos. 6890 and 7236. 




1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 159 

bronze tinged with olive. Head bronze, with many narrow stripes of clear 
deep blue. 

Size and Weight: Reaches a length of 18 inches, and a weight of 4 pounds. 
A 235 mm. specimen weighed 316 grams. 

Color: Considerable variation in color is shown by this species. All of 
our specimens had black pigmented peritoneums. 

General Range: West Indies; North Carolina to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Fish up to 100 mm. have been seen 
quite often on the shallower diving reefs, while most of the larger fish are 
taken on the deeper banks further off shore. 

Abundance: The commonest grunt in the bay, and practically always seen 
in the market. 

Method of Capture: Taken in seines, traps, hook and line and by dynamite. 

Breeding: Of 7 specimens examined during February and March, none 
gave any indications of breeding. 

Food: Echinoderms, polychaete worms, mollusk shells, shrimps, crabs, 
otolith of undetermined fish, porcupine-fish {Diodon hystrix), and unidentifiable 
bottom debris. 

Study Material: Colored Plate, H28, fig. A; Photograph, 3754; Speci- 
mens, 22; 35-235 mm., Nos. 6891 and 6881. 


Yellow Grunt; Boar Grunt 

Haemulon sciurus (Sbaw) 


References: Sparus sciurus, Shaw, 1803, Gen. Zool., IV, Plate LXIV. 

Haemulon sciurus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 533. 

Field Characters: Medium, somewhat elongate, compressed, large-mouthed, 
long-snouted grunts with about 10 horizontal blue stripes on head and body, 
one below the eye wavy. 

Color: One of our specimens represents multilineatum, which appears to be 
based solely on a lack of dusky shading. 

Size and Weight: Grows to a length of 18 inches. A 211 mm. fish weighed 
270 grams. 

General Range: West Indies; Florida Keys to Brazil. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found generally over the reefs 
and along shore, the smaller specimens being especially common in shallow 
water. 

Abundance: Very common, and next to Haemulon plumieri, the commonest 
grunt about Port-au-Prince. It can always be seen in the markets. 

Method of Capture: Seines, traps, hook and line and dynamite. 



160 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Study Material: Colored Plate, H28, fig. C; Specimens, 8; 49 to 305 mm. 
No. 7270. 


Gray Grunt; Striped Grunt; 
Caco Gris 

Haemulon macrostomum Gunther 


References: Haemulon macrostoma, Gunther, 1859, Cat. Fish Brit. Mus., 
1, p. 308. 

Haemulon macrostomum, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 535. 

Field Characters: Medium, rather deep, long-snouted, large-mouthed 
grunts, with 4 or 5 dark horizontal stripes on the upper part of the sides. Green- 
ish above, brownish below. 

Description: Our 304 mm. fish has a slightly smaller eye, 4.9 in the head 
instead of 3.1 to 4.4 as given by Meek and Hildebrand. 

Color: Greenish silvery above becoming clearer silver below, scales mostly 
with pearly centers. Under surface of head dusky. Conspicuous dark streaks 
along the sides of the body; a median streak from tip of snout to dorsal, one 
from snout above eye along side of the back to last ray of the soft dorsal, two 
below this from eye above, to the last ray of the soft dorsal, the upper one 
more or less interrupted posteriorly, a fourth from eye nearly straight to base 
of caudal; traces below this of a fifth streak. Spinous dorsal brownish green; 
soft dorsal and anal greenish yellow. Caudal dusky, greenish yellow distally. 

General Range: West Indies, Florida, Panama and Columbia. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken by us only over rather deep 
coral reefs. 

Abundance: Uncommon, not seen at the markets. 

Method of Capture : Taken by us only with dynamite. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 304 mm., No. 7273. 


Black Grunt; Ronco Prieto 

Haemulon bonariense Cuvier and Val- 
enciennes 


References: Haemulon bonariense, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830, Hist. 
Nat. Poiss., V, p. 254. 

Haemulon bonariense, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 541. 




. J28] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 161 

Field Characters: Medium, moderately deep, rather long-snouted grunts 
with rusty brown lines on the sides following the lines of scales; young with 
3 or 4 black longitudinal stripes and with a distinct caudal spot. 

Size and Weight: A 185 mm. fish weighed 147 grams and a 264 mm. fish 
weighed 401 grams. 

General Range: West Indies, south to Buenos Aires. 

Abundance: Fairly common, usually seen in the market 2 or 3 times a week. 

Study Material: Photograph, 3925; Specimens, 6; 175 to 259 mm., Nos. 
6970, 6971 and 6873. 

Pomadasys Lacepede, 1803 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Pectoral fins long, reaching to or past tips of the ventrals, 1.05 to 1.6 in 
head; scales large, 334 to 4 series between the lateral line and the middle 

of the soft dorsal corvinaeformis 

AA. Pectoral fins very short, not reaching the tips of the ventrals, 1.5 to 1.9 
in head; scales small, 5 to 634 series between the lateral line and the 
middle of the soft dorsal crocro 

Croaker-like Roughcheek 

Pomadasys corvinaeformis (Steindach- 
ner) 


References: Haemulon corvinaeforme, Steindachner, 1868, Ichthy. Notizen, 
VII, p. 16. 

Pomadasys corvinaeformis, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, 
Marine Fishes of Panama, II, p. 549. 

Field Characters: Elongate, compressed, small-mouthed grunts, with 49 
to 52 scales in a lateral series. Silvery below, greyish above; several dark, 
longitudinal streaks along the side. Pectorals long, reaching to or past the 
ventrals. 

Description: The tail is not forked to any great extent in our specimens, 
but deeply emarginate. 

Size and Weight: A 122 mm. fish weighed 45 grams and a 184 mm. fish 
weighed 153 grams. 

General Range: Atlantic coast from the West Indies south to Brazil. 

Abundance: Fairly common, often seen in the fish market, but never as a 
common food fish. 

Study Material: 3; 122 to 184 mm., No. 6907. 


Crocro Roughcheek 

Pomadasys crocro (Cuvier and Valen 
ciennes) 




162 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X;l 


References: Pristipoma crocro, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830, Hist. Nat. 
Poiss., V, p. 264. 

Pomadasys crocro, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 559. 

Field Characters: Elongate, compressed, small-mouthed grunts, with 57 
to 63 scales in a lateral series. Silvery below, dark olivaceous above, sides 
often with dusky punctulations. Pectorals short, not reaching ventrals. 

Description: Our single specimen runs to ramosus in Jordan and Evermann. 

Color: Dark olivaceous above, silvery white below; all of the scales when 
viewed from the side, silvery blue with a gray green edge. Sides with dusky 
punctulations most prominent about the axil, below the pectoral, the lower 
part of the cheeks, maxillary, and in front of the nostril. Fins dusky. 

General Range: Atlantic coast of tropical America, from the West Indies 
south to Brazil; ascending rivers. 

Distribution: Our one specimen was found at Source Mariani, an arti- 
ficially constructed pool, about 50 feet wide and 120 feet long, surrounding 
and including the spring from which it originated, situated about a mile from 
the sea and connected with the ocean by two small and narrow streams. The 
pool was completely emptied of fish by running a wide and deep seine through 
from one end to the other, and this specimen was the only one of its species 
taken. It lived in company with large (2 foot) mullets ( Mugil curema ) and 
smaller fresh-water mullets ( Agonostomus monticola.) 

Abundance: Rare. Not seen at the fish markets. 

Method of Capture: Seine. 

Study Material: 1; 305 mm., No. 7173. 

Anisotremus Gill, 1861 



Pork Fish 

Anisotremus virginicus (Linnaeus) 


References: Sparus virginicus, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 281. 

Anisotremus virginicus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 569, Plate LX. 

Field Characters: Deep, small-mouthed grunts with 10 horizontal golden 
lines on a silvery blue background. A wide black band from the nape through 
eye, another from origin of dorsal to or across the base of the pectorals. 

Description: Our. specimens agree with the description given by Meek and 
Hildebrand, but the profile in our 158 mm. fish is by no means as steep as is 
shown in their plate. 

Size and Weight: Grows to the length of 1 foot and a weight of 2 pounds. 
Our 205 mm. specimen weighed 330 grams. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


163 


Color: The pectoral fins were golden in our fish, while the other fins were 
golden mottled with black. 

General Range: Florida to Brazil. 

Occurrence in the Gulf of Gonave : Uncommon, seen occasionally in the 
fish markets. 

Method of Capture: One specimen was taken during airplane bombing 
practice in water from 50 to 100 feet deep. 

Food : Stomach contents dominated by minute crustaceans such as those 
found crawling about on coral; other comminuted animal remains, including 
many small elongate spines and small mollusks. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 158-205 mm., Nos. 6817, 7336. 

Family Sparidae; the Porgies 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Front teeth conical or pointed, not compressed; second interhaemal spine 

enlarged, hollowed anteriorly, cone-like Calamus 

AA. Front teeth broad, incisors; dorsal fin preceded by a small antrorse spine; 
interhaemal spine not cone-shaped Archosargus 


Calamus Swainson, 1839 


Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 


A. Scales rather small, 54 to 57 pores in lateral line. 

B. Outer teeth in number, outer canines of upper jaw directed for- 

1U 


ward except in young. 

C. Preorbital with reticulations of bluish ground-color around bronze spots. 

calamus 

CC. Preorbital region, snout, cheeks and opercles brassy, crossed by horizontal, 
wavy, non-reticulating lines of violet-blue proridens 


BB. Anterior teeth strong 


4— 8 
8 - 10 ' 


No antrorse canines at any age. ..bajanado 


AA. Scales larger, 45 to 52 pores in lateral line 


.arctifrons 


Saucer-eyed Porgy 

Calamus calamus (Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes) 



References: Pagellus calamus, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830, Hist. Nat. 
Poiss., VI, p. 206, Plate CLII. 

Calamus calamus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 575. 


164 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 


Field Characters: Medium sized, compressed, rather deep fishes with 
moderate sized horizontal mouth, placed low; sides of jaws with molar teeth, 
outer teeth 10 to 12 in number, the outer canines of the upper jaw directed 
forward, except in young; 54 to 57 pores in lateral line. Preorbital with reti- 
culations of bluish ground color around bronzy spots. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 15 inches. A 219 mm. fish weighed 295 grams. 

General Range: Florida to Brazil. 

Abundance: Uncommon, rarely seen at the markets. 

Method of Capture: Taken by seine fishermen. 

Food: Omnivorous, our records showing algae, shells of foraminifera, sea 
urchins, mollusk shells, shrimps, crabs and small anchovies. 

Study Material: Photograph, Specimens, 1; 219 mm., No. 7333. 


Little-head Porgy ; Pez de Pluma 

Calamus proridens Jordan and Gilbert 


References: Calamus proridens, Jordan and Gilbert, 1884, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., p. 150. 

Calamus proridens, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, II, p. 1350. 

Field Characters: Compressed, oblong fishes, considerably elevated; the 
mouth small, low and horizontal; dorsal fin continuous; head large, deep, the 
suborbital very wide; anterior profile in adult rising in a very steep line to nape, 
thence in a gentle curve to front of dorsal; scales 54 to 57; teeth on sides molar; 
outer canines of upper jaw directed forward except in very young; preorbital 
region, snout, cheeks and opercles brassy, crossed by horizontal, wavy, non- 
reticulating lines of violet blue. 

Size and Weight: Our 255 mm. fish weighed 580 grams. 

General Range: West Indies north to Florida Keys. 

Abundance: Not uncommon, seen quite often in the markets. 

Food: The stomachs contained small crustaceans. 

Study Material: Specimens, 5; 84-260 mm. including No. 7334. 




Jolt-head Porgy; Diol pas bleu 

Calamus bajanado (Bloch and Schneider) 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


165 


References: Sparus bajanado, Bloch and Schneider, 1801, Syst. Ichth., p. 
284. 

Calamus bajanado, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, II, p. 1352. 

Field Characters: Compressed, oblong fishes, considerably elevated; 
mouth rather small, horizontal, low; anterior profile rising in a fairly regular 
curve to front of dorsal; scales 54; no antrorse canines; a blue line bordering 
the eye below and another above, extending on forehead. 

Size and Weight: Reaches a length of two feet and a weight of 10 lbs. The 
single specimen taken measured 143 mm. and weighed 94 grams. It was a 
female past breeding. 

General Range: Florida and the West Indies. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: A single specimen taken in a seine at 
night. 

Food: An omniverous browser; comminuted sea urchins, shells, bits of coral, 
sponge, and worms, crabs and other crustaceans. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 143 mm. No. 7335. 


Grass Porgy; Shad Porgy 

Calamus arctifrons Goode and Bean 


References: Calamus arctifrons, Goode and Bean, 1882, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., p. 425. 

Calamus arctifrons, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, II, p. 1355. 

Field Characters: Small to medium sized, compressed, rather deep fishes 
with moderate sized horizontal mouth placed rather low; sides of jaws with 
molar teeth; scales larger than other Haitian species in the collection, 45 to 52 
in lateral line. 

Size and Weight: A 185 mm. fish weighed 95 grams. 

General Range: Shores of the Gulf of Mexico; Porto Rico and Haiti. 

Abundance: Rather uncommon. 

Food: The stomach contents of three fish contained comminuted animal 
matter, too far gone to definitely identify, and vegetable matter, notably two 
or three leaves of Thalassia. 

Study Material: Specimens, 3; 145-195 mm., including No. 6895. 



166 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 
Archosargus Gill, 1865 


[X;l 



Tropical Sheepshead; Medance 

Archosargus unimaculatus (Bloch) 


References: Perea unimaculatus, Bloch, 1792, Naturg. Ausl. Fische, VI, 
Plate CCCVIII, fig. 1. 

Archosargus unimaculatus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, 
Marine Fishes of Panama, II, p. 578. 

Field Characters: Body short and deep, back much elevated; mouth 
small; incisors and molar teeth in two rows; 13 dorsal spines; sides with golden 
stripes, dark bars in young. 

Size and Weight: A 145 mm. specimen weighed 142 grams. 

General Range: Florida and the West Indies, south to Rio de Janeiro. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken commonly by the fisherman 
in seines at night. 

Food: A browser: small crustaceans and anemones, much algae and bits of 
Thallasia. 

Size at Maturity: A 165 mm. fish was in full breeding condition, and ripe 
ovaries were found in late March in females from 160 to 210 mm. 

Spawning Season: Three mature females were taken in mid and late March. 

Eggs: In a female of 170 mm. the ovaries measured 65 x 10 mm. and the eggs 
were .34 to .45 in diameter. 

Study Material: Specimens, 4; 145 to 210 mm. including Nos. 6849, 6856 
and 7336. 

Family Kyphosidae; the Rudder-Fishes 
Kyphosus Lac6pede, 1802 


Rudder-fish; Bermuda Chub; 
Chub ; Chopa Blanca 

Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus) 


References: Perea saltatrix, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 293. 

Kyphosus sectatrix, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 608, Plate LXV. 

Field Characters: Medium, rather deep, compressed fishes with small 
mouths, rather large flattened teeth, and the soft dorsal and anal fins scaly 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


167 


in the adult. Dark brown above to pale brown below; sides with blue lines 
and purplish reflections. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 18 inches. Our specimen, 78 mm. long, weighed 
13 grams. 

General Range : Massachusetts south to the West Indies* 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: 1 specimen from market; a 15-inch 
specimen clearly seen in motion picture film, taken two fathoms down. 

Abundance: Rare, a single specimen found at the fish market. 

Food: Small crustaceans. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 78 mm. No. 7379. 

Family Gerridae; the Mojarras 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Second interhaemal spine hollow, cone-shaped, its cavity entered by the 

posterior end of the air bladder; preopercle entire; anal spines 3, the 

second not much enlarged Eucinostomus 

AA. Second interhaemal spine normally developed, not hollow, and not entered 
by air-bladder; preopercle entire or serrate; anal spines, 2 or 3, the 
second^ large or small. 

B. Second interhaemal small; anal spines 2, the second small; preopercle 


entire Ulaema 

BB. Second interhaemal long; spear-shaped; anal spines 2 or 3, the second 
enlarged. 

C. Preopercle entire; the second anal spine moderate Genes 

CC. Preopercle serrate; the second anal spine much enlarged Diapterus 


Eucinostomus Baird and Girard, 1854 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species* 

A. Premaxillary groove crossed by scales in front, leaving a naked pit behind; 

depth 2.2 to 3 gula 

AA. Premaxillary groove not crossed by scales in front, usually open and linear, 
sometimes slightly restricted by scales in front, and wider posteriorly; 
body less compressed, rather slender; depth 2.5 to 3.3 calif orniensis 



* We keep the two Haitian species gula and calif orniensis separate, although there is an 
apparent over-lapping in our specimens. 


168 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 


References: Genes gula, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830, Hist. Nat. Poiss., 
VI, p. 464. 

Eucinostomus gula, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 582. 

Field Characters: Small, elliptical, moderately compressed, silvery fishes 
with extremely protractile mouth parts; second interhaemal bone in the shape 
of a hollow cone; premaxillary groove closed or nearly closed by scales in front. 

Size and Weight: A 65 mm. fish weighed 5 grams, and a 35 mm. fish 1.1 
grams. 

General Range: Massachusetts to Brazil. 

Abundance: Fairly common, often seen in the fish markets. 

Study Material: Specimens, 77; 25 to 100 mm. 



References: Diapterus calif orniensis, Gill, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., p. 245. 

Eucinostomus calif orniensis, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, 
Marine Fishes of Panama, II, p. 584. 

Field Characters: Small, elongate, moderately compressed, silvery fishes 
with extremely protractile mouth parts; second inter-haemal bone shaped like 
a hollow cone; premaxillary groove open and linear in young; often oval and 
restricted in front in older examples. 

Size and Weight: A 65 mm. fish weighed 5 grams, and a 35 mm. specimen 
1.1 grams. 

General Range: Pacific coast from California to Ecuador; Atlantic coast 
from North Carolina to Brazil, West Indies. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Seen mostly along shore, where 
they fed in shallow water among submerged plants. 

Abundance : A very common species, often seen in the markets and taken in 
large numbers by seine fishermen. 

Method of Capture: Mainly by seines. 

Food: A number of specimens examined by us contained detritus of both 
animal and vegetable origin. 

Study Material: Specimens, 39; 37 to 100 mm., including Nos. 6887, 6900 
and 7209. 

Ulaema Jordan and Evermann, 1895 



Lefroy’s Mojarra 

Ulaema lefroyi (Goode) 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 169 

References: Diapterus lefroyi, Goode, 1874, Amer. Journ. Sci. and Arts, 
VIII, p. 123. 

Ulaema lefroyi, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 588. 

Field Characters: Medium, elongate, compressed, silvery fishes with 
extremely protractile mouth parts; preopercle entire; anal spines 2; second 
interhaemal spine short and bluntish. Traces of dark cross bars on sides. 
Size and Weight: Grows to 8 inches. 

General Range : Florida to Brazil. 

Abundance: Rare, only a single specimen seen at market during four months. 
Study Material: Specimen, 1; 139 mm. No. 7101. 


Genes Cuvier, 1824 


Dark-barred Mojarra 

Genes cinereus (Walbaum) 


References: Mugil cinereus, Walbaum, 1792, Artedi Piscium, Pt. Ill, p. 
228. 

Genes cinereus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 589. 

Field Characters: Elongate, compressed fishes with extremely protractile 
mouth parts; preopercle entire; 3 anal spines; second interhaemal bone large and 
spear shaped; sides of body with 7-8 bluish vertical cross bars. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 12 to 15 inches. The majority of our fish were 
about 3 inches long. A 300 mm. specimen weighed 2]k£ pounds. During the 
period of our stay in Haiti, more large specimens of this species were seen than 
any other of its family." 4 

Color : The dark bars on the sides are well marked in our fish, and especially 
so in the smaller ones (40 mm.), where they are often concentrated on the mid- 
line. 

General Range: Atlantic coast from Florida to Cartagena; Pacific coast 
from lower California to Peru. 

Abundance: Not especially common, but seen practically always in the 
market in small numbers. 

Method of Capture: Mostly by means of seines. 

Food: Like other members of its family a general feeder. Our notes mention 
an assortment of worms, mollusks, crustaceans and parts of small fish. 

Breeding: In a 290 mm. fish captured on the 18th of March, the ovaries 
measured 70 x 8 mm., and in a 285 mm. specimen taken on March 13, the 
ovaries were 70 x 15 mm. The eggs were not well developed. 



170 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Study Material: Specimens, 13; 21 to 300 mm. including Nos. 6843, 7209, 
7237. 



References : Gerres rhombeus, Cuvier, 1829, Regne Animal, Ed. II, II, p. 188; 

Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830, Hist. Nat. Poiss., VI, p. 459. 

Diapterus rhombeus , Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 593. 

Field Characters: Small, short and deep, much compressed, rhomboidal, 
bright silvery fishes with extremely protractile mouth parts. Preopercle 
serrate; preorbital smooth; 2 anal spines, the second much enlarged. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 8 to 13 inches. Most of our specimens were no 
larger than 125 mm. One recorded, but unfortunately not preserved, measured 
338 mm. 

General Range: West Indies south to Brazil. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found rather widely distributed, 
but mostly along the shore north of Port-au-Prince, near and around man- 
grove-covered islands. We practically never saw it on the shallower diving 
reefs. 

Abundance: An extremely common species, brought in large numbers to 
the markets. Like many of the smaller fishes they spoil very rapidly and, like 
the small engraulids and clupeids, they are usually salted as soon as captured. 

Method of Capture: Practically all of our fish were taken in seines, and 
mostly by purse seines. 

Food: The stomach contents of 22 fish were examined. This species is a 
general feeder, the stomachs revealing algae, Thalassia, foraminifera shells, 
sponge spicules, worms of various kinds, small bivalve mollusks, crustaceans 
including ostracods, copepods, Nebalia-like forms, paddles of small crabs, 
and parts of a large red crab in the case of one fish, and finally, a few spines 
of a very small fish. 

Breeding: The gonads of most of the specimens taken during February to 
April were not advanced. A 130 mm. female however, taken on March 27, 
1927 had spherical, nearly ripe eggs measuring .34 to .39 mm. 

Study Material: Specimens, 549; including No. 6805. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 171 

Family Mullidae; the Surmullets 
Upeneus Cuvier, 1829 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Scales large, 30 to 32 in a lateral series; several large dark blotches along 

sides maculatus 

AA. Scales smaller, 39 or 40 in a lateral series; no dark blotches along sides. 

martinicus 


Red Goatfish; Salmonete; Bar- 
baray Rouge 

Upeneus maculatus (Bloch) 



References: Mullus maculatus, Bloch, 1793, Naturg. Ausl. Fische, VII, p. 
95. 

Upeneus maculatus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 303. 

Field Characters: Elongate, rather compressed fish with two long [chin 
barbels; greenish brown above, sides green; head, lower lobe of caudal, anal, 
ventrals and pectorals red; 3 or 4 large, brownish blotches along sides. 

Size and Weight: A 220 mm. specimen has been recorded. Our largest 
measured 190 mm. and weighed 145 grams. 

General Range: Florida and south to Rio Janeiro. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Obtained only from market, where 
they were common. 

Food: Bottom debris, organic and inorganic, animal and vegetable. 

Study Material: Photograph, No. 3911; Specimens, 5; 168 to 195 mm. 
No. 6928. 


Yellow Goatfish; Salmonete 
Amarilla; Barbaray Jaune 
et Gris 

Upeneus martinicus Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes 


References: Upeneus martinicus, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829, Hist. 
Nat. Poiss., Ill, p. 483. 

Upeneus martinicus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1923, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, I, p. 306. 

Field Characters: Elongate, somewhat compressed fish with two long 
barbels at chin; pinkish with yellow band on sides from eye to caudal fin; 
pectorals pinkish; other fins yellow. 



172 


Zoological N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X;l 


Description: Our specimens differ in no way from typical descriptions. 
Size and Weight: A 275 mm. specimen is recorded. Our largest measured 
165 mm. and weighed 98 grams. 

General Range: Florida and the West Indies south to Panama. 
Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay : All three of our specimens were se- 
cured from the fishermen, who took them at night in seines near the reefs. 
Study Material: Specimens, 3; 113 to 165 mm. No. 6884. 

Family Sciaenidae; the Croakers 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Preopercular margin with bony serrae, or at least with one or more spines. 

B. Body elongate; lower jaw with a row of small barbels on each side along 

the rami, not in a tuft at tip of chin Micropogon 

BB. Body less elongate; no barbels on lower jaw. 

C. Head broad above; interorbital space wide; skull excessively cavernous, 

spongy to the touch Stellifer 

CC. Head narrower, the skull not cavernous; gill rakers comparatively long 
and slender; preopercle with its lowermost spine directed abruptly 

downward; lower jaw without canines Bairdiella 

AA. Preopercular margin with a membranous border; never with bony serrae 
or spines. 

D. Mouth small, wholly inferior, horizontal, the snout protruding; second 

dorsal very long, of 38 to 41 rays; bizarre appearing fishes with con- 
spicuous stripes Eques 

DD. Mouth large, oblique. 

E. Mouth very oblique, the lower jaw much in advance of the upper; silvery. 

Larimus 

E. Mouth less oblique, the lower jaw little if at all in advance of the upper, 
lower jaw with canines; brownish, coppery Odontoscion 

Micropogon Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830 


White-mouthed Drummer; 
Verrugato 

Micropogon furnieri (Desmarest) 


References: Umbrina furnieri } Desmarest, 1823, Prem. Dec. Ichth., 22, 
PI. II, fig. 3. 

Micropogon furnieri, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 618. 

Field Characters : Rather robust, moderately compressed croakers with 
convex profile over long snout; jaws weak, the lower jaw included and inferior; 
very small barbels under lower jaw; preopercle armed with teeth; silverjq darker 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


173 


above, rows of scales above lateral line with dark streaks, 8 or 9 short oblique 
bars running upward and backward across the arched portion of the lateral 
line. 

Size: All brought to us ranged from 250 to 330 mm. No small fish were 
observed. 

General Range : West Indies south, probably to coast of Argentina. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: This fish is apparently confined to 
the deeper waters and fishing banks, especially along the coast of the southern 
peninsula of Haiti. 

Abundance: Fairly common, found in the market quite often. 

Method of Capture: Taken mostly with traps and hook and line. 

Food: Mostly carnivorous, the stomachs of 15 fish examined contained the 
following assortment: annelids, shrimps and crabs of various species, a small 
tarpon, a file fish and three or four unidentifiable small fish. A small piece 
of limestone was found in the stomach of one fish. The species is a grubber, 
searching about on the bottom for whatever can be found. 

Breeding: The ovaries of 13 specimens taken from February 13 to March 
30 averaged 75 mm. long and 15 mm. wide. In those taken from the 9th to 
the end of March the eggs were quite well developed. Most of the eggs taken 
from a 310 mm. fish on March 18th measured .45 mm. in diameter, the remainder 
measured .28 mm. 

Study Material: Specimens, 6; 250-330 mm., No. 6839. 


Stellifer Oken, 1817 


Spongy-headed Croaker 

Stellifer colonensis Meek and Hildebrand 



Reference: Stellifer colonensis, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 623. 

Field Characters : The bones, of the skull of these fish are hollowed out to 
paper thinness; rather deep, thick-bodied fish, back elevated, sloping straightly 
to the rounded snout; mouth inferior, almost straight; gill-rakers 18 to 21; 
dorsal fin XI-I, 23. 

Description: Agrees well with the original description. In Meek and Hilde- 
brand’s specimen No. 81220 there is decided obliquity of the mouth, and the 
anterior end of the premaxillary cuts the eye, so that there is agreement in these 
two uncertain characters. 

General Range: On coral reefs at Atlantic end of Panama Canal, and Haiti. 

Study Material: Specimens, 3; 120-133 mm., No. 7035. 


174 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 
Bairdiella Gill, 1861 


[X;l 



Ronco; Ground Drummer 

Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes) 


References: Corvina ronchus, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830, Hist. Nat. 
Poiss., V, p. 107. 

Bairdiella ronchus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 634, Plate LXVII, fig. 2. 

Field Characters : Small, oblong, compressed croakers with slightly oblique 
mouths; preopercle serrate, the serrae becoming stronger toward the angle, 
the lowermost directed downward. Grayish above, silvery below; sides usually 
with brownish punctulations, a dark blotch on upper anterior angle of opercle. 
Description: Our specimens were typical. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 7 inches. The lengths and weights of our 3 
specimens were as follows: 

Length Weight 

163 mm. 85 grams 

138 “ 58 “ 

132 “ 48 “ 

General Range: West Indies, coast of Mexico south to Brazil. 

Abundance: Uncommon, brought to us by our seine fishermen about once 
every two weeks. Observed at the market fairly often. 

Food : Stomach contents were mainly small fish and crustaceans. 

Study Material: Specimens, 3; 132-163 mm., including No. 7124. 

Eques Bloch, 1793 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Soft parts of vertical fins with white spots, dorsal fin X to XII-I, 46. 

punctatus 

AA. Soft parts of vertical fins without white spots, Dorsal fin XIV or XV-I, 53. 

lanceolatus 


Spotted Ribbon-fish, Serrana 
Hispana 

Eques punctatus Bloch and Schneider 


References: Eques punctatus , Bloch and Schneider, 1801, Syst. Ichthy., p. 
106. 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


175 


Eques punctatus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of North 
and Middle America, II, p. 1488. 

Field Characters: Small, oblong, compressed fish; deepest anteriorly, 
tapering posteriorly to the narrow caudal peduncle. Dark brown, variegated 
with lighter, and with light spots on soft dorsal, caudal and anal fins and on 
the caudal peduncle. 

Size and Weight: Our 187 mm. fish weighed 137 grams. 

General Range: West Indies. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Rarely observed by us on the reefs. 

Abundance: Fairly common at the market, but among the uncommon 
food fish. 

Food: The single example had fed exclusively upon crustaceans. 

Study Material: Photograph, 3923; Specimen, 1; 187 mm., No. 6955. 


Lance-shaped Ribbon-fish ; 
Guapena; Serrana 

Eques lanceolatus (Linnaeus) 



References: Chaetodon lanceolatus, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 277. 

Eques lanceolatus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, II, p. 1489. 

Field Characters: Small, oblong compressed fishes; deepest anteriorly, 
tapering to the narrow caudal peduncle, and with a short, high spinous dorsal 
and a long soft dorsal fin. Conspicuously marked with brownish bands; 
fins not spotted with dirty white. 

Description: The single fish assigned to this species had 6 anal rays and a 
fairly large eye, the diameter of this averaging 3.27 instead of 4 in the head. 

Size and Weight: A 140 mm. fish weighed 57 grams. 

General Range: West Indies northward to Pensacola. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Fairly common on the various 
reefs. Now and then, while diving, these fish were observed swimming about 
in arena-like spaces in the coral. They preferred sandy places, usually 2 to 
3 feet in diameter and surrounded on all sides by masses of coral. Within 
these barrel-like holes the fishes slowly circled about, retreating and advancirg 
as competitors, such as snappers and sea-basses, shoved their noses into the 
retreat. 

Abundance: Uncommon, seen but rarely at the markets; less often than its 
relative punctatus. 

Food: Our 140 mm. fish had fed almost exclusively upon small crustaceans. 

Study Material: Photograph, 3987; Specimen, 1; 140 mm., No. 7049. 


176 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 
Larimus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830 


[X; 1 



Cabezon 

Larimus breviceps Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes 


References: Larimus breviceps, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830, Hist. Nat. 
Poiss., V, p. 146, Plate CXI. 

Larimus breviceps, Meek & Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 686. 

Field Characters: Medium, compressed croaker with large, oblique mouth; 
the second dorsal fin long, composed of 27 or 28 rays. Brownish above, silvery 
on sides, clear whitish-silvery below; rows of scales above with distinct dark 
streaks; a brownish axillary spot. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 12 inches. A 140 mm. fish weighed 89 grams. 

General Range: West Indies to Brazil. 

Abundance: Apparently rather rare. Only one specimen seen in five 
months. 

Food: Carnivorous, 2 silver-sides ( Hepsetia stipes ) being found in the stomach 
of our single specimen. 

Breeding: Our 140 mm. fish had ovaries 39 x 8 mm. long, the great majority 
of the eggs averaging .4 mm. in diameter (March 23, 1927). 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 140 mm., No. 7091. 


Odontoscion Gill, 1862 


Corvina; Brown large-eyed 
Croaker 

Odontoscion dentex (Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes) 


References: Corvina dentex, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830, Hist. Nat. 
Poiss., V, p. 139, Plate CIX. 

Odontoscion dentex, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, II, p. 688. 

Field Characters: Small, elongate, compressed croakers, with very large 
eyes; sides of body flattened. Reddish-brown, the rows of scales with faint 
dark streaks; a conspicuous black axillary spot. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 12 inches. A 131 mm. fish weighed 44.3 grams; 
a 126 mm. fish, 41 grams, and a 95 mm. fish 18 grams. 

General Range: West Indies, Panama, Trinidad. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Corvinas were seen constantly on 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


177 


the coral reefs in 10 to 25 feet of water, and they were among the fishes most 
commonly found floating at the surface after dynamiting. We seldom saw 
them swimming free while we were diving, and they spend most of their time 
hiding among the coral from which they jump forth after whatever luckless 
prey may happen to pass. We never saw them on the shallower, weed covered 
reefs near shore. 

Abundance: Very common, and brought to the markets in fairly large 
numbers. 

Method of Capture: Traps and dynamite. 

Food: A carnivorous species with crustaceans, especially amphipods and small 
shrimps, anchovies and other small fish constituting the greater part of their 
diet. 

Study Material: Specimens, 54; 59 to 131 mm., including Nos. 6871, 
6957, and 7244. 

Family Otolithidae; Weak-Fishes 
Cynoscion Gill, 1861 


Mongolar Drummer 

Cynoscion jamaicensis (Vaillant and 
Bocourt) 


References: Otolithus jamaicensis, Vaillant and Bocourt, 1883, Miss. Sci. 
Mex., etc., Pt. IV, p. 156, Plate VI. 

Cynoscion jamaicensis, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 662. 

Field Characters: Medium, elongate, compressed, rather deep, conical 
headed, short and blunt-snouted croakers with large, oblique mouth and fair- 
sized teeth in two rows; preopercle entire; 2 weak anal spines; a long, low second 
dorsal fin. Brownish above, silvery below, rows of scales above lateral line 
with dark streaks which run obliquely upward and back. 

Size and Weight: Grows to a foot long. A 193 mm. fish weighed 102 grams. 

General Range: West Indies; Colon. 

Abundance: Rare, not observed in markets. 

Method of Capture: Captured with hook and line. 

Food: Carnivorous, our single fish contained a silver-striped anchovy. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 193 mm., No. 7277. 

Family Malacanthidae ; the Blanquillos 
Malacanthus Curvier, 1829 




Plumier’s Blanquilla 

Malacanthus plumieri (Bloch) 


178 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


EX; 1 


References: Coryphaena plumieri, Bloch, 1787, Ichthy., V, 119, Plate 175. 

Malacanthus plumieri , Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, III, p. 2275. 

Field Characters: Medium sized, elongate, slightly compressed small- 
scaled fishes with conical snout; preopercle entire; long dorsal and anal fins; 
lateral line complete; caudal fin forked; caudal lobes yellowish. 

Description: The interorbital in our fish is wider than the eye, and there 
are 55 dorsal and 50 anal rays. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 15 inches. Our 297 mm. fish weighed 190 grams. 

General Range: West Indies. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: One specimen purchased at fish 
market. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Study Material: Colored Plate, H64, No. 7044; Specimen, 1; 297 mm., 
No. 7044. 

Family Ephippidae; the Spade-Fishes 
Chaetodipterus Lacepede, 1803 



References: Chaetodon faber, BrouSsonet, 1782, Ichth. Syst. Pise., (19), 
PI. (VI). 

Chaetodipterus faber, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 761. 

Field Characters: Moderate-sized, compressed, deep fishes with small 
but rough scales; spinous dorsal fin separate from soft dorsal; dorsal and anal 
scaled; mouth very small, teeth in brush-like bands, slender, closely set and 
movable. Young with third dorsal filament, much more produced than in 
the adults. Pearly gray, more or less uniform, the young with dark vertical 
bands. 

Size and Weight: Grows to three feet and a weight of twenty pounds. 

Color: The 381 mm. fish was dark gray without pattern, the soft dorsal, 
anal and ventral fins black. 

General Range: Cape Cod to Rio de Janeiro. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found along shore by native fisher- 
man. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


179 


Abundance: Fairly common, often brought to the markets, and constantly 
brought to us by our native seine fisherman. 

Method of Capture: Mainly by seines. 

Study Material: Drawings, H6, No. 6802; Specimens, 4; 38-280 mm., 
including Nos. 6802 and 6916. 

Family Chaetodontidae ; Butterfly Fishes 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Preopercle unarmed; the snout little if at all produced; dorsal spines 

12 to 13, not graduated, some of the middle ones highest. . . .Chaetodon 
AA. Preopercle armed at its angles with a very strong spine, which is some- 
times grooved. 

B. Interopercle unarmed; vertical limb of the preopercle above the spine 

entire or nearly so; dorsal fin with 8 to 11 spines Pomacanthus 

BB. Interopercle short and br.oad, armed with 1 to 4 strong spines; preopercle 
serrate or spinous; dorsal spines about 14, graduated, the last one longest. 

C. Vertical limb of preopercle simply serrate, with 10 to 30 small teeth, 

body oblong, rather robust Holacanthus 

CC. Vertical limb of preopercle with 3 to 9 conspicuous spines; body ovate, 
much compressed Angelichthys 

Chaetodon Linnaeus, 1758 


Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Body without ocelli, crossed by dark bands striatus 

AA. Body with a large black ocellus below the soft dorsal capistratus 


Mariposa, Butterfly-fish 

Chaetodon striatus Linnaeus 


References: Chaetodon striatus, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 275. 

Chaetodon striatus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 768. 

Field Characters: Small, deep-bodied fishes with single dorsal fin of 
spines and rays; vertical fins densely scaled; mouth small, teeth fine and brush- 



180 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 


like; three vertical black bands on body, one from nape through eye and over 
cheek, second from anterior part of spinous dorsal, and third from posterior 
part of spinous dorsal to middle of anal. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 4 or 5 inches long. A 102 mm. fish weighed 
44 grams. 

General Range : West Indies to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Known to us only by specimens 
obtained in the markets. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Food: Very minute crustaceans, algae, and other organic matter too dis- 
integrated to identify. 

Study Material: Photograph, 4054; Specimens, 3; 59-102 mm. 



Mariposa; Parche; Butterfly 

Chaetodon capistratus Linnaeus 


References: Chaetodon capistratus , Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 
275. 

Chaetodon capistratus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 767. 

Field Characters : Small, deep-bodied fishes with single dorsal fin composed 
of spines and rays, vertical fins covered with scales; mouth small; teeth fine, 
brush- like; yellowish, a black line from nape through eye and a large black 
ocellus under soft dorsal fin. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 6 inches. 

General Range: Southern Florida, southward through the West Indies, 
and north to Woods Hole, Mass. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found generally distributed in the 
Bay. 

Abundance: Fairly common, more so than striatus. 

Method of Capture: Most of our fish were taken as a result of bombing 
practice and dynamiting. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H19; Photographs, 3988, 4037, 4038; 
Specimens, 9; 32-72 mm., including No. 6811. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 181 

Pomacanthus Lacepede, 1803 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Scales in lateral line 50 to 55; color of adult steel gray or scarcely yellowish; 

young with four whitish cross bands arcuatus 

AA. Scales in lateral line 70 to 90; color black in adult with yellow mottlings; 
base of pectoral yellow; young with several yellowish cross-bands. 

paru 


Mariposa; Black Angel; Chiri 
vita; Portugais 

Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus) 


References: Chaetodon arcuatus, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 273. 

Pomacanthus arcuatus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 773. 

Field Characters: Small to medium sized, deep, compressed, but rather 
robustly built fishes with dorsal and anal fins completely covered with scales, 
the two fins falcate and produced; mouth small, teeth brush-like or setiform; 
eight or nine dorsal spines; grayish or brown, mottled, the young with 4 vertical 
white cross bands; pectoral fin base without a yellow spot. 

Description: Jordan and Evermann call the tail rounded, and this is true 
in the 103 mm. fish. All the rest have the tail lunate, and in one the tips are 
slightly produced. The figure given in “ Fishes of North and Middle America, ” 
and copied by Evermann and Marsh in “ Fishes of Porto Rico,” resembles 
paru more than arcuatus. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 13^ to 2 feet. A 240 mm. fish weighed 1 % 
pounds. 

Colors: (240 mm. fish in life). Head pale gray, chin ivory white. Scales 
of body dark brown with pale edges. Caudal with a narrow white edge, bordered 
internally with a still narrower golden line. Edges of fins and the pectoral 
fins black. Anterior half of iris dark chocolate, posterior half cream. 

General Range: West Indies, occasionally north to New Jersey and New 
York, south to Bahia. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Seen very often on the reefs while 
diving. 

Abundance: Common, often seen in the markets. 

Method of Capture: Hooks, spears, dynamite. 

Food: Alimentary canal crammed with algae, hydroids, etc. 



182 Zoologica : N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Study Material: Photograph, 3756; Specimens, 5; 103-240 mm. including 
No. 6812. 



References: Chaetodon paru, Bloch, 1787, Ichthyologia, 57, Plate 197, fig. 1. 

Pomacanthus paru, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 775. 

Field Characters : Small to medium-sized fishes with small mouth contain- 
ing fine, brush-like teeth; dorsal and anal fins completely covered with scales, 
the former containing 10 spines. Black, pectoral fin with an orange bar at 
base. Young with 5 light cross bars. 

Size and Weight: Grows to a foot or more. Our 235 mm. fish weighed 1)4, 
pounds. 

General Range : West Indies, south to Bahia. 

Abundance: Uncommon, a single fish purchased at the fish market. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 235 mm., No. 7123. 

Holacanthus Lacepede, 1803 


Rock Beauty; Catalineta; Ma- 
guerite 

Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch) 


References: Chaetodon tricolor, Bloch, 1795, Ichthyologia, p. 103, Plate 426. 

Holacanthus tricolor, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 779. 

Field Characters: Small to medium-sized fishes with dorsal and anal fins 
completely covered with scales; mouth small, teeth brush-like; head, anterior 
third of body and tail rich orange, rest of body black. 

Size and Weight: Grows to a foot. A 115 mm. fish weighed 84 grams. 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


183 


General Range: West Indies south to Bahia and north to Bermuda. 
Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found on all coral reefs. 
Abundance: Rather common. 

Method of Capture: Mainly by traps. 

Food: Algae and scrapings. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H122, No. 6948; Photograph, 3920; Speci- 
mens, 4; 89-154 mm., including No. 6948. 

Angelichthys Jordan and Evermann, 1896 


Angel-fish; Isabelito; Maguerite 

Angelichthys ciliaris (Linnaeus) 


References: Chaetodon ciliaris, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 276. 

Angelichthys ciliaris, Evermann and Marsh, 1902, Fishes of 
Porto Rico, p. 252, plate 37. 

Field Characters : Medium to large-sized compressed, robust fish with small 
mouth; teeth fine, brush-like; preopercle with a series of spines on the upper 
limb; bluish to yellowish; sides of head pale yellow; pectoral, ventral and caudal 
fins lemon yellow; the nape with a blue ocellus. 

Size and Weight: Grows to two feet. 

General Range: Southern Florida, West Indies to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Seen on all the reefs. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Method of Capture: Mainly by traps. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H89; Specimens, 2; 119-195 mm., including 
Nos. 6961, 7143. 

Family Acanthuridae ; Surgeon-Fishes. 

Acanthurus Forskal, 1775 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Body deep, rhomboid, depth 1.55 to 1.75 in length; snout 1.25 to 1.5 in 

head; longest dorsal spine shorter than snout; dorsal rays IX, 25-27: 
anal rays III, 24-26; color deep bluish black, base of caudal not paler 
than rest of body; sides with narrow, horizontal blue lines. . . .caeruleus 
A A. Body more elongate, at least when specimens of equal size are compared; 
color lighter, brownish; anal rays III, 21 to 23. 

B. Caudal fin deeply concave, the upper lobe notably produced in adult; 

color uniform, without vertical bars in young; concave portion of caudal 



184 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

fin with a broad white margin, dorsal fin with about eight horizontal 
dark lines bafiianus 


BB. Caudal fin only moderately concave, the upper lobe not produced and 
not much longer than the lower; young with narrow vertical bars; 
concave portion of caudal fin with a very narrow white margin or none; 
dorsal fin dark, almost black hepatus 


Barbero; Blue Tang; Blue Sur- 
geon; Sous-ge 

Acanthurus caeruleus Bloch and 
Schneider 


References: Acanthurus caeruleus, Bloch and Schneider, 1801, Syst. Ich- 
thyologia, p. 214. 

Acanthurus caeruleus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 782. 

Field Characters: Surgeon fishes; small fish with erectile spine on side of 
caudal peduncle; fairly deep, the depth once and a half in the length. Color, 
brown, washed with deep blue, with undulating longitudinal pale blue streaks 
on body. 

Size and Weight: Grows to about one foot. A 95 mm. fish weighed 39.5 
grams. 

General Range: West Indies; Bermuda to Bahia; occasionally northward 
to the vicinity of New York. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken over all the reefs. 

Abundance: Fairly common. Seen quite often in the markets. 

Method of Capture : Mainly traps and dynamite. 

Study Material: Specimens 5; 81-166 mm., including No. 6926. 


Crescent-tailed Surgeon Fish ; 
Ocean Tang 

Acanthurus bahianus Castelnau 


References: Acanthurus bahianus, Castelnau, 1855, Anim. Nouv. Rares 
Amer. Sud, p. 24, Plate XI, fig. 1. 

Acanthurus bahianus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 783. 




1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


185 


Field Characters: Medium sized fish with an erectile spine on each side 
of the caudal peduncle; depth about one half the length, caudal fin deeply 
emarginate, the upper tip produced in older fish; brown, 8 dark lines running 
parallel with edge of dorsal fin for its whole length. 

Size and Weight: Grows to about a foot. A 125 mm. fish weighed 67 grams. 

General Range: West Indies; Florida to Bahia, occasionally northward to 
Woods Hole. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Quite widely distributed, but mainly 
on the deeper reefs. 

Abundance: Fairly common. 

Method of Capture: Traps and dynamite. 

Food : Finely disintegrated organic matter, with traces of algae and of worm 
tubes. 

Study Material: Color Plate, HI 25; Specimens, 9; 57-129 mm., includ- 
ing No. 6815. 


Common Surgeon, Doctor-fish; 
Lancet-fish 

Acanthurus hepatus (Linnaeus) 


References: Teuthis hepatus, Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., Ed. XII, p. 507. 

Acanthurus hepatus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, Part III, p. 784. 

Field Characters: Surgeon fishes; small fish with an erectile spine on sides 
of caudal peduncle; depth about one-half the length; caudal fin lunate; brown, 
with about 12 vertical blackish bars. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 10 inches. A 106 mm. fish weighed 48 grams. 

General Range: West Indies; Recorded from Massachusetts to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found generally on the reefs. 

Abundance: Fairly common and often seen in the markets. 

Method of Capture: Traps and dynamite. 

Food: The powerful gizzard-like stomach contained unidentifiable vegetable 
and animal matter. 

Study Material: Specimens, 14; 51-181 mm. including Nos. 6862 and 6925. 



Family Scorpaenidae ; the Scorpion-Fishes 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 


A. Dorsal spines normally 12; palatine teeth present Scorpaena 

AA. Dorsal spines normally 13; palatine teeth absent Scorpaenodes 


186 Zoological N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Scorpaena Linnaeus, 1758 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. A distinct pit below anterior margin of eye; head quite as broad as deep; 

occipital pit very deep, prominent; axil black, with small white or 

pale blue spots plumieri 

A A. No pit below anterior margin of eye; head not broader than deep. 

B. Suborbital stay with 2 or 3 distinct spines, not counting the terminal 

one on the preopercle. 

C. Third anal spine longer, but not stronger than second; scales small, 55 to 60; 

axil of pectoral pale with small round dark spots brasiliensis 

CC. Second anal spine longer and stronger than third; supraorbital tentacles 
very long, always longer than eye; scales 41 to 45; axil of pectoral 
grey with very small bluish spots enclosed in black rings . . grandicornis 
BB. Suborbital stay without spines, a terminal one on the preopercle; scales 
about 50; second anal spine not longer than 3rd; maxillary reaches 
to middle of eye isthmensis 



References: Scorpaena plumieri , Bloch, 1789, K. Vet. Ac. Nya. Hand!., 
X, p. 234. 

Scorpaena plumieri , Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 835. 

Field Characters: Small fishes with many conspicuous dermal flaps and 
tentacles on head and body; head very rugose; a small but very distinct pit 
below anterior border of eye; axil of pectoral usually black, with white or blue 
spots. 

Description: The single specimen in the collection is typical. 

Size and Weight: Grows to about a foot. Our 116 mm. fish weighed 85 
grams. 

General Range: West Indies, south to Brazil occasionally north to Mas- 
sachusetts. 

Abundance: Rather rare, a single specimen taken in trap. 

Study Material: Photographs, 4027, 4028; Specimen, 1; 116 mm., No. 
7380. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


187 


Small-scaled Scorpion Fish 

Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier and Val- 
enciennes 



References: Scorpaena brasiliensis, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829, Hist. 
Nat. Poiss., IV, p. 305. 

Scorpaena brasiliensis, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 837. 

Field Characters: Rather small fishes with rough spiny head and with a 
few dermal flaps along the lateral line; no pit below eye; the suborbital stay 
with 2 or 3 spines; third anal spine longer but not stronger than second: axil of 
pectoral fin pale with small black spots. 

Size and Weight: A 142 mm. fish weighed 92 grams, and an 87 mm. speci- 
men 23.5 grams. 

General Range: West Indies, South Carolina and Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found along shore, among coral 
and on reefs. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Method of Capture: Seines. 

Study Material: Drawing, H12, No. 6801; Specimens, 2; 87-141 mm., 
including No. 6801. 


Long-horned Scorpion-Fish 

Scorpaena grandicornis Cuvier and Val- 
enciennes 



References: Scorpaena grandicornis, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829, Hist. 
Nat. Poiss., IV, p. 309. 

Scorpaena grandicornis , Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 838. 

Field Characters: Small fishes with many conspicuous dermal flaps and 
tentacles on head and body, one above the eye always much longer than diam- 
eter of the eye; head with numerous sharp spines; axil grayish with small 
bluish or white spots enclosed in black rings. 

Description: Agrees in all particulars with the type description. 

Size and Weight: A 109 mm. fish weighed 47 grams. 

General Range: Florida keys to Brazil. 

Abundance: A single specimen purchased in fish market. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 108 mm., No. 6934. 



188 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 


Smooth-cheeked Scorpion Fish 

Scorpaena isthmensis Meek and Hilde- 
brand 


Reference: Scorpaena isthmensis , Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 842, Plate LXXX. 

Field Characters: Medium sized fish with fleshy tentacle over eye and small 
dermal flaps along the lateral line; no pit below the anterior margin of the eye; 
suborbital stay without spines; scales about 50. 

Description: We are assigning a single 169 mm. fish to isthmensis, recently 
described by Meek and Hildebrand from a 90 mm. fish from Porto Bello, 
Panama, although it is possible that our fish represents a new species. The 
most marked differences between the two specimens are the possession of a 
greater number of gill-rakers (5 short and stockily-built and 5 additional smaller 
ones) in the Haitian fish, in the greater extent of the membranes of the dorsal 
fin and in the presence of an ocular cirrus. The similarities are quite numerous, 
however, and considering the fewness of specimens it seems better to call our 
fish isthmensis , at least until further material is gathered. 

The following are the dimensions of our fish: 



Length 

Depth 

Head 

Eye 

Snout 

Maxillary 

Interorbital space 


169 mm. 
57 (2.96) 
69 (2.44) 
19 (3.6) 
18 (3.8) 
37 (1.85) 
10.5 (1.9) 


Dorsal fin XII, 9 3^2 
Anal fin III, 5K 
Scales 50, 23 pores 


The pectoral fin has 20 rays, of which the upper three and the lower 1 1 are 
simple, the middle 7 are branched. It possesses an elongate flap above the base 
of the pectoral. 

Size and Weight: The 169 mm. fish weighed 158 grams. 

General Range: Panama and Haiti. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken from a trap 15 feet deep on 
reef. 

Abundance: Rare. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 169 mm., No. 7381. Port-au-Prince Bay. 


1928] 


189 


Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 

Scorpaenodes Bleeker, 1857 

Haitian Scorpion Fish 

Scorpaenodes russelli new species 



Type: No. 7207. Length 71 mm. Bizoton Reef, Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti. 
Taken in wire trap in 12 feet of water on coral. 27-IV, 1927. 


Measurements and Counts: 

Length: 71 mm. 

Head: 30 (2.3) 

Depth: 25 (2.8) 

Eye: 9 (3.3) 

Snout: 7 (4.3) 

Maxillary: 15 (2) 

Scale count: 40 
Interorbital: 4 (7.5) 

Description: 

Body: Short, deep, robust. 

Back: Slightly elevated. 

Anterior profile: Irregularly convex. 

Cephalic armature: 

Interorbital: 2 longitudinal ridges ending in small spines. 

Supraorbital: Prominent ridge with 3 spines all ending in short filaments. 
Preorbital: No spines or blunt points. 

Narial spine: Well developed. 

Occipital region: A strong spine close behind and almost in line with the 
supraorbital spines; 2 pairs of nuchal spines behind the one just mentioned, 
much nearer the mid-line and converging obliquely forward. 

Shoulder girdle : 2 spines at anterior end of lateral line, merging abruptly 
into lateral line scales each of which has a short spine of its own ; 1 spine half 
way between lateral line and upper base of pectoral. 


Weight: 12.5 grams 
Dorsal fin: XIII-9^ 
Anal fin: III-5H 
Pectoral rays: 19 
Pectoral length: 21 (1.4) 
Ventral length: 16 
Ocular angle: 30° up 
Mouth angle: 40° down 
Lateral line pores: 23-25 


190 


Zoologica: N . Y. Zoological Society 


[X;l 


Preopercular margin: 3 spines, lowermost with dermal flap. 

Opercular margin : 2 strong spines, not divergent, upper larger. 

Suborbital stay: 4 spines; 3 spines beneath anterior part of stay. 

Interorbital: Very concave. 

Snout: Broad, high-ridged. 

Eye: Large, superior, directed obliquely upward. 

Mouth: Wide, oblique. 

Lower jaw: Included. 

Maxillary: Reaching to mid-eye. 

Gill-rakers: Short, thick and widely spaced; 8 + 4 rudiments on left side, 9 + 2 
rudiments on right gill. 

Teeth: In villiform bands; a broad Y-shaped patch on vomer; none on pala- 
tines. 

Tongue: Narrow, spoon-shaped tip, widening rapidly. 

Scales: Small, finely ctenoid, absent from snout, lips and chin. 

Lateral line: Prominent, irregularly absent from a few precaudal scales; each 
with a small spine and dermal flap. 

Dorsal fin: Deeply notched, 5th and 6th spines longest. 

Caudal fin: Shape indefinite, as tips of rays are broken. 

Anal spines: 3; the 2nd enlarged, longer and stronger than 3rd. 

Pectoral rays: 19; Upper 2 simple, next 7 branched, lower 10 simple. 

Color: Body Corinthian red with white mottlings; head and spines scarlet; 
iris scarlet on inner half, sepia spotted with white outside; spinous dorsal fin 
pale grey boldly spotted with scarlet; soft dorsal, anal and caudal white, spotted 
with scarlet and sepia, and broadly tipped with lemon yellow; ventrals wholly 
lemon yellow, finely dotted with scarlet; pectorals pale grey, thickly streaked 
with sepia on proximal half, scarlet distally, with wide terminal band of flame 
orange; lips lemon yellow, touched at symphysis with scarlet. 

In preservative all colors fade to a uniform greyish brown. 

Comparison: This species is closest to caribbaeus, the much larger body 
scales setting it apart at once from tredecimspinosa. From the former it 
differs in the present of dermal flaps on supraocular spines, in 4 spines on sub- 
orbital stay, 2 series of occipital spines, 2nd anal spine not greatly enlarged, 
different number and diversity of pectoral rays, in ctenoid head scales, slightly 
less number of body scales, much larger snout, narrower interorbital, and 
larger number of gill rakers. 

Study Material: Type specimen. Color Plate H108. 

Type Name and Location: The name is given in honor of General John H. 
Russell, American High Commissioner of Haiti under the American Occupation, 
who, with Mrs. Russell, insured the success of the expedition while in the island. 

The type, No. 7207, and only specimen, is deposited in the Collection of the 
Department of Tropical Research of the New York Zoological Society. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


191 


Family Triglidae; the Gurnards 
Prionotus Lacepede, 1802 


Spotted Gurnard 

Prionotus punctatus (Bloch) 


References: Trigla punctata, Bloch, 1793, Naturg. Ausl. Fische, VII, p. 125, 
Plate CCCLIII. 

Prionotus punctatus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 850. 

Field Characters: Small to medium fishes with head inclosed in a bony, 
somewhat spiny armature; pectoral fins with three lower anterior rays separate 
from the rest and free from each other. 

Description: The Haitian fish have no spine in the center of radiation of the 
cheek. They differ in no other way. 

Size and Weight: Grows to about a foot. A 189 mm. fish weighed 171 
grams, a 183 mm. fish 131 grams, and a 134 mm. fish 56 grams. 

General Range: West Indies, East Coast of Mexico, Brazil and Uruguay. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Most of our specimens were from the 
market, but two were taken at night with submerged lights. 

Abundance: Rather uncommon. 

Method of Capture : Seines and scoop-nets. 

Food: Small crustaceans and shrimps. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H33; Specimens, 6; 136-189 mm., including 
Nos. 6908, 7095, and 7385. 

Family Cephalacanthidae ; the Flying Gurnards 
Cephalacanthus Lacepede, 1802 


Flying Gurnard 

Cephalacanthus volitans (Linnaeus) 


References: Trigla volitans, Linnaeus, 1758, Systema Natura, Ed. X, 1, 
p. 302. 

Cephalacanthus volitans, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 860. 

Field Characters: Small to medium fishes with head enclosed in a bony 
armature; pectoral fins long, wing-like, used for flying; pectoral fins without 
fleshy tentacles at their base anteriorly. 






192 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Size and Weight: Grows to 12 inches. A 182 mm. fish weighed 136 grams 
and a 70 mm. specimen 5.5 grams. 

General Range: Known from both coasts of the Atlantic Ocean, straying 
north to Woods Hole, Mass. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found widely over the surface of the 
Bay, small fish often coming to our submerged lamps at night. 

Method of Capture: Scoop nets at light and seines. 

Habits: A short account, with three figures, of habits has been published 
by William Beebe as chapter XI, in his volume “Beneath Tropic Seas” (Putnam). 

Study Material: Color Plate, H60, No. 6892; Photographs, 3862, 3945, 
3968, 3972; Specimens, 19; 43 to 182 mm., including Nos. 6892, and 7208. 

Family Pomacentridae; the Demoiselles 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Body elongate, the depth usually more than 2 in the length; teeth in the 

jaws conical, in bands, the outer ones enlarged. Tail with upper 

and lower margin black Chromis 

AA. Body usually deep, ovate; teeth in one or two series, compressed, more 
or less incisor like; tail variously colored, but never with conspicuous 
black upper and lower margin. 

B. Teeth rather large, immovable, of about equal size in each jaw, usually 

truncate or more or less notched; suborbital without a deep notch 
between nostril and maxillary. 

C. Preopercle and suborbital distinctly serrate; teeth with straight or slightly 

truncate margins, never distinctly notched Pomacentrus 

CC. Preopercle and suborbital entire; teeth always with distinctly notched 

margins; mouth oblique, terminal, the lips thin Abudefduf 

BB. Teeth small, movable, those in upper jaw close set, compressed, with entire 
margins, those in the lower jaw larger anteriorly, much reduced at 
sides; suborbital with a deep notch between nostril and maxillary. 

Microspathodon 


Chromis Cuvier, 1815 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Base of anal fin shorter than longest anal ray, or rarely equal to it, the 
height of the longest ray averaging 4.4 to 4.9 in standard length. No 

black axillary spot. Color in life blue and black cyaneus 

A A. Base of anal fin longer than longest anal ray; the height of the longest 
anal ray averaging 6.9 to 8.1 in standard length. A conspicuous 
black axillary spot. Color in life light brown and black marginatus 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


193 


Blue Chromis 

Chromis cyaneus (Poey) 


References: Furcaria cyanea, Poey, 1860, Memorias, II, 196, Plate 14, 
figs. 5-8. 

Chromis cyaneus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of North 
and Middle America, II, p. 1547. 

Field Characters: Small, oblong, compressed fishes with body tapering 
gradually backward; teeth conical, in bands; anal fin rather high, its longest 
ray equal to or longer than base of fin; sides bluish and black; axillary spot 
absent, but a scattering of small spots across upper base of pectoral. Upper 
and lower lobe of caudal fin with a black band. 

Description: The Port-au-Prince Bay fishes of the genus Chromis can be 
divided into two species, differing, as shown in the key, both in shape of the 
anal fin, and in color. Our specimens show no intermediates between the 
two, and we possess males and females of both species. 

The practice of recent authors has been to consider the various West Indian 
forms of Chromis as belonging to one species. Thus Meek and Hildebrand 
(Marine Fishes of Panama, II, p. 696) state that “we have referred our speci- 
mens to Chromis marginatus but we are of the opinion that further study will 
show that Chromis multilineatus (Guichenot). Chromis cyaneus (Poey) and 
Chromis punctatus (Poey) are all identical. 

Breder (Bulletin Bingham Oceanographical Collection, Vol. I, Article 1, 
page 50), on the basis of 141 specimens, refers all West Indian fish to Chromis 
marginatus, and tentatively divides his materials into three “ecological races, ” 
marginatus marginatis, marginatus multilineatus, and marginatus cyaneus. 

We have examined 79 of Breder ’s 141 specimens, Bingham Collection 
Numbers, 100, 558, 242 and 244, representing all 3 of his forms. 

The 4 specimens in No. 100 are typical cyaneus according to our key, possessing 
the characteristic type of anal fin, a dark blue coloring and lacking an axillary 
spot. Numbers 242, m. multilineatus and 244, m. marginatus, are similar to 
our brown fish. The 15 fish in Number 558, assigned by Breder to marginatus 
marginatus can be divided by our key into two very distinct groups, and like 
our fish the 9 specimens with higher anals possess a much darker coloration 
and lack the dark axillary spot. We consider these 9 fish as belonging to 
cyaneus, their coloring in preservative differing in no way from our specimens 
of cyaneus, which in the field were brilliantly blue. The other six fish are 
typical of our marginatus. 

Our specimens of cyaneus agree in form with the plate given by Poey, and 
it is of interest to note that Poey in his original description states that the anal 
and dorsal fins are higher than in multilineatus, which is exactly the condition 
found in the Haitian fish. In measuring the height of the anal rays we have 



Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


194 


[X; 1 


measured from the base of the fin, ignoring the scales covering the base of the 
fin. 

Size and Weight: Grows to about 5 inches. A 85 mm. fish weighed 26 
grams. 

General Range: Cuba, Bahamas, Haiti. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found on all reefs, living under the 
same conditions as Chromis marginatus, the two species coming to the surface 
together as the result of the same dynamite explosion. 

Abundance: Fairly common. 

Method of Capture: Most of our fish were taken by dynamite, but a few 
were captured in traps. 

Study Material: Drawings: H116; Photographs, 4046; Specimens, 7; 
65-85 mm., including Nos. 7097, 7232, 7342, 7343, 7345, 7346. 


Brown Chromis 

Chromis marginatus (Castelnau) 


References: Heliasis marginata, Castelnau, 1855, Anim. Nouv. Rares 
Amer. Sud, 9, Plate III, fig. 1. 

Chromis marginatus , Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 695, Plate LXIX, fig. 1. 

Field Characters: Small, oblong, compressed fishes with body tapering 
gradually backward; teeth conical, in bands; anal fin low, its base always longer 
than longest anal ray, the longest ray 6.9 to 8.1 in length; brownish, with 
conspicuous black axillary spot; caudal fin with black band along upper and 
lower lobe. 

Description: The brown species of Chromis found in Haiti is nearest the 
descriptions of marginatus , but it is very likely that the low-analed brownish 
forms of the genus vary considerably in color. None of the Haitian fishes 
had any indication in life of the yellow spot on the caudal peduncle mentioned 
for multilineatus by Jordan and Evermann and for marginatus by Meek and 
Hildebrand. 

The plate given by the latter authors resembles our species closely, and shows 
well the characteristic low anal fin of this species. 

Size and Weight: Grows to about 4 inches. A 104 mm. fish weighed 28 
grams. 

General Range: Bahia, Glover reef, Isle of Pines, Bahamas and Haiti. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found on all reefs. 

Abundance: Fairly common, slightly more so than Chromis cyaneus. 

Method of Capture: Mostly by dynamite and also in traps. 

Study Material: Specimens, 9; 79-104 mm., including Nos. 6927, 7229, 
7341 and 7348. 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


195 


Pomacentrus Lacepede, 1803 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Color extremely variable, black, brown, blue, yellow or orange in various 

combinations; often a large ocellus on dorsal fin fuscus 

AA. Anterior part of body purplish-black; posterior portion grayish-white, 
the caudal fin black; living in tall tubular sponges. 

freemani new species 


Common Demoiselle 

Pomacentrus fuscus Cuvier and Valen 
ciennes 


References: Pomacentrus fuscus, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830, Hist. 
Nat. Poiss., V, p. 432. 

Eupomacentrus fuscus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, II, p. 1552. 

Eupomacentrus leucostidus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, 
Fishes of North and Middle America, II, p. 1555. 

Pomacentrus fuscus, Breder, 1927, Bull. Bing. Oceanographic 
Collection, I, Art. I, p. 54. 

Field Characters: Small, compressed, rather deep fishes with one row of 
entire teeth in each jaw; preopercle and suborbital serrate; coloration variable; 
sometimes with yellow and blue and an ocellus under the soft dorsal fin, 
changing to brown with vertical darker stripes. 

Description: The systematic problems offered by the Demoiselles can be 
settled only by study of living or fresh specimens in the field. In an aquarium 
in Haiti we have had the extreme leucostidus form, — blue, yellow and ocellated — 
change within a half hour to an equally extreme fuscus, — brown, with many 
vertical dark bands, and with no trace of ocelli. We believe that many, if not 
all of the West Indian species to which names have been given will be found 
to be ontogenetic color phases. We have satisfied ourselves that utmost 
diversity in collected specimens may result from whether the fish were killed 
in the day or at night, and in what liquid they were preserved. 

Size and Weight: Six inches seems to be the maximum size of this fish. 
A 75 mm. individual weighs 20.5 grams. 

General Range: Florida and West Indies to Brazil. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found everywhere among the grass 
along shore and on all the reefs. 

Method of Capture: Do not take the hook. Captured with traps and 
dynamite. 

Food: Algae, small organisms and all manner of bottom debris. 



196 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Size of Maturity: Breeding individuals were found less than 2 inches in 
length. 

General Habits: These fish are individually extremely local, living singly 
or in pairs in some particular crevice or large shell, and defending it fearlessly 
against any intruder. 

Study Material: Colored Plate, H13, No. 6824; Photograph, 3877; 
Specimens, 107; from 10 to 100 mm., including Nos. 6824, 6874, 6987, 7235, 
7338 and 7339. 

Haitian Demoiselle 

Pomacentrus freemani new species 



Type: No. 7269. Length 48 mm. Sand Cay, Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti; 
Found in sponge which was growing on coral reef; 7-V-1927. 

Field Characters: Small, compressed, deep-bodied demoiselle; dark brown, 
with the posterior fourth of the body, including the soft dorsal and caudal 
peduncle white; pectoral fins yellow; caudal fin black. 

Measurements and Counts: 

Length: 54 mm. 

Head: 16 (3.3) 

Depth: 26 (2) 

Eye: 6 (2.7) 

Snout: 4.3 (3.8) 

Scales: 28 

Lateral line pores : 20 
Description: . 

Body: Very deep, compressed. 

Back: Elevated. 

Anterior Profile: Straight from dorsal to eye, slightly convex from eye to 
mouth. 

Head: Deeper than long. 

Interorbital: 5.5 mm., convex, 1.09 in eye. 

Snout: Broad, swollen. 


Weight: 6 grams 
Dorsal fin: XII-143^ 
Anal fin: 11-13^ 
Pectoral length: 16 mm. 
Ventral length: 17 mm. 
Ocular angle : 10° up 
Mouth angle: 30° down 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 197 

Eye: Large. 

Mouth: Small, terminal, oblique. 

Maxillary: Not reaching eye. 

Teeth: Palisade-type, flat, with truncate, yellowish tips; about 30 in upper 
jaw; 28 in lower jaw, 6 large ones on each side of the symphysis, giving place 
rather abruptly to 8 small, lateral teeth. 

Preopercular margin: Finely serrated. 

Opercular margin: Smooth. 

Gill-rakers: 8-9, longest behind (2 mm.) graduated to an anterior rudiment; 
slender. 

Scales: Large, finely ctenoid, absent only from chin. 

Lateral line: Parallel with back, ending beneath 6th ray of the soft dorsal. 

Dorsal fin: High, first dorsal strongly scaled to the tip, soft dorsal with smaller 
scales half-way up; 9th ray longest, 12 mm. three-fourths as long as head, 
forming with the few adjacent rays an elongated, sharp, posterior angle. 

Anal fin: 2nd anal spine five times as thick and long as the 1st spine; soft 
rays scaled for three-fourths of their length, contour more rounded than in 
soft dorsal. 

Color: General color purplish to black; under surface of head, breast and 
belly brownish; caudal peduncle, soft dorsal and body posteriorly from a line 
drawn from the anterior part of the anal fin greyish white with a slight yellowish 
or orange tinge, especially pronounced on the dorsal fin; pectoral yellowish; 
remaining fins black. 

Comparison : Resembles fuscus in the wide sense but with a larger eye than 
most, of the varieties, although some of the so-called species have as large, and 
with a very different, definite coloration and pattern. The type and six co-types 
show no variation in this respect, and at least five other individuals were seen 
but not captured. All, without exception, were living in the tubes of tall 
chimney and in vase sponges, and came out only when disturbed or killed by 
dynamite. The larger eye and the lighter patterning may both be . related 
to this mode of life. While it may seem peculiar to regard the other Poma- 
centrids as consisting of a single or at most two or three extremely variable 
species, and then to describe a new one, we feel that the coloration, which 
although it resembles that of partitus, is different, and especially the restricted 
habitat make this species valid. 

Study Material: Specimens, 7; Type No. 7269, 6 co-types, 48-53 mm., 
Nos. 7269a and 7347. Color plate, H120. 

Type Name and Location: Named for Dr. George F. Freeman, Directeur 
General, Service Technique, Haiti, who did all in his power to assist us. 

Type in the Collection of the Department of Tropical Research of the New 
York Zoological Society. 


198 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Abudefduf Forskal, 1775 


Sergeant Major; Cow-Pilot; 
Cockeye Pilot 

Abudefduf saxatilis (Linnaeus) 


References: Chaetodon saxatilis, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 276. 

Abudefduf saxatilis, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, II, p. 701. 

Field Characters: Small, deep, compressed fishes, with small terminal 
mouth and entire preopercle and suborbital; teeth always notched; grayish- 
green, sometimes with yellow; sides with 5 broad, dusky vertical bars. 

Description: The Haitian specimens do not differ from published descrip- 
tions. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 6 inches. Our specimens are from 12 to 108 
mm. The 108 mm. fish weighed 76 grams. 

Color: The smaller specimens, 12 to 20 mm., have the entire body covered 
with chromatophores, through which the dark bars show as denser concentra- 
tions of pigment. The density of these vertical bars in the preserved small 
fish varies considerably, in some it is barely visible and in others very strongly 
marked. 

A note on coloration shows the ground-color of a 105 mm. fish to be bluish 
silver on the sides, with considerable golden along the back. Iris, dark brown 
with silver around the edges. 

General Range: Pacific coast from Lower California to Peru. Atlantic 
coast, Florida to Peru, once accidental in Rhode Island. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Widely distributed near shore, 
especially over shallow reefs. 

Abundance: A common species, often seen in markets. 

Method of Capture: Taken by us mostly in traps; also by dynamite and 
with aid of airplane practice bombs. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H62; Photograph, 3933; Specimens: 16; 
12 to 115 mm., including Nos. 6816, 6963, 7002, 7162, 7192, 7195d, and 7279. 

Microspathodon Gunther, 1862 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Sides brown, sometimes with small bluish spots on head and dorsal surfaces, 
tail yellow or orange, or the same color as the rest of the body. . . chrysurus 
AA. Sides with conspicuous bluish-white spots, about the size of a scale. 

niveatus 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


199 


Yellow-tailed, Soft-toothed 
Demoiselle 

Microspathodon chrysurus (Cuvier and 
Valenciennes) 


References: Glyphisodon chrysurus, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830, Hist. 
Nat. Poiss., V, p. 476. 

Microspathodon chrysurus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, 
Marine Fishes of Panama, II, p. 706. 

Field Characters: Small, deep, compressed, brownish fishes with small 
terminal mouth, and with small, close-set movable teeth in upper jaw; dark 
brown, sometimes with an orange or yellow tail. 

Description: Our specimens are quite typical. 

Size and Weight: Grows to six inches. A 115 mm. fish weighed 76 grams, 
and a 100 mm. fish 53 grams. 

Color: The life colors of a 100 mm. fish were as follows: Dusky brown with a 
golden sheen; fins black; opercle dull golden; tail abruptly cadmium yellow; 
iris dusky brown, silvery in the antero-inferior fourth. 

A 115 mm. specimen, which preserved agrees wholly with the description 
of chrysurus, is close to niveatus in color, and was described in the field as follows : 
Brownish black, with yellowish centres to scales below, and with small blue 
spots on some above. Three blue spots along the lateral line, and many below 
the eye and along the dorsal fin. A strong, yellowish tinge to the distal part 
of the caudal. 

General Range: West Indies and Panama. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Widely distributed on reefs. 

Abundance: A common species, often brought into the markets. 

Method of Capture: We took it almost entirely by dynamite, and it was 
by far the commonest fish to rise to the surface after an explosion. 

Food: Stomach contents of a number of fish contained mostly large quantities 
of chewed algae and bottom debris, with an occasional entomostracan. 

Spawning Season: A 100 mm. fish captured during the beginning of March 
had well developed eggs. 

Eggs: The ovaries in the fish mentioned above measured 36 by 6 mm. the 
eggs being oval, averaging .7 mm. in diameter, the estimated number being 
9200 in each ovary. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H71; Photograph, 3908; Specimens, 6; 
75-115 mm., Nos. 6932 and 7165. 



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White- spotted, Soft-toothed 
Demoiselle 

Microspathodon niveatus (Poey) 


References: Pomacentrus niveatus , Poey, 1875, Enumeratio, p. 102. 

Microspathodon niveatus , Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, II, p. 1567. 

Field Characters: Small, deep, compressed fish with small, movable 
teeth; blackish, the sides with sky blue spots about the size of a scale. 

Note: This species was not taken by us, but 8 to 10 individuals from 4 to 6 
inches long were seen while diving. Breder on the basis of materials collected 
on the Bingham Oceanographic Expedition, synonomyzes this species with 
chrysurus, stating that he considers it to be one of immature color phases of the 
latter species. 

However, as we saw specimens of apparently typical niveatus larger than those 
he possessed, and as Silvester, in Porto Rico, speaking of niveatus , states that 
“Many specimens of this beautiful fish were seen swimming among the corals 
of the western end of Rojas de la Parda; they varied in length from about 2 to 
4 inches.” we consider it, for the time being, valid. However, it is of interest 
to note that some of our large, undoubted specimens of chrysurus possessed 
blue spots on the head and along the dorsal surfaces and fin. These spots 
seemed to be smaller and concentrated on the places mentioned, and not 
widely distributed over the sides, as in Silvester’s plate of niveatus, and in the 
individuals seen by us. 

It is possible that these two forms represent color-phases of the same species, 
but until further evidence is secured we are treating them as separate species. 

General Range: Cuba, Isle of Pines, Haiti and Porto Rico. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found only on reefs. 

Abundance: Rather rare, not seen in markets. 

Family Labridae; Wrasses 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Anterior canines strong; spinous dorsal not enveloped in scales. 

B. Dorsal spines 13 or 14, the first three or four falcate, produced into long 

streamers Lachnolaimus 

BB. Dorsal spines 11 or 12, rarely 13, with no long filaments; soft dorsal and 
anal fins with a scaly sheath at the base; soft dorsal and anal elevated, 

produced behind Bodianus 

A A. Anterior teeth small, bluntish, not canine-like; dorsal and anal fins en- 
veloped in scales Clepticus 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


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Lachnolaimus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1839 


Hogfish 

Lachnolaimus maximus (Walbaum) 


References: Labrus maximus, Walbaum, 1792, Artedi Piscium, p. 261. 

Lachnolaimus maximus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, II, p. 1579. 

Field Characters: A large reddish wrasse resembling a Serranid or sea- 
bass; anterior spines of dorsal fin greatly prolonged; a dark spot on base of 
posterior rays of soft dorsal. 

Description: Our single specimen is typical in every way. 

Size and Weight: Reaches a length of two feet and a weight of 15 pounds. 
Our fish was 341 mm. (13H> inches) long and weighed 3 pounds. 

Color: At death the general color was pinkish red, with yellow edges to the 
scales; the iris was reddish orange. 

General Range: Bermuda, Key West and the West Indies. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: A single specimen taken on March 
3rd at the fish market. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 341 mm., No. 6979. 

Bodianus Bloch, 1790 


Lady-fish 

Bodianus rufus (Linne) 




References: Labrus rufus, Linne, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 284. 

Harpe rufa, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of North and 
Middle America, II, p. 1583. 

Bodianus rufus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine Fishes of 
Panama, III, p. 711. 

Field Characters: Small to medium sized wrasses with 11 or 12 dorsal 
spines; soft dorsal and anal with a scaly sheath at base, elevated and produced 
behind; violet red above and anteriorly; yellow or orange behind and below, 
the two colors in strong contrast to each other. 

Size and Weight: The species reaches a length of two feet. Our male of 
173 mm. weighed 136 grams. 


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General Range: Florida and Bermuda to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Seen by us only occasionally in the 
fish market. 

Abundance: We secured only two specimens, a male and a female. 
Spawning Season: Neither sex showed any signs of breeding activity. 
Study Material: Color Plate, H65, Female, No. 7045; Specimens, 2; male 
173 mm., No. 6956; female 177 mm., No. 7045. 


Clepticus Cuvier, 1829 


Purple-tailed Wrasse ; Creole 

Clepticus parrae (Bloch and Schneider) 


References: Brama parrae, Bloch and Schneider 1801, Syst. Ichth., p. 100. 

Clepticus parrae, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of North 
and Middle America, II, p. 1586. 

Field Characters: Medium-sized robust, compressed fish; head and vertical 
fins enveloped in small scales; teeth weak; head and irregular anterior two- 
thirds of body deep purple and violet; tail fin rich maroon; remainder of body 
including ventrals, anal, posterior soft dorsal, belly and peduncle, bright 
yellow mottled with violet and purple. 

Description: Purchased from a fisherman. The entire mouth of our only 
specimen was torn away, making identification by teeth impossible, but the 
spines and rays, the basal sheath of scales on the vertical fins, scales and especi- 
ally the coloration leave no doubt as to the species. 

Size and Weight: A 12 inch specimen has been recorded. Ours measured 
163 mm. (6^ inches), and weighed 124 grams. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H84, No. 7140; Specimen, 1; 163 mm., No. 
7140. 

Family Corid ae; Wrasses 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Lateral line complete and continuous, with an abrupt downward curve 

posteriorly. 

B. Dorsal spines 9; dorsal enlarged, without scaly sheath; posterior canine 

well developed on both sides Halichoeres 

BB. Dorsal spines 8; a low sheath of scales at the base of the dorsal fin; no 

posterior canines Thallasoma 

AA. Lateral line interrupted posteriorly, beginning again on the level of the 
axis of the body; posterior canine present; first three dorsal spines 
longest and with filamentous appendages; scales large Doratonotus 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 203 

Halichoeres Rtippell, 1835 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Sides without a vertical blackish band, caudal fin without continuous 

blue bands. 

B. A black spot, partly surrounded by blue behind the eye, anal fin pinkish 

with two series of bluish spots caudalis 

BB. No black spot behind eye; anal fin divided into three more or less equal 

horizontal bands of color radiatus 

AA. Sides with a vertical band from beginning of soft dorsal downward; short 
narrow dark lines from eye upward; a few small dots on nape; caudal 
fin with narrow vertical semicircular bands of blue .garnoti 


Pink-finned Wrasse 

Halichoeres caudalis (Poey) 


References: Julis caudalis, Poey, 1860, Memorias, II, p. 213. 

Iridio caudalis, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of North 
and Middle America, II, p. 1599. 

Field Characters: Small, elongate, compressed, brilliantly colored wrasse; 
dorsal and caudal fins pink with bluish spots; body mottled olive green with 
numerous blue lines on head and spots on body. 

Size and Weight: A 120 mm. fish weighed 35 grams. 

General Range: Cuba and Haiti. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Generally distributed, both near shore 
and down to 8 fathoms. 

Abundance: Fairly common. Seen frequently in diving. Ten specimens 
collected. 

Study Material: Color Plates, H14, No. 6854; H35, No. 6882; Specimens, 
10; 79-126 mm., including Nos. 6854, 6882, and 6915. 


Variegated Wrasse; Pudding Wife 

Halichoeres radiatus (Linnaeus) 


References: Labrus radiatus, Linne, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 288. 

Halichoeres radiatus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 717. 

Field Characters: Medium-sized wrasse exhibiting astonishing variation 
in proportions of body, fins, color and pattern from young to adult. The 
anal fin seems always to be divided longitudinally into three bands of color 
of equal width. Until we know more of the anatomy and life history of this 





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species, Meek and Hildebrand’s characterization must suffice; “Dark lateral 
band disappearing with age, when present rather narrow, never extending 
beyond base of caudal; head in adult with several bluish lines; a narrow one, 
about the width of pupil, extending from eye to nape; dorsal plain yellowish 
red in young; in adult with a narrow blue stripe at base, above with many blue 
spots.” 

Size and Weight: The sizes and weights of three individuals are as follows: 

68 mm. length 4 grams 

139 mm. length 55 grams 

325 mm. (12.75 in.) length 907 grams (2 lbs.) 

General Range: North Carolina southward, including Panama and West 
Indies and Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Seen on every dive among the coral 
reefs, along shore, and taken in traps eight fathoms deep. 

Abundance: One of the commonest of the wrasses. 

Method of Capture: Taken in seines, traps, and on hooks. 

Food: The young fish feed on floating bits of dead food, small crustaceans, 
etc., while the older individuals are browsers, taking sponge, coral, or other 
organic debris. 

Study Material: Color Plates: H25, 70 mm. specimen; H66, 230 mm.; 
H49, 325 mm., No. 6966; Specimens, 45; 65-325 mm., including 6864, 6885, 
6952, 6966, 7108 and 7133. 



Coral Wrasse 

Halichoeres garnoti (Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes) 


References: Julis garnoti, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1839, Hist. Nat. 
Poiss., XIII, 390. 

lridio garnoti, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of North 
and Middle America, II, p. 1593. 

Field Characters: Small, rather elongate wrasses with nine dorsal spines, 
complete lateral line, with posterior canine well developed on both sides; 
color varying, but with a conspicuous wide vertical band on middle of sides, 
the upper part of body anterior to this yellowish or greenish in general color, 
posterior to this line the body is bluish or purplish red; caudal fin with narrow 
curved, vertical bluish lines; narrow, short black lines from eye upward and 
backward; small dark spots on nape. 

Size and Weight: Grows to about eight inches. A 140 mm. fish weighed 
53 grams. 

Color: Exceedingly variable in general color and pattern, the ground color 
varying anteriorly from various shades of brown and green to yellowish, post- 
eriorly to purplish red or bluish. The fish is conspicuous in the field by the 
striking difference of color anteriorly and posteriorly. 

General Range: West Indies. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


205 


Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found on all coral reefs. 
Abundance: Very common, to be seen at almost any time on the reefs. 
Method of Capture : Hooks and lines, traps and dynamite. 

Food: Omnivorous; small crustaceans, sea-urchins, spines and all, and 
mollusks and their shells. 

Study Material: Color Plates, H45, H129, No. 7133; Photographs: 3921, 
3922; Specimens, 43; 73-147 mm., Nos. 7086 and 7133. 

Thalassoma Swainson, 1839 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Head bluish or greenish followed usually by two black or very dark blue 
bands separated by a pale blue band, the two darker bands sometimes 


coalescing, posterior part of body green bifasciatus 

AA. A lateral band, usually broken up into large spots. nitidus 


Bicolored Wrasse 

Thalassoma bifasciatus (Bloch) 



References: Labrus bifasciatus, Bloch, 1792, Syst. Ichthy., p. 131, pi. 283. 

Chlorichthys bifasciatus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, II, p. 1609. 

Field Characters: Small, elongate wrasses, with 8 dorsal spines and no 
posterior canines, head blue, body green, two vertical black bands on sides behind 
head, sometimes somewhat merged, between which is a paler bluish band. 

Descriptions: The relations of this species are discussed under nitidus. 

Size and Weight: The largest Haitian fish, 115 mm., weighed 30 grams. 

General Range: West Indies. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Widely distributed on the reefs. 

Abundance: Rather common on some reefs. Brought occasionally to the 
markets. 

Method of Capture: Traps, under-water guns. 

Food: All of the specimens examined had devoured polychaete worms. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H23, No. 6886; Specimens, 16; all males, 
85-115 mm., including No. 


Shining Wrasse 

Thalassoma nitida (Gunther) 



References: Julis nitida, Gunther, 1862, Cat. Fishes Brit. Museum, IV, 190. 

Chlorichthys nitidus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, II, p. 1608. 


206 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Field Characters: Small, elongate wrasses with continuous lateral line, 
8 dorsal spines, no posterior canines; greenish with a lateral band which in 
larger individuals is broken up into a series of large blotches. 

Description: Breder 1927 (Bull. Bingham Ocean. Coll., Vol. 1, No. 1) 
suggests, as a result of investigating a series of small specimens, that nitidus 
is the same as bifasciatus, but does not synonomyze the two species on the 
ground that “It is quite conceivable that there may be existing in closely 
adjacent but different environments two such species in which one matures to 
a very different fish from its young, whereas the other almost or quite indis- 
tinguishable when small, matures without losing its juvenile characters.” 

Our 6 Haitian specimens of nitidus, 73-93 mm. long, some of which are as 
large as those considered by Breder in his series to be adult “blue-heads,” 
are all females, and the 16 specimens of bifasciatus, 84-115 mm. are all males. 
Considering these circumstances and Breder’s suggestion as to the identity 
of the young, it is very probable that these two species are the same, and that the 
females ( nitida ) retain a considerable amount of the generalized color pattern 
of the young; while the males ( bifasciatus ) lose this pattern and attain their 
striking adult coloration. The data from the present series is considered con- 
sistent enough to make this a definite suggestion. In the field in Haiti, the 
two species are found in exactly the same surroundings, and are equally wary 
and inquisitive. The females {nitidus) were somewhat less plentiful, as far 
as visual observation is concerned, than the males ( bifasciatus ). 

However, we are not synonomyzing the two species until other collections 
can be examined or until the fishes can be studied in the field. If the two forms 
prove to be differentiated merely by sex, both must be known as Thalassoma 
bifasciatus. 

Size and Weight: A small species, at least as far as our Haitian experiences 
are concerned, the largest specimen captured measuring 93 mm. and weighing 
16 grams. 

General Range : Jamaica and Haiti. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found on all coral reefs. 

Abundance: Uncommon, but usually one or two specimens to be seen while 
diving on the richer coral reefs. 

Method of Capture : Mainly by traps, dynamite. 

Food: Carnivorous, — worms and crustaceans. 

Eggs: The eggs of the 93 mm. fish averaged .22 mm. in diameter. 

Study Material: Specimens, 6; 73-93 mm. all females, including No. 7084. 

Doratonotus Gunther, 1862 


Tall-finned Pygmy Wrasse ; 
Baucket 

Doratonotus megalepis Gunther 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


207 


References: Doratonotus megalepis, Gunther, 1862, Cat. Fish Brit. Museum, 


Field Characters: A small wrasse (2^ inches), head long and low, snout 
long and pointed, dorsal fin elevated in front ; general color greenish, variegated 
with dull red on fins. 

Description: Our two small specimens are typical in every way. The 
smallest individual is 13 mm. and in markings and development of fins shows 
no difference from those of maximum size. It seems quite certain that the 
young fish figured by Breder (Bull. Bingham Ocean. Coll., I, 1, p. 64) as typical 
of his 61 specimens from 8.5 to 13 mm., cannot be this species. The shape of 
the head and snout and dorsal fin and the size of the diminutive ventrals and 
the coloration all set it apart from the individuals in our collection. 

Size and Weight: Our largest specimen measured 23 mm. 

Method of Capture: Taken in Thalassia weed in shallows near shore, 
Lamentin Reef. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 13-23 mm., No. 7279. 


A. Teeth not forming continuous plates; anterior teeth enlarged, often more 
or less canine-like; median suture of jaws not evident externally. 


AA. Teeth in jaws fully coalesced, forming continuous plates; the median 
suture of the jaws evident externally. 

B. Dorsal spines flexible; lower jaw included in the upper when mouth is 

closed; cheeks with two or more rows of scales; lower pharyngeals much 
longer than broad. 

C. Teeth pale .Beams 

CC. Teeth bluish or green Pseudoscarus 

BB. Dorsal spines stiff, pungent; upper jaw included in the lower when mouth 

is closed Sparisoma 


IV, p. 125. 


Doratonotus megalepis, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 731. 


Family Scaridae; the Parrot-Fishes 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 


Cryptotomus 


Cryptotomus Cope, 1871 


Scorched Parrotfish 

Cryptotomus ustus (Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes) 



208 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

References: Callyodon ustus, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1839, Hist. Nat. 
Poiss., XIV, p. 286. Plate CCCCV. 

Cryptotomus ustus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 733. 

Field Characters: Small, elongate, compressed, dull-colored parrot-fish 
with teeth not fully coalesced; the two rows of teeth of the lower jaw overlapping 
slightly^ on the sides. 

Size and Weight: Our 131 mm. specimen weighed 42 grams. 

General Range: South Carolina to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found on coral reef at twenty feet 
depth. 

Abundance: A single individual taken during our four months stay. Not 
seen at the markets. 

Method of Capture: Taken with dynamite. 

Food: Vegetable matter. 

Study Material: Specimen: 1; 131 mm. 

Scarus Forskal, 1775 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Upper jaw with canines posteriorly; cheeks with 2 or 3 rows of scales. 

B. Dorsal and anal fin greenish blue at base, then a broad band of orange 
and tipped with a broad bluish band. No spots on either fin. Caudal fin 
with a narrow black band on upper and lower edge, the rays immediately 

inside the black edge orange, remainder of caudal bluish .taeniopterus 

BB. Dorsal and anal fin bright green at base and tip, mesially orange, the 

orange of dorsal sometimes with a bluish line, that of the anal with a 
line of bluish spots; caudal bright greenish blue, the inner rays with 

their membranes orange pundulatus 

AA. Upper jaw without canines; cheeks with 2 rows of 5 or 6 equal sized scales 
and a third partial row of 3 or 4 scales; sides with two brownish longi- 
tudinal bands; a small dull colored species croicensis 


Painted-tailed Parrotfish 

Scarus taeniopterus Desmarest 


References: Scarus taeniopterus, Desmarest, 1831, Diet. Classique, XV, 
244, Plate 12. 

Scarus taeniopterus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, II, p. 1646. 

Field Characters: Small to medium sized parrotfish, orange-brown 
above, changing to blue below; two horizontal green stripes on head, the inter- 
space yellowish brown; dorsal and anal fins greenish blue at base, then a broad 
band of orange, and tipped with a rather broad bluish band; no spots in the 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


209 


orange of either fin; caudal fin with outer rays orange, the upper and lower 
edge with a narrow black band. 

Description: One of our specimens has two posterior canines on each side 
of the upper jaw. 

Size and Weight: A 180 mm. fish weighed 150 grams. 

General Range: West Indies. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found on all reefs, our specimens 
from Port-au-Prince market. 

Abundance: Rather rare, and seldom seen in the markets. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H87, No. 7132; Specimens, 2; 180-205 mm., 
including No. 7132. 

Punctulated Parrotfish 

Scarus punctulatus Cuvier and Yalen 
ciennes 



References: Scarus pundulatus, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1839, Hist. Nat. 
Poiss., XIV, p. 195. 

Scarus pundulatus , Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 737. 

Field Characters: Small parrotfishes with pale teeth, the lower jaw in- 
cluded in the upper when mouth is closed; mesial band of orange in dorsal 
fin with a blue line and that of the anal with blue spots. 

Size and Weight: A 93 mm. fish weighed 17 grams. 

Color: In some of our fish the yellow longitudinal band is rather indistinct. 
However, they agree in all other respects. 

General Range: West Indies, Venezuela. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found on all of the deeper reefs, and 
often seen in the markets. 

Abundance: Common. 

Method of Capture: Seines, hooks and lines and traps. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H29; Specimens, 68; 80-150 mm., including 
No. 6883. 

Brown Parrotfish 

Scarus croicensis Bloch 


References: Scarus croicensis, Bloch, 1790, Naturg. Ausl. Fische, IV, p. 27, 
Plate CCXXI. 

Scarus croicensis, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, III, p. 741. 

Field Characters: Small, brownish parrotfish with lower jaw included in 



210 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

upper, and with longitudinal stripes along sides, these stripes alternately dark 
brown and whitish yellow, varying considerably in intensity. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 7 inches. 

General Range: Key West to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found by us mainly along shore over 
shallow reefs. Small specimens were abundant on the shallow weed-covered 
areas along shore, where they lived among the fronds of Thalassia. When 
diving we often saw specimens on the deeper outside reefs. 

Abundance: One of the commonest parrotfish of Port T au-Prince Bay, and 
although small, often brought into the market. 

Method of Capture: Most commonly taken in traps; occasionally with 
seines. 

Food: Algae, small crustaceans, etc. 

Study Material: Photographs, 3781, 3907; Specimens, 40; 50-100 mm. 


Pseudoscarus Bleecker, 1861 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 


A. Posterior canines absent, or, sometimes in coelestinus, one present on 

each side. 

B. Olive green, with more or less ill-defined markings on head; lower parts 

brownish guacamaia 

BB. Bright blue, the edges of the scales brownish; tubes of lateral line branched. 

coelestinus 

AA. Posterior canines present, 2 to 6 in number; color black and green; sides 
below pectorals green pleianus 



Green Parrotfish; Guacamaia 

Pseudoscarus guacamaia (Cuvier) 


References: Scarus guacamaia, Cuvier, 1829, Regne Animal, Ed. II, II, 265. 

Pseudoscarus guacamaia , Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 744. 

Field Characters: Large parrotfish with green teeth; no posterior canines 
on upper jaws. Olive green with more or less ill defined green markings on 
head; lower parts more or less reddish (often dark brown in preserved specimens) 
vertical fins brownish orange, all edged with deep blue. 

Description: Our large specimens are typical. 

Size and Weight: Grows to two or three feet. A 500 mm. fish weighed 83^ 
pounds. 

Color: A 180 mm. specimen (formalin) is exceptionally dark, this color 
extending to all the fins, the ventrals being especially dark. 

General Range : West Indies, north to Florida Keys, south to Rio de Janeiro, 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


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Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Seen occasionally while diving on 
reefs. 

Abundance: Not especially common, seen occasionally in the markets. 
The 8V 2 pound fish cost 60 cents, American money. 

Method of Capture: Hook and line. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H90, No. 7136; Specimens, 2; 180-500 mm., 
including No. 7136. 


Blue Parrotfish 

Pseudoscarus coelestinus (Cuvier and 
Valenciennes) 


References: Bcarus coelestinus, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1839, Hist. 
Nat. Poiss., XIV, p. 180. 

Pseudoscarus coelestinus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, II, p. 1655. 

Field Characters: Large parrotfish with green teeth; bright blue; dorsal, 
caudal and anal fins black, narrowly edged with blue; middle rays of caudal 
tipped with blue. 

Description: The single specimen preserved agrees with the description of 
this species given by Jordan and Evermann, except that it lacks the posterior 
canines, and the color of the fins in life was somewhat different; dorsal, anal and 
caudal being black narrowly edged with blue, the middle rays of the caudal 
being tipped with blue. 

This specimen runs close to Bean’s plumbeus, but differs in color. While 
we were diving, this species was commonly observed, and the many specimens 
seen were consistently bright blue in color. 

Size and Weight: Reaches two or three feet. Our 460 mm. fish weighed 
7 pounds. 

General Range: West Indies. 

Occurrence in Port-ay-Prince Bay: Commonly found on reefs, and often 
seen in markets. 

Abundance: Common. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H130, No. 7083; Specimen, 1; 460 mm., No. 
7083. 



Green and Black Parrotfish 

Pseudoscarus pleianus (Poey) 



212 


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References: Scarus pleianus, Poey, 1861, Memorias, II, p. 393. 

Scarus pleianus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of North 
and Middle America, II, p. 1656. 

Field Characters: Very large parrotfish with green teeth; 2 to 6 canines on 
upper posterior part of upper jaw; coloration black and green, posterior part of 
body greenish as well as isolated scales on anterior part of sides; sides below 
pectorals green. 

Description: A single specimen (number 7200), 640 mm. long, is assigned 
to this species. In the key to the species of Pseudoscarus , given by Jordan 
and Evermann (1. c.) it runs straight to this species. Compared with the 
description, it agrees very well in form, and in color, if the colors mentioned 
are those of a preserved specimen, which seems more than likely. The presence 
or absence of numerous canines seems to be a fairly valid character, not entirely 
dependent upon age, by which to differentiate this species from some others 
of the genus. However, it is not a wholly reliable one, mainly because of 
variation. The specimen at hand has two posterior canines on the left hand 
side and six on the right. The right hand teeth are situated at various levels, 
and there are possible indications of a few more. 

The dimensions of our fish are as follows: 


Length 

640 mm. 

Depth 

267 “ 

Head 

231 “ 

Eye 

24 “ 

Length of pectoral fin 

154 “ 

Length of ventral fin 

144 “ 

Lateral line scales 

25 


Size and Weight: Grows to 25 inches standard length and possibly larger. 
Our 25 inch fish weighed 20 pounds. 

General Range: Known from St. Thomas. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Captured by native fisherman on 
fairly deep reef. 

Abundance: Rare, a single specimen seen in four months. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 640 mm., No. 7200. 

Sparisoma Swainson, 1839 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Upper jaw with one or more lateral canines. 

B. General color dark red or brown; no pa^e streaks along sides; scales 

along back with dark edges; margin, of opercles black. . . .abildgaardi 
BB. Color paler, reddish brown or greenish; margin of opercles not black. 

C. Pectoral fin with a black spot at its base, or with its base somewhat dusky. 

D. Black spot at base of pectoral fin very prominent; bluish green, with 

center of dorsal, caudal and anal fins reddish, bases of dorsal and anal 
bluish, each of these fins narrowly tipped with blue .... chrysopterum 
DD. Pectoral fin dusky at base; a golden orange spot on and below the fifth 
scale of the lateral line, its upper portion blackish; caudal fin with 
black tips aurofrenatum 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 213 

CC. Pectoral fin without a black spot at base. 

E. Canines 1 or 2 on each side; top of head and streak back from eye brown- 

ish; caudal fin with a red crescent separated by a green band from the 

transparent posterior portion viride 

EE. Canines 1 to 4 on each side; tubes of lateral line much branched; body 

and fins mottled reddish brown radians 

AA. Upper and lower jaw without lateral canines. 

F. Pectorals with a very evident jet black spot at base of upper rays. 

G. Caudal fin with irregular bars and spots squalidum 

GG. Caudal fin clear peach red, its posterior border bluish (our Haitian 

specimen possesses no lateral canines) brachiale 

FF. Pectoral without a black spot at base of upper rays; body robust, not 
very much compressed flavescens 


Red Parrotfish; Parroquette 

Sparisoma abildgaardi (Bloch) 


References: Sparus abildgaardi, Bloch, 1791, Naturg. Ausl. Fische, V, 
p. 22, Plate CCLIX. 

Sparisoma abildgaardi, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 748. 

Field Characters: Small to medium-sized parrotfish with upper jaw 
included in lower, and with a small posterior canine on upper jaw; brownish 
or greyish above, the edges of the scales dark; lower parts bright red; membra- 
nous edge of opercle black; dorsal and anal fins dark; intensity and deposition of 
color variable. 

Description: Our specimens are typical. 

Size and Weight: A 167 mm. specimen weighed 132 grams and a 193 mm. 
specimen 235 grams. 

Color: Very variable, but all of our specimens when fresh, were within the 
range of variation shown by Dr. Townsend in his plate of this fish (Bulletin, 
N. Y. Zoological Society, 1927). 

General Range: West Indies and Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Widely distributed over the bay, 
both on the coral reefs and on the mud and sand banks. 

Abundance: A common species, always seen in the markets. 

Method of Capture: Taken mainly in wicker traps placed on bottom. 

Food: Unrecognizable detritus found in alimentary tract. 

Study Material: Photograph, 3909; Specimens, 19; 83 to 193 mm., 
including Nos. 6937 and 6942. 



214 


Zoological N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 



Blue Parrotfish; Vieja 

Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch and 
, Schneider) 


References : Scarus chrysopterum, Bloch and Schneider, 1801, Syst. Ichth., 
p. 286, Plate LVII. 

Sparisoma chrysopterum, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 753. 

Field Characters: Medium sized parrotfish, with teeth of lower jaw 
extending beyond the upper. Bluish-green, with center of caudal fin, dorsal 
and anal fins reddish, base of dorsal or anal bluish, each of these fins narrowly 
tipped with blue. Pectoral fin with a black spot at its base; iris pinkish. 

Description: Our three specimens agree very well with the descriptions of 
this species. Posterior canine teeth are present in all, but the number present 


varies. Their distribution 

is as follows: 




Posterior canines 

Anterior canines 

Length 

Light Left 

Right 

Left 

235 mm. 

6 2 

i 

0 

252 mm. 

3 2 

1 

0 

277 mm. 

4 4 

1 

1 

(faint 

indication) 


Size and Weight: Grows to a little more than a foot. 

Color: Our specimens are typical, except that the edge of the opercle just 
anterior to the base of the pectoral is tinged with yellow. Iris pinkish. 
General Range: West Indies to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Over coral reefs. 

Abundance: Rare, seen occasionally in the markets. 

Method* of Capture : Our three specimens were taken in traps. 

Food : Vegetable matter. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H57, No. 7014; Specimens, 3; 235-277 mm., 
including No. 7014. 



Vermillion-banded Parrotfish 

Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Cuvier and 
Valenciennes) 


References: Scarus aurofrenatus, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1839, Hist. 
Nat. Poiss., XIV, p. 191. 

Sparisoma aurofrenatum , Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, II, p. 1634. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


215 


Field Characters: Small to medium sized parrotfishes with pale upper 
jaw included in lower, and with one posterior canine tooth on each side of upper 
jaw; purplish above, becoming reddish on sides and vivid green below; a reddish 
line from mouth under the eye almost to top of gill opening; a yellow spot 
surmounted with black on anterior sides; tail with outer angles tipped with 
black. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 83^ inches and possibly larger. A 128 mm. 
fish weighed 53.5 grams and a 130 mm. fish 60 grams. 

General Range: West Indies. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken by native fisherman on reefs 
generally. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Method of Capture: Mainly traps. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H63, No. 7039; Photograph, 3904; Specimens, 
7; 128-139 mm., including Nos. 6938, 7039, 7360, 7361, 7362 and 7363. 


Dark-green Parrotfish 

Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre) 


References: Scarus viridis, Bonnaterre, 1788, Enc. Meth., X, p. 96. 

Sparisoma viride, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, II, p. 1638. 

Field Characters: Small to medium sized parrot-fish with upper teeth 
included. Greenish with brown edges to the scales; head with brownish top 
and lines along side; a small yellow spot on opercle and a large one on caudal 
peduncle; caudal fin with a subterminal orange crescent, outside of which is a 
bluish crescent; dorsal and anal fins pinkish red, the latter with a bluish ter- 
minal band. 

Size and Weight: A 240 mm. fish weighed 416 grams. 

General Range: West Indies. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Commonly found on reefs 20 to 40 
feet deep. 

Abundance: Fairly common. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H44, No. 6949; Specimens, 5; 125-240 mm. 
including Nos. 6949, 7353, 7354, 7355 and 7356. 




Short-snouted Parrotfish 

Sparisoma radians (Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes) 


216 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 


References: Scarus radians, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1839, Hist. Nat. 
Poiss., XIV, p. 206. 

Sparisoma radians, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 750. 

Field Characters: Small parrotfish with 1 to 4 canines on each jaw; reddish 
brown; no black spot at base of pectoral fins; body and fins mottled with darker. 

Description: The four small specimens assigned to this species have the 
procurrent canines much more in evidence than any other of the Haitian Scarids. 

General Range: Florida south to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: All of our specimens were purchased 
at Port-au-Prince market. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Method of Capture: Traps. 

Study Material: Specimens, 4; 88-108 mm., including No. 7387. 


Field Characters: Small to medium sized parrotfish without posterior 
canines on upper jaw and with upper jaw included in lower, snout somewhat 
long, interorbital space slightly concave; preserved specimens brownish gray; 
pectoral with a conspicuous black spot at base of upper rays; caudal fin with 
obscure markings. 

Size and Weight: A 163 mm. fish weighed 117 grams. 

General Range: Bahamas, through West Indies to Venezuela. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found on all reefs, and brought 
commonly to the markets. 

Abundance: Common. 

Method of Capture: Mainly by traps. 


Study Material: Color Plate, H76, No. 7368; Specimens, 12; 157-297 
mm., including Nos. 6878, 6942, 6950, 7364, 7365, 7366, 7368, 7369 and 7370. 



Sparisoma squalidum (Poey) 


Gray Parrotfish 


References: Scarus squalidus, Poey, 1860, Memorias, II, p. 218. 

Sparisoma squalidum, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 755. 



Stocky Parrotfish 

Sparisoma flavescens (Bloch and 
Schneider) 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


217 


References: Beams flavescens, Bloch and Schneider, 1801, Syst. Ichth., 
p. 290. 

Sparisoma flavescens, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 758. 

Field Characters: Small to medium, robust, rather stockily built parrot- 
fish, without lateral canines, and with upper jaw included in lower; no spot at 
base of pectoral. 

Description: Our three specimens are conspicuously different from the 
other Haitian parrotfish in being less compressed and much more stockily 
built. 

Size and Weight: A 205 mm. fish weighed 217 grams. 

General Range: Key West to Rio de Janeiro. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken from traps near shore on old 
coral reef. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Method of Capture: Traps. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H72; Specimens, 3; 163-205 mm., includ- 
ing Nos. 7349, 7350, 7351. 


Red-tailed Parrotfish 

Sparisoma brachiale (Poey) 


References: Scams brachialis, Poey, 1861, Memorias, II, p. 345. 

Sparisoma brachiale, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, II, p. 1641. 

Field Characters: Medium sized parrotfish without lateral canines; and 
with upper jaw included in lower; pectorals with a very distinct black spot at 
base; green in life, the center of the caudal fin clear peach red. 

Size and Weight: A 154 mm. fish weighed 102 grams. 

General Range: Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Porto Rico and Curacoa. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: A single fish taken at Port-au-Prince 
market. 

Abundance: Rare. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 154 mm., No. 6951. 

Family Eleotridae; Sleepers 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Vomer with teeth; jaws with bands of pointed teeth; gill openings extend- 


ing forward to below the eye Gobiomorus 

A A. Vomer without teeth. 

B. Dentary bones not expanded and not meeting under the chin; head 

broad; eyes lateral Dormitor 

BB. Dentary bones broad, expanded, meeting under posterior angle of mouth, 
leaving an oval-shaped, naked patch at the chin ...... Leptophilypnus 



218 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 
Gobiomorus Lacepede, 1806 


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Sleeper; Guavina 

Gobiomorus dormitor Lacepede 


References: Gobiomorus dormitor, Lacepede, 1798, Hist. Nat. Poiss., II, 
p. 599. 

Philypnus dormitor, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, III, p. 2194. 

Field Characters: Large-sized gobies with ventral fins separated from 
each other, rays 1-5; vomer with teeth; brownish with an interrupted lateral 
band, sometimes absent, fins dusky and mottled. 

Description: The dorsal count on two Haitian fish is VI-11 and the anal 
1-10. In all other respects the fish are quite typical. 

Size and Weight: Reaches a length of two feet. A 165 mm. fish weighed 
71 grams. 

Color: Specimen 7175 (102 mm.) is very conspicuously marked, being 
dark brown above and pale yellow white below. The irregularly dark brown 
band from pectoral is very dark in this fish, and extends across the side of the 
head to the eye, and from the anterior part of the eye to and onto the mandible. 
Tip of lower jaw dark. Side of head below lateral bar, much mottled with 
brown. Upper portion of spinous dorsal with a broad blackish brown bar; 
soft dorsal and caudal fins mottled with brown; all other fins plain. 

A second specimen (165 mm.) is much paler in color, and resembles closely 
the figure given by Jordan and Evermann. In neither specimen is the dorsal 
margined with black. 

General Range : Streams of the West Indies and Atlantic shores of Central 
America, Mexico and Surinam. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found in streams emptying into the 
Bay, one specimen being found close to the sea at Bizoton. The conspicuously 
marked fish mentioned above, was captured at Source Mariani and the paler 
one was taken in a small stream emptying into Etang Saumatre, the brackish 
lake in the Cul de Sac Plain. This species, plus a gar which we were not able 
to capture, represent the only marine forms that we were able to find in or 
near this dying lake. All other fish taken by us at Etang Saumatre and the 
surrounding streams were either Cichlids or Poecilids. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Method of Capture: Seines and traps. 

Food: Contents of the alimentary tract in one fish revealed an ant and the 
coiled spiral of a mollusk. 

Study Material: Specimens, 3; 102-165 mm., Nos. 7056 and 7175, Stream 
at Maneville, Etang Saumatre, and Source Mariani. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


219 


Dormitator Gill, 1862 


Common Spotted Sleeper; Gua- 
vina Mapo 

Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) 



References: Sciaena maculata , Bloch, 1790, Syst. Ichth., pi. 299, fig. 2. 

Dormitator maculatus, Regan, 1906, Biol. Centr. Americana, 
Pisces, p. 8. 

Field Characters: Small, robust-bodied gobies, head flattened; dark 
brown mottled and spotted with lighter; scales large, ctenoid, 30-33; outer teeth 
movable; dorsal count VI 1-8, anal 1-9; in fresh or brackish water. 
Measurements of a 33 mm. Specimen: 


Head: 9.7 (3.4) 
Depth: 9 (3.7) 

Eye: 2.3 (4.2) 
Interorbital: 2.8 (3.5) 
Snout: 2.1 (4.6) 
Maxillary: 2.3 (4.2) 


Dorsal fin: VII-9 
Anal fin: 10 
Pectoral length: 7.5 
Ventral length: 8.3 
Ocular angle: Vertical 
Mouth angle: 40° down 
Scales 30 


Size and Weight: Reaches a length of two feet. Our largest specimen 
measured only 36 mm. 

Color: The color of our young fish was typical of adults. 

General Range: Both coasts of America; on the Atlantic from South 
Carolina and the West Indies to Panama and Para. 


Occurrence: We found it in the brackish water of Etang Saumatre. 
Abundance: Apparently rather rare as we took only three specimens. 
Study Material: Specimens, 3; 33 to 36 mm., No. 7466. 


Many-fanged Goby 

Leptophilypnus crocodilus new species 



Type: No. 7467. Length 22 mm. Lamentin Reef, Port-au-Prince Bay, 
Haiti. 


220 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


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Field Characters: Small, compressed, elongate gobies, with dark, ver- 
tical bands from eye to caudal, and a fine dark line down center of inter- 
spaces; a large black spot in front and on base of rays of pectoral; teeth in 
several rows, the outer of few, distant, enlarged canines. 

Measurements and Counts: 

Length: 22 mm. Dorsal fin: VI-10 

Depth: 4. (5.5) Anal fin: 1-9 

Head: 5.4 (4.1) Pectoral length: 5.4 


Description: 

Body: Elongate, compressed, deepest at opercle. 

Anterior profile: Gently curved from dorsal to eye, more steeply from eye 
to snout. 

Head: Fairly deep. 

Interorbital: Very narrow, 4 in eye, slightly concave. 

Snout: Blunt, lower jaw projecting slightly. 

Eye: Large, cutting profile, set rather obliquely. 

Mouth: Rather large, oblique. 

Maxillary: Reaching to pupil. 

Teeth: Several bands of small, villiform teeth in each jaw, the outer series 
larger and wider Spaced; in front are four widely-spaced sharp and very large 
canines, and six in lower jaw. 

Opercular margin : Curved, smooth. 

Gill openings: Broad, isthmus opening far behind eye. 

Scales: Large, ctenoid, absent from head, nape and along first five dorsal 
spines. 

Dorsal fins: Separate, rather low. 

Color: (preserved specimen) Body with broad, dark brown, vertical bands, 
the first two extending down from the eye over the cheeks, the third on the 
nape breaking into large irregular spots on the opercles, a broken one on mid- 
peduncle and the last very dark and on the base of caudal. The pale interspaces 
on the body have a thin, dark, threadlike line down their centers. A very dark 
spot on base of pectoral. 

Comparison: Differs from latifrons in color, and in form. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 22 mm., No. 7467. 

Type Name and Location: Named from the many-fanged character of the 
dentition. Type is in the Collection of the Department of Tropical Research 
of the New York Zoological Society. 


A. Body either completely scaled or with scales on some part of the body. 

B. Scales not confined to the lower posterior sides. 


Eye: 1.5 (3.6) 

Interorbital: .37 (4 in eye) 
Snout: .97 (5.6) 

Maxillary: 1.7 (3.2) 


Ventral length: 6.2 
Ventral rays: 1-5 
Ocular angle: 30° up 
Mouth angle: 20° down 
Scales: 30 


Family Gobiidae; the Gobies 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van : The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


221 


C. Pectoral fins with free silk-like rays above; tongue anteriorly with an 


evident notch . Bathygobius 

CC. Pectoral fins without free silk-like rays above. 

D. Two or three fleshy flaps on the anterior edge of the gill arch, projecting 

into the gill cavity Chonophorus 

DD. No dermal fleshy flaps projecting into the gill cavity Gobius 

BB. Scales confined to the lower posterior sides: elongate, eel-like fishes 

living in sponges Evermannichthys 

A. Body scaleless . . . Gobiosoma 


Bathygobius Bleeker, 1878 

Sleeper 

Bathygobius soporator (Cuvier and Val- 
enciennes) 

References: Gobius soporator , Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1837, Hist. Nat. 
Poiss., XII, p. 56. 

Bathygobius soporator, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 867. 

Field Characters : Medium sized gobies with united ventral fins free from 
the abdomen; body compressed posteriorly, the head depressed; pectoral fins 
with upper rays filamentous and silk-like. 

Color various, from pl&in dark brown, to pale straw color; with or without 
cross bars; dorsal and caudal fins with dark spots or cross-bars. 

Size: Grows to six inches. 

Color: The three specimens in our collection are uniformly pale, but possess * 
the usual markings of the species. 

General Range: Known from all tropical seas. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken by us only along shore over 
sandy beaches. 

Abundance: Fairly common. 

Method of Capture: Mainly with small seines. 

Food: Carnivorous, two of our specimens contained small blennies, one 
being identifiable as Auchenopterus fajardo. 

Study Material: Specimens, 3; 56-72 mm., including Nos. 6917 and 7274. 

Chonophorus Poey, 1860 

Fringe-shouldered Goby; Gua 
vina; Saga 

Chonophorus taiasica (Lichtenstein) 

References: Gobius taiasica, Lichtenstein, 1822, Berl. Abhandl., p. 273. 

Awous taiasica, Evermann and Marsh, 1902, Fishes of 
Porto Rico, p. 297. 




222 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X;l 


Field Characters. Aledium sized to large, scaled gobies with united ventral 
fins free from the belly, simple teeth, and with two fleshy flaps on the inner 
edge of the shoulder girdle. 60 to 70 scales in the lateral line. Pale olivaceus 
or yellowish, sides blotched with darker. 

Size and Weight: Grows to a foot or more. An 84 mm. fish weighed 9.5 
grams. 

Color: Head and upper half of body pale greenish yellow, variegated with 
irregular markings of dark brown. Dorsal and caudal fins light greenish 
yellow, crossed by several narrow dark brown bands. Belly flesh color. A 
black line starts half way between eye and pectoral and extends backward and 
obliquely half way over the fleshy part of pectoral. Iris golden. 

General Range: Fresh waters of West Indies; Mexico to Brazil; lower 
California to Panama. 

Distribution in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken in brackish streams, in 
fresh water at Source Mariani, and near the Agricultural Station at Grande 
Riviere. 

Abundance: Fairly common. 

Method of Capture: Mainly with seines. 

Study Material: Specimens: 4; 84-190 mm., including Nos. 6962 and 7174. 
Grande Riviere and Source Mariani. 

Gobius Linnaeus, 1758 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Scales larger, 30 in a longitudinal series 

AA. Scales smaller, 64 to 75 in a longitudinal series 




References: Ctenogobius fasciatus, Gill, 1858, Fishes of Trinidad, p. 378. 

Gobius fasciatus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of North 
and Middle America, III, p. 2222. 

Field Characters: Small, elongate gobies; scales large, ctenoid, absent on 
nape and breast; body yellowish with four oblong, dark blotches along sides, 
and dark spot at base of tail. 

General Range : Trinidad and Haiti. 

Occurrence: We took six specimens in the brackish waters of Etang Sau- 
matre. 

Study Material: Specimens, 6; 16-37 mm., No. 7067. 

Emerald-tongued Goby; Esmer- 
elda 



.fasciatus 

oceanicus 


Gobius oceanicus Pallas 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


223 


References: Gobius oceanicus, Pallas, 1770, Spicil. Zool., I, Fasc. VIII, p. 4. 

Gobionellus oceanicus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 877. 

Field Characters: Very elongate, compressed gobies, with united ventral 
fins forming a large sucking disk; tail very long, sometimes half the length of 
the body; scales small, 64 to 75; anterior dorsal spines filamentous; opercle 
with a patch of scales above. 

Description: Our fish resembles the illustration given by Evermann and 
Marsh (Fishes of Porto Rico) of Gobionellus bayamonensis, and also agree in 
possessing the same number of scales. In' other characters such as head and 
length, etc., they are closer to oceanicus and agree completely with the descrip- 
tion of that species given by Meek and Hildebrand, 1925. It is very possible 
that bayamonensis is not valid. 

Size and Weight: Grows to a foot in length. A 112 mm. fish weighed 
15.5 grams. 

Color : Both fish in the collection are more or less colorless, possessing only 
the faintest indication of the color pattern. One fish was noted in life as 
being uniform dark brown. 

General Range: South Carolina to Texas; Panama, West Indies. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Our specimens were both taken in 
fairly shallow water along shore. 

Abundance: Rather uncommon. 

Method of Capture: Seines. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 112-122 mm., Nos. 7118, 7188. 

Evermannichthys Metzelaar, 1919 


Giant-scaled Sponge Goby 

Evermannichthys metzelaari Hubbs 



References: Evermannichthys spongicola, Metzelaar, 1919, Over Tropisch 
Atlantische visschen, p. 139, figs. 39 and 40. 

Evermannichthys metzelaari, Hubbs, 1923, Occ. Papers, Univ. 
of Mich., No. 144. 

Field Characters: Very small, elongate, eel-shaped gobies with united 
ventral fins; scales present on lower, posterior portion of body only, where 
they are large and equipped with strong spines. Greenish with vertical dark 
cross bands, some of which are united on the lower sides and form saddle- 
shaped patterns, with a milky white spot in center, two wide red bands on 
tail, two narrower red bands on dorsal and anal fins. 

Description: On the posterior surface each side of the anal fin, is a series of 9 
or 10 enormous, ctenoid scales, each scale isolated and with the spines consider- 
ably raised from the skin surface. The series begin at the last third of the 
anal fin. There are four similar scales in the center of the lower part of the 
caudal peduncle. 

The pectoral fins are very long, and the webs are torn to ribbons, most 
likely by attrition on the silicious sponge substance. 


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All of these characters, in addition to the elongate eel-like body and small 
head, mark this species as admirably adapted to the peculiar habitat that it 
has chosen for itself. 

Size and Weight: The largest specimen taken so far, is that of Metzelaar, 
measuring 26 mm. The largest Haitian fish is 19 mm. long. 

Color : (In life) General color pale yellowish to dusky white, the head some- 
what darker than rest of body. Eight to ten saddle-like, dark brown blotches 
along back, with milky^white spot in center of each blotch. In Metzelaar’s 
illustration these blotches are shown as bands which meet on the lower part of 
the sides. In between the saddle-like connected bands there is often a single 
vertical dorsal band ending at the middle of the sides. Caudal fin with two 
wide reddish bands, most conspicuous superiorly. Dorsal and anal fins each 
with two narrow pinkish lines, the one nearest the body slightly wider than the 
other. 

General Range : Known from Curacoa and Haiti. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Seven of these remarkable fishes were 
taken from the galleries of enormous sponges, where they lived in company 
with snapping shrimps and small crabs. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Method of Capture: Taken only by searching among galleries of sponges. 

Study Material: Drawings, H114, No. 7228; Photographs, 4233; Speci- 
mens, 7; 16 to 19 mm., including Nos. 7228 and 7251. 

Vobiosoma Girard, 1859 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. A sharply-defined bluish-white line from eye to tail along upper sides. 

horsti 

AA. Sides of body and head with narrow vertical dark lines. 

macrodon, new species 


White-lined Sponge Goby 

Gobiosoma horsti Metzelaar 



References: Gobiosoma horsti , Metzelaar, 1922, Bijdr. Dierk. Amsterdam, 
22, p. 133. 

Field Characters: Small, scaleless gobies with a conspicuous, sharply 
defined bluish-white line from eye along dorsal surface to base of caudal. Upper 
surfaces dark, becoming paler below. 

Description : The Haitian specimens agree well with the original description 
and figure of this species. The vertical fins, however, are considerably higher 
and some of the posterior rays are almost filamentous at their extremities. 
The lower rays of the pectorals, as is the case also in sponge living blennies, are 
considerably worn. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 2J^ inches in length. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 225 

Color: The colors of a 37 mm. fish were as follows: Upper half of head and 
body dark brown, shading gradually on sides into the colorless greyish white 
of ventral areas. This color extends almost to the snout, ending in a broad 
rounded area in front of the eyes, in the center of which is a small, round tur- 
quoise spot. The upper fourth of the iris is bluish white, and this is continued 
back halfway between the back and the upper edge of the opercula and pectoral 
insertion, and on to the upper third of caudal as a straight, narrow, very dis- 
tinct turquoise line. On brown coral 4 ft. down this is very conspicuous. 

The brown area below this becomes narrowed just back of the eye, and extends 
into the iris as the same color, the whole lower three-fourths of the eye being 
of this color, except for an area of gold at the very bottom. 

A narrow line of red runs along the base of the pectoral and the colorless 
opercles are made rosy from the underlying gills. A small patch of concen- 
trated red pigment lies just beneath the eye. Vertical fins somewhat dusky, 
especially along the edges. The dark lateral body pigment extends almost 
halfway to the tip of the caudal. 

The smallest specimen (22 mm.) lacked all pigment on the back and upper 
sides, so that the dark brown is reduced to a broad, low, lateral band and the 
blue line extends through a colorless area. 

In preservative the ground color varies considerably, the white line being 
always discernable, and usually very conspicuous. In typical specimens the 
upper surfaces are bluish to purplish brown, while the lower parts of head and 
body are brownish. Both of these colors may fade out almost entirely. The 
dark color of the upper side is concentrated at the base of the caudal fin into 
a blackish spot, which often continues on the central rays of the caudal. 

In a 13 mm. (alcoholic) fish, the darker coloration is present mainly as a 
dark band from the eye, descending slightly until it reaches the middle of the 
sides, and thence to the tail where the black spot at caudal is especially promi- 
nent. 

General Range: Known from Curacao, Dutch West Indies; and Haiti. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Almost all the Haitian fish were 
taken from tall tubular sponges, the great majority living on reefs from 15 to 
20 feet deep. The gobies are not confined to the sponges, but came out during 
daylight, and were often seen resting on the bottom. A few were taken along 
sandy shores and near broken-up shallow coral reef bottoms. 

Abundance: Common: Found in about half of the tall, tubular sponges of 
the reefs. 

Method of Capture: Usually taken by stuffing cotton into the mouths of 
tube sponges, and sending the sponges to the surface where the fish are extracted. 
A few taken with bait seines. 

Habits: These little gobies are quite fearless, and slide and slither over the 
coral close to one’s feet. I tried to catch two on brain coral at Sand Cay but 
they were too agile and cunning. They must be protected either by their 
agility or by nauseous flesh, and most likely by the former, for their prominent, 
large eyes must see everything that comes near. 

When I put a sponge containing one of the fish in an aquarium it came out 
and swam about for a minute, then seemed to climb the trunk of the sponge 


226 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

under the surface and actually climbed out of the water to wriggle over the 
rim and back into the bottom of the animal chimney. 

After death the naked skin gave out a solid coating of thick, almost opaque 
slime, which was easily removed in a sheet. 

At night the dark back (as in the small specimens) pales until it becomes 
almost as pale as the under parts. 

When the gobies are kept in a small aquarium and begin to feel the want of 
oxygen they begin a peculiar movement which is probably related to their 
normal environment. This, near the bottom and in crevices of coral, is where 
they have often need of water in movement. About every four seconds they 
balance on the ventral fin and begin a vigorous movement of the pectorals, 
both dorsals and the posterior third of the body and caudal. The object is 
apparently to drive a current of water back over the gills, and is stopped as 
soon as the water is changed. The outer ray or rays of the pectoral and the 
ventral cup form the fixed grip while the others drive the water past. (W. B.) 

Study Material: Color Plate, H36; Photographs, 4054, 4056, 4057, 4181; 
Specimens, 42; 13-50 mm., including Nos. 6870, 6914, 6986, 7074, 7115, 7138, 
7180, 7197, 7278, and 7279. 


Large-toothed Scaleless Goby 

Gobiosoma macrodon new species 



Type: No. 7462. Length 29 mm. Lamentin Reef, Port-au-Prince Bay, 
Haiti. 

Field Characters: Very small, elongate, compressed, scaleless gobies, 
with ventrals forming a sucking disk; two dorsal fins, the first ray of the anterior 
fin long and filamentous; sides of body and head with about sixteen narrow 
vertical dark lines. 


Measurements and Counts: 
Length: 29 mm. 

Head: 7.3 (4) 

Depth: 6 (4.85) 

Eye: 1.2 (6.1) 

Interorbital: .6 (2) 

Snout: 1.8 (4) 

Maxillary: 4 (1.8) 


Dorsal fin: VII-11 
Anal fin: 10 
Pectoral length: 7.5 
Ventral length: 5.4 
Ocular angle: 20° up 
Mouth angle: 30° down 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 227 

Description: 

Body: Elongate, compressed. 

Anterior profile: Sloping gently downward to posterior margin of eye, then 
more abruptly curved to the snout. 

Head: Moderate, compressed. 

Interorbital space: Narrow, slightly concave. 

Snout: Short. 

Mucus pores: In numbers on head, in the form of lines of papillae and tubes; 
after death the entire head and body covered with a thick sheet of opaque 
white mucus. 

Eye: Moderate, well below profile. 

Mouth: Medium, oblique, terminal. 

Maxillary: Reaches beyond eye. 

Teeth; In several rows; the outer row above consists of eight teeth enlarged 
successively backward, the fourth on each side being very large and canine- 
like; the outer row below small, but with a single, greatly enlarged, sharps 
canine on each side of the truncate lower jaw. 

Opercular margin: Smooth, rounded. 

Gill openings: Broadly attached to isthmus. 

Scales: Absent. 

Dorsal fin: First spine elongate, greater than depth of body; the rest about 
same length as soft rays. 

Anal fin: Beginning slightly back of origin of soft dorsal. 

Caudal fin: Rounded, not quite equal to head. 

Pectoral fins: Rather long, a little shorter than head. 

Ventral fins: United, rather long. 

Color: (In formalin) Grayish brown formed by minute punctulations, 
with a series of twelve narrow, brownish lines on the body from pectoral to 
caudal, becoming slightly narrower and closer together posteriorly, three more 
dark lines in front of pectoral, more angular than the rest, the posterior one 
starting at the nape, passing under the posterior part of gill flap and across the 
pectoral base; the second considerably angled, starting on the nape and crossing 
the preopercle; a third shorter line from nape toward the eye not quite reaching 
the orbit; two short brown lines downward and backward from eye; small 
dark brown spots on head; two small spots at base of caudal lobes. 

Comparison: Closest to multifasciatus; our Haitian fish differs in its greater 
depth, smaller eye, longer maxillary, presence of canines, filamentous first 
dorsal spine, and different pattern and coloring. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; No. 7462. 

Type Name and Location: Named from the large size of the canines. Type 
in the Collection of the Department of Tropical Research of the New York 
Zoological Society. 

Family Echeneididae ; the Remoras; Shark-Suckers 
Echeneis Linnaeus, 1758 

Short-disked Shark-sucker 

Echeneis naucrates (Linnaeus) 



228 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

References: Echeneis neucrates (misprint for naucrates), Linnaeus, 1758, 
Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 261. 

Echeneis naucrates , Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 896. 

Field Characters: Medium-sized fishes with oval sucking disk on top of 
head composed of 23 or 24 laminae; a black band from snout through eye; 
dorsal and anal dark brown, with distal part of anterior rays pale. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 38 inches. A 297 mm. fish weighed 80 grams. 

General Range: Cosmopolitan in warm seas. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Four specimens taken, two of them 
by hook. A 297 mm. fish spent two days circling about the ship’s launch and 
attaching itself to the boat. 

Abundance: Fairly common, seen now and then in the markets. 

Method of Capture: Mainly taken by hook and line. 

Food: Part of a chicken in the stomach of our largest fish. 

* Study Material: Specimens, 4; 235-640 mm., including Nos. 6858 and 7119. 

Family Clinidae; Blennies 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Lateral line present, arched anteriorly over the pectoral fin, becoming 

posteriorly median in position or else obsolete. 

B. Scales ctenoid, very rough; dorsal fin divided into three parts; an ocular 

cirrus present Gillias 

BB. Scales cycloid; dorsal fin not divided into three parts. 

C. Dorsal with six to twenty soft rays. 

D. Males with 1st anal spine not differentiated from remainder of fin. Color 

pattern not as in DD. 

E. Nape with a comb of filaments on each side. 

F. Jaws with a single row of strong teeth only; mouth small; dorsal fin 

notched Malacoctenus 

FF. Jaws each with a band of villiform teeth behind the row of outer teeth; 

mouth large Labrisomus 

EE. Nape with a single filament on each side; mouth small; jaws. with a narrow 

band of teeth behind the strong teeth Acteis 

DD. Males with the 1st anal spine thickened and separated from the rest of 
the fin. Color brown, mottled with darker; a series of dark spots 
along the back, extending on the dorsal fin; two blotches especially 
conspicuous at the base of the tail; a wide light bar on cheek extending 
backward from the eye and breaking up on the opercle into two lines; 

head rather large Brannerella 

CC. Dorsal with one short soft ray only, often difficult to find, or without, 
the fin more or less deeply notched behind the third spine; 1st three 
dorsal spines stiff, wide-set, not remote from rest of fin behind the 

dorsal notch Cremnobates 

AA. Lateral line absent; very small, elongate blennies with dorsal fin formed 
entirely of spines Auchenistius 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


229 


Gillias Evermann and Marsh, 1899 


Rough-scaled Blenny 

Gillias jordani Evermann and Marsh 


References: Gillias jordani, Evermann and Marsh, 1899, Report U. S. 
Fish Comm., 1899, p. 357. 

Gillias jordani, Evermann and Marsh, 1902, Fishes of Porto 
Rico, p. 307, fig. 95. 

Field Characters: Very small blennies with three dorsal fins; scales ctenoid; 
a tentacle over each eye; vertical dark bars on the body, the one on the caudal 
peduncle most intense on larger specimens. 

Description: Two small fishes of 12 and 14 mm. are apparently of this 
species. They differ in size of head, which is 2.86 instead of 3.5, and in eye 
which is 2.8 instead of 2.5, in having a spoon-shaped entire tentacle over the 
eye instead of a bifid one; and slightly in color. In both of our specimens the 
vertical dark bars of the body are very intense, so much so that the bar on the 
caudal peduncle, so marked in Evermann and Marsh’s examples, is of the same 
degree of conspicuousness as the rest. The diagonal bars on the anal fin are 
also well marked in the Haitian fish. The edges of the dorsal and caudal fins 
are broken in our fish and the shape of these fins is somewhat doubtful. 

While our specimens are somewhat different from jordani, the differences 
may be assigned to age, and for that reason we are placing the Haitian fish 
under this species until larger individuals can be obtained. 

General Range : Porto Rico and Haiti. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken among broken coral on 
Lamentin Reef. 

Abundance: Rare. 

Study Material: Photograph, 4496; Specimens, 2; 12-14 mm., No. 7278, 
Lamentin Reef, Port-au-Prince Bay. 

Malacoctenus Gill, 1860 

Cope’s Two-spotted Blenny 

A r alacoctenus biguttatus (Cope) 




References: Labrisomus biguttatus, Cope, 1873, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. 
Phila., 473. 

Malacoctenus biguttatus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, III, p. 2360. 

Field Characters: Small, compressed, scaled blennies with complete 
lateral line; teeth in a single series in each jaw; a fringe of tentacles on nape; 


230 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

7 or 8 dark quadrate blotches on sides; a black blotch on anterior two membranes 
of dorsal fin; two brownish spots behind the eye. 

Description: The single specimen assigned to biguttatus agrees fairly well 
with the meager description of proportions and fins given by Cope, and quite 
well as to color. The dorsal however has XIX, 10 instead of XIX-I, 11, and 
the anal 11-19 instead of 11-16. In view of the few specimens which have 
been taken, this variation may well be within specific lines. 

The following description of our specimen is given: Specimen No. 7275 

Length: 36.5 mm. Dorsal fin: XIX-10 

Depth: 9.5 (3.84) Anal fin: 11-19 

Head: 11 (3.3) 

Eye: 3.1 (3.66) 

Snout: 3.9 (2.8) 

Maxillary: 4 (2.7) 

Body: Elongate, considerably compressed, the head slightly less so than the 
body; upper and lower profiles about equally curved. 

Anterior Profile : Straight to above the anterior half of eye, thence after 
an abrupt angle, straight to the upper lip. 

Head: Medium, 3.3 in length. 

Interorbital Space: Narrow, slightly wider than the eye, almost flat 
but with a very slight depression. 

Snout: Conical, the lips, especially the upper, rather thick and heavy, 
entering the profile. 

Eye: 3.66 in head, placed rather high, its upper border not quite entering 
the dorsal profile. 

Mouth: Small, horizontal, the maxillary reaching the anterior margin of the 
orbit. 

Teeth: Strong, pointed, in a single series in each jaw, those of the lower jaw 
larger; teeth present on the vomer and palatines. 

Lateral Line: 46 pores; straight from upper angle of gill opening, decurved 
over origin of anal fin, thence straight on center of sides to caudal fin. 

Scales: Medium in size, absent on head. 

Cirri: A simple cirrus on anterior nostril, two cirri above eye, and a group 
of five cirri arising from a single base on each side of the nape. 

Dorsal Fin: Continuous, arising over the origin of the lateral line, the 1st 
spine higher than the next three or four, but not higher than posterior spines; 
the penultimate spines lower than the ultimate spine. Soft portion of fin 
higher than spinous portion. 

Anal Fin: Arises under center of spinous dorsal, the posterior rays longer 
than the anterior ones. 

Pectoral Fins: Elongate, rounded at end, equal to % length of head. 

Pelvic Fins: Elongate; arising in front of the pectoral base, the tips extending 
to the 2nd anal ray. 

Caudal Fin: Broken, but apparently rounded. 

Color: (alcoholic specimen) Pale greyish brown, with traces of 8 large 
vertical blotches on sides, these somewhat broken, and not forming continuous 
bars in all cases; a black spot on membrane between the first and third dorsal 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 231 

spines; two very distinct brownish spots behind the eye, slightly more than 
Yi the eye in diameter, the posterior on the operculum. Lower head with 
traces of lighter bars. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 234 inches. 

General Range: St. Martins; Bahamas and Haiti. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Our fish was taken close along shore 
in shallow water near Lamentin Reef. 

Abundance: Rare. 

Method of Capture : Scoop net among weeds. 

Food : Minute crustaceans and organic detritus too comminuted to identify. 
Study Material: Specimen, 1; 36.5 mm., No. 7275. 

Labrisomus Swainson, 1839 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 


A. Scales small, 68 to 80 in the lateral line nuchipinnis 

AA. Scales larger, 42 to 45 in lateral line. 

B. Dorsal XX-11, anal fin 11-20. Color mottled brown. No light spot 

below eye posteriorly haitiensis new species 


BB. Dorsal XVIII-10, Anal 11-18, brownish with a conspicuous light spot on 
cheek below the eye posteriorly, bordered above and below by darker. 

albigenys, new species 


Fringe -naped Blenny 

Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy and Gai 
mard) 


References: Clinus nuchipinnis, Quoy and Gaimard, 1824, in Freycinet, 
Voy. Uranie et Physicienne, Zool., p. 255. 

Labrisomus nuchipinnis, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 936. 

Field Characters: Small, scaly blennies with complete lateral line; teeth 
in an outer large series and an inner, smaller villiform group; a fringe of tentacles 
on the nape; brownish with indistinct cross-bars and blotches; fins brownish 
with darker spots forming cross-bars; scales small, 68 to 80 in lateral line. 

Description: The Haitian specimens are quite typical. 

Color: Our two specimens are rather pale, but agree well with the description 
given by Meek and Hildebrand. 

General Range: Florida to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Rather widely distributed on the 
reefs and along shore. 

Abundance: A common species, seen often on the reefs. 

Method of Capture: Taken mainly with traps, set on bottom near shore. 

Study Material: Photograph, 4014; Specimens, 2; 90-101 mm., including 
No. 7065. 



232 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


Haitian Spotted Blenny 

Labrisomus haitiensis new species 


[X; 1 



Type: No. 7170, 52.5 mm. long, Bizoton, Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti, March 
15, 1927, Captured in small trap in four feet of water. 

Field Characters: Small scaly blennies with complete lateral line; teeth 
in an oifler large series and an inner villiform band of small teeth; fringe of 
tentacles on the nape. Scales large, about 45 in the lateral line. Brownish 
with conspicuous darker spots. 

Measurements and Counts of Type: 


Length: 52.5 mm. 
Depth: 12.5 (4.2) 
Head: 14.9 (3.5) 
Eye: (2.9) 


Dorsal fin: XX- 11 
Anal fin: 11-20 
Pectoral fin: 13 
Scales: 45 


Description: 

Body: Elongate, compressed, the dorsal and ventral profiles, exclusive of 
the anterior profile, similar. 

Anterior profile : More or less straight from origin of dorsal fin to over middle 
of the eye, then angled and straight to the snout. 

Head: 3.5 in length, compressed. 

Interorbital Space: Narrow, slightly concave, its width about Y the diameter 
of the eye. 

Snout: Very short, a little more than Yi the eye in length. 

Eye: Large, 2.9 in head, placed well forward in the head, its upper edge 
reaching almost to the dorsal profile. 

Mouth: Terminal, slightly oblique. 

Maxillary: 2 in head, reaching beyond anterior border of pupil but not 
quite to center of eye. 

Teeth: In both jaws with an outer row of largo conical teeth,— about 10 
large graduated teeth anteriorly, with 10 smaller equal sized teeth on each 
side. Behind these anteriorly is a villiform band of small teeth. 

Opercles: Unarmed. 

Lateral line: Complete, the anterior portion straight, with a long low arch, 
beginning under the 9th spine of the dorsal. 

Scales: 45 in lateral line, medium in size, covering the entire body except 
the head. 

Cirri: Anterior nostril with a multifid cirrus (8 tentacles on right and 4 on 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


233 


left, — possibly injured); eye with a 5 or 7 branched tentacle on its upper, 
slightly posterior border; a five fingered tentacle on nape. 

Dorsal Fin: Long, the 3rd and 4th spines slightly shorter than the 1st and 
2nd, the 17th, 18th and 19th becoming progressively shorter, the 20th as 
long as the 16th or 17th, the spines free at their tips; the soft dorsal considerably 
higher than the spinous dorsal. 

Caudal Fin: Rather long, the end roughly rounded. 

Anal Fin: Rays lower than the dorsal rays, increasing in length slightly 
posteriorly. 

Pectoral Fins: Width of base 3 in head; the fin not quite as long as the head. 

Ventral Fins: Rather long, close together, composed of 1 spine and 2 rays. 

Color : (preserved specimen) Brownish gray, much paler on the lower surfaces, 
with darker mottlings. Three very dark brown, vertical spots on the posterior 
sides, the first spot confluent with a dark spot at base of and extending on the 
dorsal fin. Between these spots are vague indications of others. Five dark spots 
on the body at the base of the spinous dorsal, half of each spot being on the 
fin, these spots continued upward through the fin as grayish bars. Two small 
spots on the body at the base of the soft dorsal. Head dark brown, marbled 
slightly with lighter, the opercle especially dark. Anal with alternate dark 
and light bars. Soft dorsal, caudal, pectoral and ventral fins with small brown- 
ish spots on the rays, forming bars. 

Comparison: This species differs mainly from nuchipinnis because of its 
larger scales, from herminier by its larger eye and different fin count, from 
bucciferus by its larger eye and shape of dorsal, from macrolepidotus by its 
larger eye and larger scales, from heilneri because of larger eye and shorter 
maxillary, and from lentiginosus by its larger eye and small snout, and because 
of the longer pectoral and ventral fins. In coloration it almost duplicates the 
description given for nuchipinnis by Meek and Hildebrand, but the much 
larger scales of haitiensis immediately separate the two species. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; the type, No. 7170. 

Type Name and Location: Named for the island of Haiti. Type in the 
collections of the Department of Tropical Research of the New York Zoological 
Society. 


White -cheeked Blenny 


Labrisomus albigenys new species 



234 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 


Type: No. 7372, Length 16 mm., Lamentin Reef, Port-au-Prince Bay, 
Haiti. Taken among broken coral in two feet of water on inside of reef. May 
9, 1927. 

Field Characters : Very small, scaly blennies, with complete lateral line; 
a pair of three to five-fingered comb cirri on nape, ocellus on anterior dorsal 
web, and a large, white, black-bordered spot on cheek. 

Measurements and Counts of Type: 

Length: 16 mm. Dorsal fin: XVIII-10 

Head: 5.9 (2.7) Anal fin: 11-18 

Depth: 4.3 (3.7) Pectoral length: 5.8 


Description: 

Body: Elongate, compressed. 

Back: Scarcely elevated. 

Anterior profile: Evenly curved from dorsal to snout. 

Head: Pointed. 

Interorbital: Concave, with a furrow down the center. 

Snout: Short, lips thick. 

Nares: Posterior nares near eye, almost sessile, anterior nares in tube, between 
posterior and lips. 

Cirri: Narial cirri, two elongated tentacles from same base, extending up 
from posterior half of each narial tube, four times the height of the tubes; 
ocular cirrus, a long, slender, round, fleshy finger, giving off a short, external 
branch near base, half as long as eye; nuchal cirri, two oblique combs of five 
slender fingers (in two smaller paratypes there are only three fingers), one mm. 
in front of dorsal, the finger tips reaching back to base of dorsal. 

Eye: Large, not quite cutting profile. 

Mouth: Moderate, oblique, terminal. 

Maxillary: Reaching past first quarter of eye. 

Teeth: Several rows of villiform teeth, outer row enlarged; a single row on 
vomer and palatines. 

Preopercular margin: Rounded. 

Opercular margin: Rounded. 

Scales: Large, rounded. 

Lateral line: Anteriorly following line of back, lying half way between back 
and pectoral base; at vertical of 12th dorsal spine, curved abruptly down to 
midline; arched part considerably shorter than straight. 

Dorsal Fin: Spines considerably shorter than soft rays. 

Anal Fin: Lower than dorsal. 

Ventrals: 1-3. 

Color: Brown, mottled irregularly with darker, head almost uniform, the 
solid brown appearance caused by minute pigment dots; a broad, rectangular 
patch of whitish extending obliquely down and back from eye, across cheek 
and preopercle, broadly banded on each side with black; dorsal mottled with 


Eye: 1.6 (3.4) 
Interorbital: .8 (2) 
Snout: 1.2 (4.5) 
Maxillary: 1.6 (3.4) 


Ventral length: 4 
Ocular angle: 20° up 
Mouth angle: 50° down 
Scales: 42 

Lateral line pores: 42 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 235 

two shades of brown, with a large black ocellus on the first and second webs, 
between the first and third spines; the elongated distal hah of the soft rays 
pearly white, with three irregular lines of large, brown spots; end of peduncle 
pale, followed by a narrow black band on base of caudal; anal mottled with 
brown; pectoral pale mottled toward tip. The paratypes are not as brilliant- 
ly colored. 

Comparison: This species is nearest nuchipinnis but differs in smaller dorsal 
count, shorter snout, larger eye, short maxillary, difference in character of cirri, 
and especially in the much larger scales. 

Study Material: Photographs, 4498 and 4506; Specimens, 4; 13-16 mm. 
type and three paratypes, Nos. 7372 and 7372a. 

Type Name and Location: Named from the white patch on the cheeks. 
Type in the Collection of the Department of Tropical Research of the New 
York Zoological Society. 

Acteis Jordan, 1904 


Moore’s Blenny 

Acteis moorei (Evermann and Marsh) 



References: Malacoctenus moorei, Evermann and Marsh, 1899, Rept. U. S. 
Fish Comm., p. 358. 

Malacoctenus moorei , Evermann and Marsh, 1900, Fishes of 
Porto Rico, p. 309, fig. 97. 

Field Characters: A small, scaled blenny with complete lateral line; 
teeth with an outer larger row and a group of inner smaller villiform teeth; 
a single tentacle on nape; first dorsal spine longer than others; brownish with 
cross-bands of darker. 

Description: Four small fish, the largest 18 mm. long, are assigned to this 
species. Two of them have 22 dorsal spines and one has 47 lateral line scales. 

Size: Grows to 234 inches. 

Color: The coloration of our fishes, is less definitely marked than in speci- 
mens described by other authors. The vertical bands are broken up to a 
greater extent, forming almost horizontal bands of irregular spots, each spot 
with a lighter center. The bars or spots continue more or less on the dorsal 
fin, and that fin may be described as mottled with dark brown. Anal fin with 
a dusky shade towards the edge. 

General Range: Porto Rico, Haiti and Tortugas. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: In shallow water along shore near 
Lamentin Reef. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Method of Capture: By scoop nets, and searching among weeds and 
broken coral. 

Study Material: Specimens, 4; 15-18 mm., Nos. 7373, 7278. 


236 


Zoologica: N. Y . Zoological Society 
Brannerella Gilbert, 1900 


[X; 1 


Marbled Blenny 

Brannerella culebrae (Evermann and 
Marsh) 

References: Malacoctenus culebrae, Evermann and Marsh, 1899, Rep. U. 
S. Fish Comm., Dec. 19, 1899, p. 357. 

Malacoctenus culebrae, Evermann and Marsh, 1902, Fishes of 
Porto Rico, p. 308, fig. 96. 

Field Characters: Small, brownish scaled blennies with complete lateral 
line; males with 1st anal spine detached and covered with rather thickened 
skin. Body mottled with dark brown, a series of dark spots on the back, 
extending sometimes on the dorsal fin; two blotches especially conspicuous 
at the base of the tail; a wide light bar on the cheek, often breaking up into 
two posteriorly and forming a Y-shaped figure. 

Description: Evermann and Marsh described this fish in 1899 from three 
specimens of about equal size, the type, taken from a reef outside of Culebra 
harbour, Porto Rico, being 1.38 inches long. 

A series of specimens from Port-au-Prince Bay agree excellently well in 
form and coloration with the description and plate given by them and upon 
dissection all were found to be females. Agreeing equally well in color, con- 
sidering the well-marked pattern of this species and the variations mentioned 
and described under Color, are another series of Port-au-Prince Bay specimens, 
all possessing, however, the detached first anal spine which Gilbert (1900) made 
a distinguishing character of his genus Brannerella. All of these specimens were 
males, as proven by dissection. The Porto Rican specimens upon which the 
species was based were evidently, therefore, all females. 

Evermann and Marsh mention of their specimens that they possess a 
single row of teeth in each jaw. Our specimens have the outer rows of cardi- 
form teeth and inner band of villiform teeth mentioned by Gilbert for Brannerella. 
In view of the difficulties of dissecting these small fishes and of the fewness of 
specimens it is possible that the inner teeth of the Culebra specimens were 
overlooked. It is of interest to note that Evermann and Marsh recognized 
that their three specimens were different from other Porto Rican specimens 
of Malacoctenus, as they say “A rather plainly marked species of different 
aspect from other Porto Rican species of Malacoctenus, but not differing widely 
in any important characters and as yet known only from Porto Rico.” 

Size : Our largest specimens are about 32 mm. in length. The type of culebrae 
was 1.38 inches (34.5 mm.). 

Color: Our preserved (alcoholic and formalin) specimens vary considerably 
in intensity of coloring, but agree in possessing all of the essential patterns 
mentioned in the original description. The following description is based on 
Evermann and Marsh’s description and our specimens: 

Body brownish, with lighter rivulations and mottled everywhere with dark 
brown blotches. A series of 8 to 10 dark blotches, rather regularly arranged 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 237 

on the body along the base of the dorsal fin, extending on the lower portion 
of the fin, where occasionally each one divides and forms two black blotches; 
these blotches sometimes join with blotches on the body to form broken vertical 
bars on the sides. A similar series of dark blotches along the base of the anal 
fin, not evident in all specimens. Head nearly plain below but with some 
darker spots on the chin and on the isthmus; two pale streaks from the eye 
across the cheek, divided posteriorly on the opercle so as to form an irregular 
Y-shaped figure; opercle dark brown; top of head colored same as body; lips 
with brown and pale stripes; posterior half of the maxillary pale; dorsal fin 
rather dark, sometimes with a conspicuous dark spot on the membrane between 
the 1st and 2nd spines and occasionally with pale tips to the spines. Caudal 
fin uniform gray or faintly barred; anal fin similar to the dorsal in color, the 
rays with pale tips forming a white edge, sometimes with a dark narrow sub- 
terminal band, joined here and there to the spots at the base of the body; 
pectoral fin same as caudal; two or three small dark spots at base of pectoral; 
ventrals pale. Two dark spots near the base of the caudal fin are very 
conspicuous in practically all of our fish. 

A 10.6 mm. fish in the collection most likely belongs to this species, although 
the pattern on the head is different from the older ones. The rather narrow 
light line passing upward and back from the eye, as shown in the illustration in 
the “Fishes of Porto Rico” is, in this fish, very wide and continues backward 
over the nape to meet its fellow. It is bordered below by broken brown spots. 
The top of the head from this line forward to a line above the middle of the 
eyes is dark brown. The following patterns are also found; a broad band of 
brown from the eye to the maxillary and a few odd spots of brown on the lips. 
Two dark brown spots on the base of the pectoral. Sides with three series of 
vertical rectangular brown spots, the uppermost extending onto the dorsal 
fin, the lowermost not reaching the anal base. Wherever space is available 
on the body, these rectangles send downward or upward as the case may be, 
an attenuated band of chromatophores. Dorsal fin with a series of spots, 
mostly following the rays. Anal fin with nine spots of blackish. Pectoral, 
ventral and caudal fins clear. 

General Range: Porto Rico, Curacoa and Haiti. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay : Found along shore and on the various 
shallower reefs, especially among low weeds and in broken coral. 

Abundance: Quite common. 

Study Material: Photograph, 4487; Specimens, 18; 10.6-32 mm., includ- 
ing Nos. 7066, 7086, 7151, 7261a and 7278. Sand Cay, Bizoton Reef, and 
Lamentin Reefs, Port-au-Prince Bay. 

Cremnobates Gunther, 1861 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Basal third of caudal dark, dorsal fin with 3 ocelli .... argus new species 
AA. A bar on body at base of caudal, but not extending on fin; reddish with 
darker vertical bars extending on the fin, a single ocellus on dorsal fin. 

fajardo 


238 


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Tri-ocellated Blenny 

Cremnobates argus , new species 



Type: No. 7375, Length 22 mm., Lamentin Reef, Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti. 
Found among coral debris in shallow water on inside of reef. 

Field Characters: Very small, compressed, elongated blennies, brown 
body and fins mottled with darker; three ocelli on dorsal, posterior two-thirds 
of caudal whitish; narial cirri simple truncate flap, ocular cirrus branched, 
nuchal cirri flat, leaf-like. 

Measurements and Counts: 

Length: 22.5 mm. 

Head: 6.7 (3.3) 

Depth: 4.8 (4.7) 

Eye: 1.7 (4) 

Interorbital: 1 (6.7) 

Snout: 1.2 (5.5) 

Maxillary: 3 (2.2) 

Description: 

Body: Elongate, compressed. 

Back: Very slightly elevated. 

Anterior profile: Gently curved from snout to dorsal. 

Head: Depth less than three-fifths of length. 

Interorbital: Flattened; slightly more than half of eye. 

Snout: Very slightly convex. 

Nares: Posterior nares in slightly raised rim, close to antero-superior edge 
of eye; anterior nares in elevated tubes nearer lips than to anterior nares. 

Cirri: Narial cirrus a simple truncate flap rising from posterior half of anterior 
nasal tubes, equal to the tubes in height; ocular cirri close to postero-superior 
rim of eye, each a transverse, flat flap narrowing to an elongated point, with 
two internal branches, the uppermost the larger; nuchal cirri rising on a short 
narrow stem, expanding at once into a broad, triangular leaflike shape, topped 
with three slightly marked points. The two anterior pairs of cirri are pale 
mottled brown, the nuchals are black, with a wide white border like the vertical 
fins. 

Eye: Large, not cutting profile, iris pink. 

Mouth: Rather large, oblique. 

Maxillary: Not quite reaching the posterior border of the eye. 

Teeth: Several rows of villiform bands, narrowing to one row along the sides; 
vomer with horseshoe shaped patch of very small teeth. 


Dorsal fin: III-XXVII 
Anal fin: 11-17 
Pectoral length: 5 
Ventral length: 4.3 
Ocular angle: 20° up 
Mouth angle: 30° down 
Scales: 34 

Lateral line pores: 34 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 239 

Preopercular margin : Almost straight and vertical, curved below. 

Opercular margin: Smooth, extending obliquely backward, a deep bay at 
the top ending in a blunt spine. 

Scales : Large, smooth, rounded, with thin fleshy rims which curl outward on 
drying. 

Lateral line: Well marked, following the dorsal outline, and curving steeply 
downward to the mid-line at the extremity of the pectoral; the pores lie in the 
center of deep notched scales. 

Dorsal Fin: Spines only; relative length of anterior seven spines — 2.1, 2.1, 
1.5, 1.3, 1.9, 2.2, 2.4, mm., and so on to end; the extent of the membrane of 
the anterior part of the dorsal as follows — membrane of 3rd spine attached 
halfway up on 4th, 4th halfway up 5th, 5th two-thirds up 6th, remainder 
attached at tips. 

Caudal Fin: Rounded, shorter than depth of body. 

Color: Body brown, mottled with darker along sides and below; vertical 
fins darker than body, mottled with black, and with a wide, white margin; 
dorsal with three ocelli, a small one centered on the 16th spine (total dorsal 
count), another three times as large and white-ringed between the 23rd and 
25th spines, a third equal in size to the anterior one close to the antero-superior 
border of the large ocellus; caudal dark brown for basal third, then a clear zone, 
followed by a wider area mottled along the rays, and a wider, white terminal 
band; pectoral light, with a large, dark, sub-basal patch on lower half; ventrals 
dark on basal half, white for the rest; head mottled in two shades of brown, 
three wide, irregular bands extending up and back from the eye across nape 
and opercles; snout and chin with many large dark spots. 

Comparison: This fish is nearest to albicaudatus, named by Evermann and 
Marsh from a single specimen taken in Porto Rico. Our Haitian specimen 
differs in the less depth, shorter snout and narrower interorbital, in the spotting 
and banding of the head, in the presence of three dorsal ocelli, the deeper 
notch between dorsal fins, differently colored caudal, and in the wholly dif- 
ferent character of cephalic cirri. 

Study Material: Photographs, 4501, 4502 and 4502a; Specimen, 1; Type 
No. 7375. 

Type Name and Location: Named on account of the three dorsal ocelli. 
Type in the Collection of the Department of Tropical Research of the New 
York Zoological Society. 


Fajardo Blenny 

Cremnobates fajardo (Evermann and 
Marsh) 


References: Auchenopterus fajardo, Evermann and Marsh, 1899, Rep. U. 
S. Fish Comm., p. 361. 

Auchenopterus fajardo, Evermann and Marsh, 1902, Fishes 
of Porto Rico, p. 313, pi. 47. 



240 


Zoologica : N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 1 


Field Characters: Small, compressed scaled blennies with a single ray 
only in the dorsal fin in addition to the spines; lateral line complete. Reddish, 
mottled, with darker cross bars extending on the dorsal and anal fins. An 
ocellus present on the dorsal in some specimens. 

Size: Grows to 1.6 inches. 

Color: This species, judging by the specimens in the Haitian collection, 
varies considerably, the variation being mainly in the intensity of color, especi- 
ally in the vertical bars which extend from the body onto the dorsal and anal 
fins. 

Our specimens agree better with the description given by Evermann and 
Marsh than with their figure. But as they had but a single specimen a certain 
amount of latitude is allowable. In the Haitian fish the sides are usually 
mottled, often with pale pinkish or whitish spots. All possess the vertical 
bars on the body which extend onto the dorsal and anal fins, the intensity of 
this pattern, varying, however, to such an extent that in some the bars are 
scarcely visible, while in the most vividly colored (alcoholic) fish, the bars 
are bright brown anteriorly becoming darker posteriorly and finally black, all 
of the bars on the anal fin being black. Conspicuous in this specimen is the 
last body bar, placed at the base of the caudal, which is black. The dorsal 
ocellus is not present in all specimens. It varies in intensity of color. Its 
absence may possibly be laid to preservation. 

General Range: Known from Porto Rico, Bahamas and Haiti. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found by us in shallow water among 
weeds and small coral masses. 

Abundance: Uncommon, but always to be found when especially searched 
for. 

Study Material: Photographs, 4493, 4494; Specimens, 11; including Nos. 
6852, 7254 and 7279. 

Auchenistius Evermann and Marsh, 1899 

Green Thalassia Blenny 

Auchenistius stahli Evermann and 
Marsh 

References: Auchenistius stahli , Evermann and Marsh, 1899, Rept. U. 

S. Fish Commission, p. 359. 

Auchenistius stahli , Evermann and Marsh, 1902, Fishes of 

Porto Rico, p. 316, fig. 102. 

Field Characters: Very small, greenish, scaled, blennies without lateral 
line. Dorsal fin composed entirely of spines, the spines becoming smaller 
posteriorly. Membrane of dorsal and anal connected with caudal. Pectoral 
fin small. Green, a golden spot behind and below eye. 

Description: 32 specimens are assigned to this species, the only difference, 
outside of color which is mentioned below, between our specimens and the 
figure and original description being that the lips in a few of the Haitian fish 
are larger, and more swollen, and the maxillary sometimes extends beyond 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 241 

the eyes. This is especially true of the more brilliantly colored specimens, and 
it is possible that it may be a sexual or age character. In all other characters, 
including teeth, these specimens agree fully. It may be mentioned here that 
Metzelaar’s (1919) new genus and species, Histioclinus veliger, resembles 
this species closely. Very dark specimens of our blennies practically 
duplicate the color pattern of his fish, the only difference being that Histioclinus 
does not possess the small inner teeth of the upper jaw and the vomerine teeth 
of Auchenistius, and that the dorsal fin has rays instead of spines. Metzelaar’s 
figure shows considerably smaller scales than Auchenistius, although the number 
of rows according to the description is practically the same (58-60). The 
measurements given in his description do not coincide with his drawings and 
the two drawings appear to be of different fish. 

The supra-orbital tentacle in our fishes, except in the smaller specimens, is 
paddle-shaped. 

Color: In life clear yellow green. A short, oblong patch of gold, back and 
down from eye halfway to preopercular margin. Iris golden. 

The preserved specimens vary considerably in color, especially in the dis- 
tribution of the chromatophores. The general body color is gray or faded 
yellowish, a few having a reddish tinge. A constant feature in all our specimens 
is a yellowish or whitish bar below and in back of the eye, this being golden 
in life. This is bordered above and below by brownish, the extent of which 
varies considerably, sometimes being suffused over the entire cheek, and at 
other times concentrated into a short dark bar immediately above and below 
the golden bar. This pattern is well shown in Metzelaar’s figure of Histio- 
clinus veliger. 

There is also considerable variation in general body coloration. Some or 
most or all of the following patterns may be present, — pigment spots, black 
and brown, irregularly placed on body, in one case forming apparent cross- 
bars; 1, 2, or 3 cross-bars on ventral fins; spots on anal fin, especially near 
the tips of the posterior rays; caudal fin with pigment spots; lower jaw with a 
series of spots; dorsal and anal fin with a terminal black band, in one specimen 
this band is subterminal. 

General Range. Known heretofore only from Porto Rico and the Bahamas. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Widely distributed over the shallower 
coral reefs and also in the weed ( Thalassia ) on the beaches along-shore, a fact 
which caused us in the field to name this fish the Green Thalassia Blenny. 

Abundance: Common, always to be found when searched for among corals 
and weeds. 

Method of Capture: Mainly by searching carefully among coral debris 
brought up from bottom, and from weed beds dug up bodily and brought to 
the surface. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H75, No. 7085a; Photographs, 4231, 4232; 
Specimens, 33; 12.5 to 24 mm., including Nos. 7085a, 7112, 7151, 7261, 7278, 
7279. 

Family Blennidae; Blennies 

A. Teeth comb-shaped, in a single row in each jaw, behind which on each 
side is a single canine. Snout very short Rupiscartes 


242 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

AA. Jaws each with 4 strong canines in front; a hooked posterior canine below. 

Ophioblennius 

Rupiscartes Swainson, 1839 

Rock-hopping Blenny 

Rupiscartes atlanticus (Cuvier and Val- 
enciennes) 


References: Salarias atlanticus , Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1836, Hist. 
Nat. Poiss., XI, p. 321. 

Rupiscartes atlanticus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 948. 

Field Characters: Small, compressed, naked blennies, with extremely 
short snout (pug-nosed); teeth on front jaws movable; a large posterior canine 
on each side inside of anterior row of teeth; vomer toothless; dorsal fin continu- 
ous. 

Description: Our single fish has the dorsal fin count of XI-20, and the anal 
22. In all other respects this fish agrees with the published descriptions of the 
species. The Haitian fish had none of the peculiarities of coloring that Sylvest- 
er’s Alticus macclurei of similar size showed. Fowler (1920) considers macclurei 
to be a young stage of this species. 

General Range: Atlantic, West Indies to Brazil and Ascension Island; 
Pacific, Mazatlan to Ecuador and Chatham Island. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Our single fish was taken at Sand 
Cay by trap. 

Food: The alimentary canal contained organic detritus only, apparently 
of both animal and vegetable origin. 

Study Material: Photograph, 4492; Specimen, 1; 68.5 mm., No. 6888. 

Ophioblennius Gill, 1860 


Haitian Snake Blenny 

Ophioblennius feroz new species 



Type: No. 7152. Length 43 mm. Taken at light alongside schooner, 
at night, near Bizoton, Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti, April 6th, 1927. 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


243 


Field Characters: Small, elongate, strongly compressed, scaleless blennies, 
with incomplete lateral line; snout very short; jaws with four large, recurved 
fangs in front, above and below, two more halfway back on mandibles, and 
a row of elongate movable teeth on sides of upper jaw. 

Measurements and Counts: 

Length: 43 mm. 

Head: 10.6 (4) 

Depth: 8.3 (5.1) 

Eye: 3 (3.5) 

Interorbital: 2 (1.5) 

Snout: 3 (3.5) 

Maxillary: 3.7 (2.8) 

Description: 

Body: Low, much elongated, compressed. 

Back: Scarcely elevated. 

Anterior profile: Straight from dorsal to forward part of eye, thence curved 
to snout. 

Head: Large, almost as deep as long. 

Interorbital: Convex. 

Snout: Short, abruptly curved downward, very convex. 

Nares: Posterior with slight rim, anterior twice diameter of the other and 
with short tube. 

Cirri: Narial cirrus, a flat, six-fingered, handlike tentacle, with the wrist 
arising from inner side of nasal tube; ocular cirrus a simple, tapering tentacle, 
less than half diameter of eye; nuchal cirrus, two short tentacles arising close 
together, halfway between dorsal fin and eye. 

Eye: Large, below profile. 

Mouth: Moderate, oblique, terminal. 

Maxillary: Reaching to first fifth of eyeball. 

Teeth: Four large teeth close to premaxillary symphysis, the inner pair 
directed obliquely toward each other, the outer pair recurved, fanglike; lateral 
teeth elongate, palisade-like, movable; four teeth in front of lower jaw, the inner 
pair curved back almost into a semicircle, the outer pointing low, sideways, 
along the line of the jaw; halfway to gape on the mandible, two isolated re- 
curved teeth, the posterior one much the largest tooth in the mouth. 

Opercular margin: Smooth, curved, a small bay at the top. 

Scales: Absent. 

Lateral Line: Incomplete; beginning at postero-superior edge of opercle, 
and following line of back to vertical of 14th dorsal element. 

Dorsal fin: Long, the spines slender, separated by slight notch from soft 
rays. 

Caudal: Forked. 

Color: The preserved specimens are almost colorless, one paratype showing 
traces of ten, vertical dark bands down the sides; there is considerable dark 
pigment along the dorsal fin base, on the top of the head and the lips; several 
faint bands radiate from the eye back over the opercles. 

Comparison: Differs from webbii in longer head, two fangs on mid-mandible, 


Dorsal fin: XII-20 
Anal fin: 11-21 
Pectoral length: 11 mm. 
Ventral length: 6 mm. 
Ocular angle: Vertical 
Mouth angle: 30° down 
Scales: None 


Zoological N. Y. Zoological Society 


244 


[X; 1 


in shape and position of anterior fangs, presence of nuchal tentacles, in pigmenta- 
tion, and greater number of dorsal and anal elements. 

From trinitatis it may be distinguished by a lesser depth of body, wholly 
different coloration, much fewer dorsal elements and much narrower inter- 
orbital space. 

Study Material: Photographs, 4497 and 4499; Specimens, 3; 40-43 mm. 
Type and two para types, Nos. 7152 and 7152a. 

Type Name and Locality: Named from the large, recurved fangs. Type 
is in the Collection of the Department of Tropical Research of the New York 
Zoological Society. 

Family Emblemariidae 1 


Acanthemblemaria Metzelaar, 1919 
Key to species 

(A. A few villiform teeth behind the front row in the lower jaw only; color 
olivaceous with traces of dusky crossbands, finely punctulate with 

innumerable brown dots spinosa Metzelaar, extralimital) 

AA. Small teeth behind the outer in both upper and lower jaws. 

B. Profile evenly curved from snout to dorsal fin. A conspicuous black 
spot on membranes between the third and fourth dorsal spines. Supra- 
ocular tentacle very large and with many branches; center of top 

of head not spined arborescens new species 

BB. Profile straight from dorsal fin to above eye, than angled and descending 
straight to snout. Color variegated; no black spot on dorsal fin. 
Supraocular tentacles small, with very short branches if any. Top 
of head scaled almost to nape variegata new species 


Bushy-headed Spiny Blenny 

Acanthemblemaria arborescens new species 



Type: No. 6923, 22 mm. length, Lamentin Reefs, Port-au-Prince Bay, 
February 22, 1927. 

Field Characters: Very small, scaleless blennies with front of the head 
covered with small spines; a large multifid tentacle over the eye and another 
on the snout; a conspicuous black spot on membranes between the 3rd and 
4th dorsal spines. 

' The genera Acanthemblemaria and Stathmonotus are assigned to the families Emblem- 
ariidae and Chaenopsidae respectively in this paper, following Jordan’s “Classification of 
Fishes.” We are not at all certain that this is correct, but we are letting the genera remain 
so until further studies can be made. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


245 


Measurements and Counts of the Type: 


Length: 22 mm. 
Depth: 3.2 (6.9) 
Head: 6 (3.66) 
Eye: 1.23 (4.85) 
Snout: 1.23 (4.85) 


Dorsal fin: XX-15 


Anal fin: 11-23 
Pectoral fin: 13 
Ventral fin: 3 
Scales absent 


Maxillary: 2.8 (2.14) 


Lateral line absent 


Description: 

Body: Elongate, compressed, tapering and becoming more compressed 
from the posterior portion of the head backward; greatest depth at the origin 
of the dorsal fin; upper and lower profiles of trunk similar. 

Profile of Head: Upper surface (exclusive of spines) descends in a gradual 
curve from the origin of the dorsal fin to the snout. 

Head: 3.66 in length, more heavily built than the trunk, almost as broad as 
high. The difference in depth of head, body and tail shown in Metzelaar’s 
spinosa not apparent in our fish. 

A series of short, strong, forward-pointing spines on the head, exclusive of the 
cheeks, opercles and occipital regions, these strongest on the supraorbital ridge, 
and continued in a short triangular patch backward and above the eye. The 
spines are also found around the eye on its anterior border, on the snout and 
below the eye. On the posterior border of the eye the spines are absent but 
their place is taken by a broad bony ridge. 

A large multifid tentacle over the eye, its length greater than the diameter 
of the orbit. A smaller multifid tentacle on the anterior nostril, its length 
about equal to eye. 

Interorbital space: Concave, because of supraorbital ridges, slightly greater 
in width than half the diameter of the orbit. 

Snout: Short, equal to eye when protuberant lip is measured. 

Eye: 4.85 in head, situated in anterior part of the head, fairly high. 

Mouth: Terminal, slightly oblique; the lips, especially the upper somewhat 
swollen; maxillary reaches beyond eye, 2.14 in head. 

Teeth: (Paratype dissected) Upper jaw with a band of strong, pointed, 
inwardly-directed teeth, strongest anteriorly and becoming progressively 
shorter on the sides. Inside of this row anteriorly there is a band of much 
smaller pointed teeth. Mandible with a similar series of teeth, the inner teeth 
in a band anteriorly. Vomer and palatines strongly toothed. 

Opercles: Smooth; a series of widely spaced pores on the preopercle. 

Dorsal Fin: Continuous, the last ray connected to the caudal fin by a large 
delicate membrane, the fin originating about an eye’s diameter back of the 
eye, immediately in back of the occipital region; the rays slightly longer than 
the spines. Space between the 3rd and 4th spines wider than remaining spaces. 

Metzelaar’s figure of spinosa the only other species of this genus, and his 
description show only rays in the dorsal and anal fins. In damaged specimens 
of arborescens and variegata, the spines are difficult to differentiate and might 
easily be called rays. Evidently the same condition is to be found in the related 
genus Emblemaria, as reference to Jordan and Evermann’s “Fishes of North 
and Middle America” show that some of the species are supposed to possess 


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[X;l 


spines and others have only rays. It is felt that reexamination of some of 
these species will reveal that spines are present, although they are weak and 
flexible. 

Anal Fin: Arises under 13th dorsal spine, rather low anteriorly, the rays longer 
posteriorly and connected to the caudal fin by a thin membrane. 

Pectoral Fin: 13 to 14 rays, originating close to the opercle, its base with a 
slightly backward slant below; length of fin 1.6 to 1.7 in head. 

Ventral Fins: Very small, 1-2, inserted anterior to pectoral base. 

Caudal Fin: Rather elongate, equal to slightly more than 3^ the head in 
length; roughly truncate, the outer rays but little shorter than the middle ones. 

Color: (In life) General color of body tan, becoming paler posteriorly, 
and changing to dull blackish brown on lower anterior sides, especially on 
lower sides of head; the entire body heavily punctate with small black and 
reddish chromatophores, more marked anteriorly. A series of small whitish 
spots on cheeks and anterior part of the body. Supraocular and nasal tentacles 
as well as the spines on the head yellowish, the tentacles with minute black 
dots. Anterior portion of lips yellowish, with an indistinct vertical band of 
black dots followed by a white band on the middle of the lips. Dorsal fin 
membrane yellowish as far back as the 20th spine, the spines with vertical orange 
spots here and there, the membrane heavily pigmented basally and with a 
black semi-ocellus between the 3rd and 4th spines, the ocellus bordered below 
by a narrow white band beneath which is a broader pinkish one. Remainder 
of dorsal fin, the pectoral, caudal and anal rays pinkish, the anterior five mem- 
branes of the anal fin punctate. 

(Alcoholic specimen) Olivaceous, pale and almost immaculate posteriorly, 
with small brownish punctations increasing in number anteriorly until the 
belly and most of the head, especially the lower parts, are closely pigmented. 
No traces of cross bands. Dorsal fin heavily pigmented anteriorly, especially 
the base, the fin with a pale margin. Posterior half of dorsal, and all other 
fins hyaline. 

Comparison: This species differs from spinosa, the only species of the genus 
described heretofore, in teeth, smaller eye and greatly in color. It can be 
separated from the following species most easily by the presence of its large 
conspicuous, multifid supraocular tentacle, as well as in color, and in the shape 
of the anterior profile. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H42 (the type in life); Photographs, 4482, 
4484; Specimens, 4; all from same locality; — No. 6923, type, Lamentin Reef, 
Port-au-Prince Bay, February 22, 1927; 1 paratype, No. 7201, 20 mm., April 
22, 1927; 2 paratypes, No. 7278, May 9, 1927. 

Type Name and Location: arborescens , — in allusion to the remarkable nasal 
and supra-ocular tree-like tentacles. Types and paratypes in the collections 
of the Department of Tropical Research of the New York Zoological Society. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


247 


Variegated Spiny-headed Blenny 

Acanthemblemaria variegata new species 



Type: No. 7464, 25.2 mm. long, Lamentin Reef, Port-au-Prince Bay, May 
8, 1927. Taken from inner side of reef in two feet of water. 

Field Characters: Very small, scaleless blennies with top and front of 
head covered with short spines; a single simple cirrus over eye; brown mottled 
with lighter; lower jaw and chin with black spots. 

Measurements and Counts of Type: 


Length: 25.2 mm. 

Depth: 4.1 (6.15) 

Head: 7 (3.6) 

Eye: 1.5 (4.65) 

Snout: 1.5 (4.65) 

Maxillary: 3 (2.3) 

Interorbital space: 1.8 (3.9) 

Description: 

Body: Elongate, the trunk compressed, dorsal and ventral outlines similar, but 
abdomen rather heavy, a distinct angle at the vent. 

Anterior profile: Horizontal from origin of dorsal fin to over middle of eye, 
then curved and descending in a straight line to the snout. 

Head: 3.6 in length, about as wide as deep. Top of head to almost as far 
back as origin of dorsal fin, snout, suborbital region and region immediately 
posterior to eye, covered with short, strong, forward-pointing spines. These 
spines form a ring around the eye, the posterior ones shorter and blunter than 
the others. A very short blunt cirrus over each eye. Nuchal tentacles absent. 

Interorbital Space : Concave, because of circumorbital spines, densely covered 
with spines, its width (including spines) slightly greater than diameter of eye. 

Snout : Short, about equal to diameter of eye. 

Eye: 4.65 in head, placed forward and high, but not entering the dorsal 
profile. 

Mouth: Terminal, slightly oblique, the maxillary not quite reaching the 
posterior border of the eye. 

Teeth: Both jaws with an outer row of strong inwardly-pointing teeth, the 
anterior ones much stronger and larger than the others. Inside of the large 
row in both jaws there is a band of smaller teeth anteriorly. Posterior to the 
group of smaller teeth the outer row of each side come closer to each other; 
they then gradually separate again. The general appearance of the lower 
jaw when viewed from above is that of an old fashioned key-hole. 

Opercles: Smooth, rounded, the preopercular margin with a series of mucus 
pores. 


Dorsal fin: XXI-14 
Anal fin: 11-22 
Pectoral fin: 13 
Ventral fin: 3 
Scales absent 
Lateral line absent 


248 


Zoologica: N. Y . Zoological Society 


[X; 1 


Dorsal Fin: (XX-13 to XXI-15 in paratypes), the spines slightly shorter 
than the rays, the fin arising over the insertion of the preopercle. Posteriorly 
it is connected to the caudal peduncle by a membrane which barely touches the 
caudal rays. 

Anal Fin: (11-21 to 11-23 in the paratypes) similar to dorsal, arising beneath 
the space between the 12th and 13th dorsal spines. 

Caudal fin: Short, equal to snout and eye, rather high and broadly rounded. 

Pectoral Fins : 13 rays, its base broad, equal to snout and one third the eye. 

Pelvic Fins: Small, placed under center of the opercle. 

Color: In life, opercles pinkish cinnamon, dotted less densely above but 
becoming almost solid snuff brown below. Posterior edge of preopercle 
and whole of opercle sparsely stained with bluish white. Short area behind 
the nape pinkish cinnamon, dotted with snuff brown, this color also extending 
on the gill covers below. Three dark cross bars across the lower jaw. 

Body complexly colored, but in general 'the ground color is greenish yellow, 
almost wholly obscured by brownish dots. Along the base of the dorsal are, 
from nape to caudal, about 12, fairly well marked, large spots of rufus; ten 
somewhat larger ones along the belly and an irregularly indicated band along 
the mid sides, all rufus or ferrugineus. The body, from the opercles including 
the pectoral pad to the anal fin, is sparsely stained with white. The posterior 
half of the body shows irregular areas rather paler than the rest of the ground 
color. The anterior 3 or 4 dorsal spines are golden green, the remainder rufus, 
the anterior 8 or 9 spines being dotted with brown. Pectoral and anal fins 
greenish, caudal colorless, but with 3 small black spots on upper and lower margins. 

The type, in alcohol, is colored as follows: Entire trunk and head heavily 
covered with brown chromatophores, the chromatophores being found in 
irregularly-shaped patches, leaving the pale yellowish ground color and pro- 
ducing a mottled effect, these mottlings more marked along the base of the 
anal fin, leaving a series of more or less regularly spaced yellowish spots. The 
opercles are more completely covered with chromatophores, and possess an 
especially well-marked patch behind the eye on the preopercle. Lower jaw 
with three transverse, conspicuous brown bands; a brown spot on the 
branchiostegal rays. All fins hyaline, the rays with a few dark punctulations. 
Caudal fin with three small black spots near the tips of the rays, on its upper 
and lower margins. 

Variation: The nine paratypes vary very slightly in form. In color, as 
might be expected among fishes that live inside of crevices and holes in coral, our 
specimens vary greatly, and the one extreme specimen was at first set aside 
to be described as a new species. 

The type, the largest specimen of the series, is also the most brilliantly 
colored. The paratypes differ in that the mottled coloration of the sides has 
taken a more definite form, and is present in some specimens as a series of 
vertical dark bands, each two of which are roughly connected dorsally and 
ventrally. In others, the color is concentrated in a series of spots along the 
base of the anal, along the middle of the sides and sometimes at the base of 
the dorsal. The spots and lines on the lower jaw are always present to some 
degree, while the small spots on the upper and lower rays of the caudal are 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 249 

sometimes absent. The myomeres are often marked with dark lines of pig- 
ment. 

The one extreme specimen, mentioned above, agrees in proportions, disposi- 
tion of spines, profile, etc. but its ► dy is deep uniform blackish brown in 
color, with the spots on the caudal fir- ;uite marked. In this specimen pigment 
is present along the dorsal and ana’ s to such an extent that the rays appear 
to be thickened. However, a few of t other para types approach this condition, 
and as the specimen is not separable on other grounds we are considering it as 
a melanistic specimen of a variable species. 

Comparison: Differs from arborestsns in degree of armature of the head, the 
dorsal profile and markedly in color. From spinosa it differs in being less deep, 
in having simpler supraocular cirri, shorter rounded caudal fin and, comparing 
equal sized specimens, in color. 

Study Material: Photographs 4483, 4500; Specimens, 10; 1, type, No. 
7464, Lamentih Reef, Port-au-Prince Bay, May 8, 1927, and 9 paratypes, 
14-23 mm. long, including Nos. 7098, 7195 (melanistic specimen) 7261, 7261a, 
7278, 7278a, 7454, — all from worm-holes, coral and from among the branches 
of Halimeda-Yike coral, Sand Cay and Lamentin Reef, Port-au-Prince Bay, 
March 24 to May 9th, 1927. 

Family Chaenopsidae 
Stathmonotus Bean, 1885 
Coral Scaleless Blenny 

Stathmonotus corallicola new species 



Type: No. 7463, 21 mm. length, Lamentin Reef, Port-au-Prince Bay, 
April 22, 1927, taken from worm holes in old broken coral submerged about a 
foot. 

Field Characters: Very small, longate, scaleless blennies, with long con- 
tinuous dorsal fin composed of spine, only; pectoral and ventral fins very small; 
a series of black and white bars on chin; anal fin with regular white vertical 
bars, the fin with a narrow pale border. 

Measurements and Counts: 

Length: 21 mm 
Depth: 2.1 (10) 

Head: 3.4 (6.) 

Eye: .78 (4.35) 

Snout: .45 (7.8) 

Description: 

Body: Rather long, considerably compressed, especially posteriorly, dorsal 
and ventral profiles about equally curved. 


Dorsal fin: XLVII 
Anal fin : 11-25 
Pectoral: 5 to 6 
Scales absent 
Lateral line absent 


250 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Anterior Profile: Straight from dorsal fin to above eye, then gently curved 
to snout. 

Head: Rather small, 6.2 in the length. 

Interorbital Space: Narrow, flat, less than the width of the eye. 

Snout: Conical, shorter than eye. 

Eye: Small, 4.35 in head, placed far forward and high in the head, but not 
entering the dorsal profile. 

Mouth: Slightly oblique; jaws equal: the maxillary reaching to posterior 
border of the pupil. 

Teeth: Upper jaw with two rows of pointed teeth, the outer enlarged, the 
anterior ones largest. Lower jaw with two rows of teeth, the outer enlarged. 
A few teeth on the vomer. 

Opercles: smooth. 

Anus: Under 18th dorsal spine. 

Dorsal Fin: XLVII, long, continuous, formed entirely of spines which are 
short anteriorly and become longer posteriorly, beginning over the posterior 
tip of the pectoral fin, and joined to the caudal fin by membrane. 

Anal fin: II, 25, the posterior rays slightly longer. The two spines are as 
long as the anterior rays and are included in the membrane of that fin, not 
short and separated as in the illustration of hemjphilli. 

Caudal Fin: Rounded, equal in length to depth of fish. 

Pectoral Fin: Extremely small and short, situated at posterior border of 
opercle, and consisting of about 5 rays. 

Ventral Fins: Extremely short and small; situated anterior to pectoral 
base, consisting of 1 spine and 2 rays. 

Color: (Alcoholic specimen) Grayish brown with indications of about 10 
indistinct pale areas on the upper surfaces, extending about Y way down the 
sides. Scattered through the gray brown are very small pale dots, largest and 
most conspicuous on the cheeks. (These dots are formed by the absence of 
the darker chromatophores and those on the body are not discernable without 
a lens.) Snout and anterior part of head pale. Four radiating dark lines 
extend downward and backward from the eye, meeting their fellows from the 
opposite side of the head on the lower part of the head. Dorsal fin hyaline. 
Bases of caudal, pectoral and ventral fins dark. Anal fin dark with 7 white 
squarish spots, and with its lower edge pale. 

Comparison: This species differs mainly in color, and slightly in fin count 
and proportions from hemjphilli. 

Study Material: Photographs, 4491, 4495; Specimens, 1; 21 mm., No. 7463, 
Lamentin Reefs, Port-au-Prince Bay, April 22, 1927. 

Type Name and Location: corallicola , in allusion to the fish being found 
inside of coral. 

Type in the collection of the Department of Tropical Research of the New 
York Zoological Society. 




1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 251 

Family Ophidiidae; the Cusk-Eels 
Lepophidium Gill, 1863 

Black-finned Cusk Eel 

Lepophidium brevibarbe (Cuvier) 

References: Ophidion brevibarbe, Cuvier, 1829, Regne Animal, Ed. 2, Vol. 

II, p. 358. 

Lepophidium brevibarbe, Nichols and Breder, 1922, Proc. 

Biol. Soc. Wash., 35, p. 13, fig. 1. 

Field Characters: Elongate, somewhat compressed, tapering, eel-like 
fish with dorsal and anal fins confluent around the tail; head scaly as far as 
forehead; snout with a decurved hook; gill rakers 4 in number; scales very 
small; dorsal and anal fin with a black margin. 

Description: A single 209 mm. fish is placed under this species, differing 
from NichoFs and Breder’s redescription of the species in having longer ventral 
filaments, 2.4 in head. It agrees well in all other characters. 

Size and Weight: A 209 mm. fish weighed 48 grams. 

General Range: West Indies, Gulf of Mexico and Brazil. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 209 mm., No. 7059. 

Family Gobiesocidae; the Cling-Fishes 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Incisors of lower jaw with entire edges. . 

AA. Incisors of lower jaw tricuspid or serrate 

Gobiesox Lacepede, 1799 

Large-eyed Clingfish 

Gobiesox macrophthalmus Gunther 


References: Gobiesox macrophthalmus, Gunther, 1861, Cat. Fishes Brit. 
Museum, III, p. 502. 

Gobiesox macrophthalmus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, 
Fishes of North and Middle America, III, p. 2335. 

Field Characters: Small, rather elongate fishes, broad and depressed in 
front; a large sucking disk on ventral surface, formed of part of the body as 
well as the ventral fins. Incisor teeth without serrations. Coloration reddish. 

Description: Seven very small fish (8-14 mm. long) are placed under this 
species, but with considerable hesitation. In most of our fish the teeth are 
not evident, and even when they are the determinations are extremely doubtful. 
The status of the Haitian Gobiesocids must be left until larger specimens are 
secured, and until the West Indian species are worked over. 

General Range: St. Thomas, Haiti. 



. Gobiesox 
Arbaciosa 



252 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken from coral heads in Lamentin 
Reef in water two to three feet deep. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Method of Capture : Taken by lifting old coral and coral heads into seines, 
breaking up the coral and searching through the debris. 

Study Material: Specimens, 7; 8-14 mm., No. 7279. 

Arbaciosa Jordan and Evermann, 1896 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Color yellow-green with dark vertical bands on sides 
AA. Color red 

!l|| fr-T^|A Rock-living Clingfish 

-3 — 5 — Arbaciosa rupestris (Poey) 



rupestris 
sp. 


References: Gobiesox rupestris , Poey, 1861, Memorias, II, p. 283. 

Arbaciosa rupestris , Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, III, p. 2341. 

Field Characters: Small fish with anterior part of the body depressed; 
under surfaces with a conspicuous sucking disk formed of part of the body 
as well as the ventral fins. Incisor teeth with serrations along their edges. 
Greenish, with vertical brownish bands on sides. 

Description: The single Haitian fish, 12 mm. long, had 6 rays in the anal 
fin. 

Size: Grows to 1J^ inches. 

Color: General color pale yellow green, upper surface of head with brownish 
reticulations, inside of which are paler greyish spots. Sides of body with 
nine vertical, irregular brownish bands thickly dotted with blackish chromato- 
phores. The first and second, and the third and fourth bands are joined 
superiorly. The brown of these bands is continued across the upper surface 
as a broken line of dots* A rather wide brown band from eye to snout; a broad 
brown band directly below eye on suborbital, three additional brown bands 
radiating from eye to base of pectoral. Head with many black chromatophores, 
especially prominent along edges of brown lines. Belly and under sides white. 
Pectoral, anal, ventral and caudal fins, plain, translucent. Dorsal fin with a 
group of small black chromatophores on base of anterior rays and membranes. 

General Range: Cuba, Bahamas and Haiti. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken in coral debris. 

Abundance: Rare. 

Method of Capture: Searching among weeds and broken coral. 

Study Material: Specimens, 1; 12 mm., No.. 7258. 

Red Clingfish 

Arbaciosa sp. 

Note: Two specimens, 9.5 and 11 mm., differ from rupestris in color and 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


253 


form. The incisors of the lower jaw are denticulated, but too slightly developed 
for adequate counting, while the teeth of the upper jaw are not visible. 

Coloration in Preservative: Covered everywhere with a fine peppering 
of minute scarlet dots, except for two wide, pale, vertical bands in front of 
and behind the dorsal. Dorsal and anal fins each with three scarlet bars and 
two plain interspaces. Caudal with four scarlet bars and three plain inter- 
spaces. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 9.5 and 11 mm., Nos. 7234 and 7255. 
Lamentin Reef, Port-au-Prince Bay. 

Family Balistidae; the Trigger-Fishes 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Gill opening with a number of enlarged bony plates or scutes behind it; 
eye with a groove before it; lateral line developed, not conspicuous, 

undulating Batistes 

AA. Gill opening without bony plates or scutes behind it; no groove before 
eye; lateral line absent Canthidermis 


Batistes Linnaeus, 1758 


Queen Trigger-fish; Old Wife; 
Old Wench; Bouze 

Balistes vetula Linnaeus 


References: Batistes vetula, Linnaeus, 1758, Systema Natura, p. 329. 

Balistes vetula, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of North 
and Middle America, II, p. 1703. 

Field Characters: Medium-sized, compressed fish with small mouths; 
skin leathery but the scales very evident; dorsal fins separate, the 1st of 3 
spines; the first spine much the longest and heaviest; dorsal and caudal fins 
with filamentous tips in the adult; cheeks with two broad curved bands of 
blue, and a series of smaller narrower bands above these. 

General Range: Tropical parts of the Atlantic, occasionally north in the 
Gulf Stream to Woods Hole. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 15 inches. A 166 mm. fish weighed 171 grams. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Food: Alimentary canal contained remains of Thalassia and small crustaceans. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 166-300 mm., No. 7093. 



254 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 
Canthidermis Swainson, 1839 


[X; 1 



References: Canthidermis sobaco, Poey, 1861, Memorias, II, p. 324. 

Canthidermis sobaco, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, II, p. 1705. 

Field Characters: Compressed, rather deep, leathery-skinned fishes, the 
scales of the trunk each with a median keel or spine; dark brown, the vertical 
fins dusky. Small specimens are mottled, green, and black, and yellow; the 
membrane of the spinous dorsal intense black. 

Description: This species is included on the basis of one specimen, 29 mm. 
long, taken under Sargassum weed, on April 29th, 1927, in Port-au-Prince Bay. 
In the confused state of our knowledge of young specimens of Canthidermis, 
or for that matter of the adults, it is extremely difficult to identify them as 
accurately as is desired. The present specimen fits into sobaco slightly better 
than anything else. It bears comparison with a 67 mm. fish AMNH 3585 
collected and identified by Mr. John T. Nichols as sobaco. 

The relative dimensions of our 29 mm. fish are as follows: 

Depth 1.5, head 2.4, eye 3, snout 1.9, dorsal fin III— 26, anal fin 25. 

Size and Weight: Grows to two feet. 

General Range: West Indies, occasionally north in the Gulf Stream.' 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Known to us by a single specimen 
captured under Sargassum weed. 

Study Material: Specimens, 1; 29 mm., No. 7231, under Sargassum weed. 


Family Monacanthidae; the File-Fishes 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Pubic bone with a small spine at its end; gill opening short, nearly vertical. 

B. Dorsal spine not barbed, its edge merely roAgh Cantherines 

BB. Dorsal spine armed with strong retrorse barbs, usually in two series. 

Monacanthus 

A A. Pubic bone without spine at its end; gill opening long, oblique; dorsal 
spine without barbs, inserted above the orbit, (very small fish may 
have barbs) Ceratacanthus 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


255 


Cantherines Swainson, 1839 


Dusky Filefish; Lija Colorado 

Cantherines pullus (Ranzani) 


References: Monacanthus pullus , Ranzani, 1842, Nov. Comm. Acti. Sci. 
Inst. Bonon., V, p. 4, Plate 1. 

Cantherines pullus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 800. 

Field Characters: Small to medium, leathery-skinned, small mouthed 
fishes, with dorsal spine large, situated immediately above the eye, and without 
barbs on its posterior side; pelvic flap ending in a short spine; brown with dull 
orange spots and bands. 

Description: Four Haitian fish of about the same size (123-132 mm.) 
have the following dimensions, differing somewhat from those given by other 
authors. 

Depth at vertical from vent 2.4. 

Head to upper angle of gill opening 3.36-3.6. 

Color: Dark chocolate brown, the entire body thickly covered with small, 
round dull orange spots each with a dark center. On the breast toward the 
snout these spots become irregular wavy bands. Five narrow blue stripes 
from eye to snout. Dorsal and anal fins transparent orange brown, the spines 
golden. Tip of caudal bright yellowish green shading into orange at base. Iris 
dark brown variegated with cream. 

In preservative, indications of the above patterns remain, and in addition 
the caudal peduncle has become very pale. In three of the specimens pale 
horizontal bars are present on the sides, the most conspicuous being one from 
the upper portion of the caudal peduncle and one from the lower part. One 
band is visible above and one below these two bands. 

Size and Weight: Reaches a weight of 6 pounds. A 131 mm. fish weighed 
72 grams. 

General Range: Florida, West Indies and Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Four specimens obtained by explosion 
of depth bomb in 60 to 150 feet of water, Lamentin Bay, February 2nd, 1928. 

Abundance: Rare. 

Food: Stomach contents showed sponge spicules, minute crustaceans, and a 
portion of a sea-urchin. 

Study Material: Specimens, 4; 123-132 mm., No. 6814. 



256 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Monacanthus Cuvier, 1817 

Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

(Based on Haitian Expedition specimens only. 

See also key given by Breder, 1927.) 

A. Dorsal rays 35; anal rays 36 tuckeri 

AA. Dorsal and anal rays 26 to 31. 

B. Dorsal and anal rays 29 to 31, the ventral flap extending beyond the 

ventral spine, the margin convex; profile in young concave. . . .ciliatus 
BB. Dorsal and anal rays 26 to 29 (usually 27 to 29 in both anal and dorsal, 
one specimen only having 26 in both fins). The ventral flap never 
extending beyond the ventral spine oppositus 


Reticulated Filefish 

Monacanthus tuckeri Bean 


References: Monacanthus tuckeri, Bean, 1906, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 

XIX, p. 33. 

Field Characters: Leathery-skinned fish with long barbed dorsal spine 
over posterior part of eye; pelvic flap large and extending beyond the spine; 
about 35 dorsal rays and 36 anal rays. 

Description: Our single specimen (68 mm.) agrees quite well with the 
original description, the depth of our specimen being somewhat greater, 2.39 
instead of 3.1. The eye in our specimen is 3.5 instead of 3 in the head. These 
differences can perhaps be accounted for by difference in size. 

Color: (From life) General color above bluish gray brown, the lower half 
of the sides brown. The general color is more reddish anterior to the eye and 
darkest on the upper sides just behind the eye. Pelvic flap with irregular 
yellowish lines, more abundant distally and with bluish markings basally. 
Lower sides with coarse, bluish reticulations (corresponding to the hieroglyphic- 
like bands of Bean’s description). Lips orange. Dorsal, anal and pectoral 
fins orange pink. Caudal fin dusky with irregular brownish bands. Small 
black cirri on sides of body. The four dark bands on the dorsal fin mentioned 
by Bean in his description were absent. 

Compared with the description of other authors of preserved, slightly smaller 
fish, our alcoholic specimen shows the following differences: the dark band 
from the eye to the caudal is not sharply demarcated dorsally. It merges with 
the body color, and is most intense near the eye. The ventral outline is not 
marked by a band. The caudal is dusky, and the vertical bands are extremely 
irregular. The two dark lines on the ventral flap are absent and the spot on 
spot at its base is not present. 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 257 
Dimensions: Length 68 mm. standard measurement, 85 mm. total 


Proportionate Measur 

'ements 

Depth 

2.39 

Head 

3.1 

Eye 

3.5 

Snout 

1.26 

Dorsal spine in head 

1.39 


General Range: Bermudas, Bahamas, Misteriosa Bank, Glover Reef, 
St. Eustatius, St. Martin and Porto Rico. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Our single specimen was taken on 
Sand Cay, a small sand and coral reef three miles from the nearest shore. 
Abundance: Rare, a single specimen captured. 

Method of capture: Djmamite. 

Study Material: Specimens, 1; 68 mm., No. 7268. 


Leather-fish; Lija 

Monacanthus ciliatus (Mitchill) 


References: Batistes ciliatus , Mitchill, 1818, American Monthly Magazine 
and Critical Review, March, 1818, p. 326. 

Monacanthus ciliatus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, II, p. 1714, Plate CCLIX, 
fig. 634. 

Field Characters: Small, leathery-skinned fishes with long pelvic flap, the 
outer margin of which is convex, and (in present Haitian specimens), with 29 
to 31 dorsal rays. 

Description: The Haitian specimens placed under this species differ from 
previous descriptions in having a consistently smaller fin count. All of our 
specimens have 29 to 31 anal rays. Previously described fin counts for the 
species have varied considerably and the following list shows a few of these 


variations : 

Dorsal Rays Anal Rays 

Jordan and Evermann, 1898 1-30 30 

Metzelaar (Curacoa, St. Eustatius), 1919 1-30-32 31-33 

Breder, 1927 (Florida, Bahamas, Isle of Pines) 1-31-35 31-35 

Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Panama 1-30-34 30-33 

Haitian Expedition 1-29-31 28-31 


Since the publication of Jordan and Evermann’s “Fishes of North and Middle 
America/’ additional material has tended to raise the upper limit of the fin 
count to 35. The present specimens lower it. As the species is quite variable 



258 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X;l 


and our fish cannot be separated from ciliatus in any other way, we conclude 
that the dorsal and anal rays of this species vary from 29 to 35. 

It is however, important to emphasize that the variation in the fin ray in our 
material is small, and that the fin ray count averages consistently lower. 

Examination of ten young from 11 to 13 mm. in length, revealed an average 
depth of 2.07. 

In coloration they were somewhat different from similar sized oppositus , — 
in place of dots the green coloring is arranged in irregular spots and blotches. 
The webbing of the dorsal spine is almost free from pigment, wholly transparent 
except for a small round area of dense black pigment, close to and not far above 
the base of the spine, in the anterior central part of the web. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 8 inches. A 50 mm. fish weighed 7 grams. 

General Range: North Carolina to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found along shore mainly over weedy 
banks and at the surface, in the same situations as oppositus. 

Abundance: Common. 

Method of Capture: Seines and scoop-nets. 

Food: Algae, small crustaceans, and other organic materials, all the result 
of browsing habits. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H22; Photographs, 3771; Specimens, 37; 
I t to 55 mm., including Nos. 6875, 7006, 7023, 7043, 7050, 7087, and 7185. 
Young taken at light, March 6th to April 20, 1927. 



References: Monacanthus oppositus , Poey, 1861, Memorias, II, p. 331. 

Monacanthus oppositus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 798. 

Field Characters: Small, leathery-skinned fishes with long, barbed spine 
over eye; dorsal and anal fins with 26 to 29 rays; pelvic flap short, never extend- 
ing beyond the pelvic spine. Sides with longitudinal lines of small dark elon- 
gate spots. 

Description: The Haitian material with the exception of one specimen 
which had 26 dorsal rays, instead of 27 to 29, answers perfectly the published 
descriptions of this species, both structurally, and in color. 

Juveniles are readily separated from young ciliatus ,• even in specimens where 
the dorsal and anal fin counts are the same, by the greater depth of oppositus, 
and by the color. A series of oppositus captured at the surface at light at 
the same time as a similar series of ciliatus gave an average depth of 1.49 as 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 259 

opposed to 2.07 for ciliatus. The average of the fin count was also lower, 
averaging D27.4, A27.6 for oppositus, and D30, A30 for ciliatus. In oppositus 
the profile from snout to dorsal is almost straight, only very slightly concave. 

They differ also in color, a series of five young oppositus, 13 to 21 mm. are 
pale whitish, somewhat obscured by greenish, over which is scattered a number 
of large, very dark green dots, about 20 on the smallest specimen. The webbing 
of the dorsal spine is finely and evenly colored with minute green pigment. 

Color: An 11.5 mm. fish had the body coppery gold with scattered dark 
pigment, more abundant above, and with faint indications of four broad, 
vertical bands. 

Size and Weight: Grows to about 6 inches. A 116 mm. fish weighed 38 
grams. 

General Range: Cuba, Haiti, Panama, Colombia. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found along shore especially on 
weed covered banks. 

Abundance: Common, captured at practically every seining along shore 
near Bizoton, and elsewhere in the Bay. The young came in great numbers 
to our submerged lamps. 

Method of Capture: Older fish captured by seines, the young mainly 
taken in scoop nets as they came to the light. 

Food: Omnivorous, quartz pebbles, small crustaceans, algae, and organic 
detritus found in alimentary canal. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H102, No. 7187; Specimens, 82; 11.5 to 
116 mm., including Nos. 6852, 6997, 7006, 7022, 7054, 7097, 7107, 7113, 7125, 
7152, 7153, 7157, 7187, 7195, 7209 and 7260. 

Ceratacanthus Gill, 1861 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Dorsal rays 35 to 38, anal 
AA. Dorsal rays 45 to 47; anal 


Common File-fish 

Ceratacanthus schoepfi (Walbaum) 


References: Batistes schoepfii Walbaum, 1792, Artedi Piscium, p. 461. 

Ceratacanthus schoeph, Hildebrand and Schroeder, 1928, 
Fishes of Chesapeake Bay, p. 344. 

Field Characters: Medium sized, ungainly, leathery-skinned fishes with 
small terminal mouth; dorsal fin consisting of a single spine followed after a 
wide space by the soft dorsal. Dorsal rays 35 to 38; anal rays 39 to 41. 

Description: Our series of seventeen specimens show very unexpected 


rays 39 to 41 schoeph 

rays 48 to 50 scripta 



260 


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changes from young to adult in relative length and depth of body, the presence 
of four series of barbs on the dorsal spine, and their subsequent loss, a forward 
shifting of the dorsal spine from behind to in front of the eye, and a great 
reduction of the caudal fin. 

The first character is demonstrated in the following six specimens: 


Length 

Depth in Length 

21 . 5 mm. 

4.5 

34 

3.8 

55 

3.5 

97 

2.8 

175 

2.3 

398 

1.9 


Size and Weight: The extremes of our specimens were 21.5 mm. weighing 
.5 of a gram, and 430 mm. weighing 1134 grams (23^ lbs.). 

Color : The colors varied not only in the species but from minute to minute 
in the same individual, changing swiftly and radically both in pattern and hue. 

A 34 mm. fish usually had the head and bod}^ dark olive brown with silvery 
mottling on cheeks and anterior half of body, iris silvery, mottled with olive 
brown; base of vertical fins with three light zones and two dark ones, all of 
equal width. Spines with four series of strong, retrorse barbs. 

The 430 mm. specimen was dark chocolate brown, densely covered with small, 
round, gold and orange dots; basal half of dorsal, anal and pectoral fins golden, 
distal half black, iris, tip of spine and edges of teeth clear gold. 

General Range: Maine to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Occasionally seen in the market. 
We took young at light after dark, in seines near the reefs and under sargassum 
weed. A 17-inch adult was killed by an airplane bomb. 

Abundance: Young common, adults more rarely seen. 

Food: The alimentary tract of the largest fish was filled with algae similar 
to the common Sargassum weed, the small gaseous berry-like bladders being 
especially conspicuous. In smaller fish the contents of the long intestine 
were too comminuted to identify. 

Young: Young fish of about two inches in total length swim by very rapid 
vibrations of the vertical fins, too fast for the eye to follow, the fins appearing 
as a rayless blur. The tail is kept closed and used only for fast turns, the pector- 
als functioning as balancers and for slow turns. 

General Habits : I have recorded an interesting habit in my volume on the 
Haitian expedition “Beneath Tropic Seas,” p. 154. (W. B.) 

Study Material: Color Plate, H106, Drawings, 4117, 4119; Specimens, 
17; 21.5-430 mm., including Nos. 6807, 6829, 7121, 7147, 7156, 7376, 7377, 7378 


Scrawled File-fish 

Ceratacanthus scripta (Osbeck) 



1928J Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


261 


References: Batistes scriptus, Osbeck, 1757, Iter. Chin., 1, p. 144. 

Alutera scripta, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of North 
and Middle America, II, p. 1719. 

Field Characters: Elongate, compressed, ungainly, leathery fishes; a 
single separate dorsal fin of one spine followed, after a wide space, by the soft 
dorsal fin; dorsal rays 45-47; anal rays about 48-50; caudal fin elongate, with 
rounded angles. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 2 or 3 feet. Our 83 mm. fish weighed 7 grams. 
General Range: West Indies, South Carolina to Brazil. 

Abundance: Rare. A single specimen brought to us by a native fisherman. 
Study Material: Specimens, 1; 83 mm., No. 7217. 

Family Ostraciidae; the Trunk-Fishes 
Lactophrys Swainson, 1839 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Carapace without spines triqueter 

AA. Carapace with spines, one pointing backward on each side of the ventral 

ridge being always present. 

B. No spines in front and above eye. 

C. Carapace closed behind the dorsal fin; body with round dark spots. 

bicaudalis 

CC. Carapace open behind the dorsal fin; body mottled with paler., .trigonus 
BB. Frontal region with two strong spine-like horns tricornis 


Trunk-fish ; Rock Shellfish ; 
Drunken-fish; Chopin; Plate- 
fish 

Lactophrys triqueter (Linnaeus) 


References: Ostracion triqueter, Linnaeus, 1758, Systema Natura, Ed. X, 
p. 330 

Lactophrys triqueter, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, II, p. 1722. 

Field Characters: Fishes with body encased in a bony box; the carapace 
without spines anywhere. Dark brown, thickly studded with circular spots 
of yellowish white. 

Size and Weight: Grows to over 10 inches. A 135 mm. fish weighed 127 
grams. 

General Range : West Indies north to the Bermudas, Key West to Pensacola, 
Bahia; very common in the Tropics. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay : Known to us only from two specimens 
brought in by native fisherman. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 



262 


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Food: Alimentary canal contained only comminuted vegetable matter. 
Study Material: Specimens, 2; 105-129 mm., including No. 7142. 


Chopin; Spotted Trunk-fish; 
C off re 

Lactophrys bicaudalis (Linnaeus) 


References: Ostracion bicaudalis, Linnaeus, 1758, Systema Natura, Ed. X, 
p. 330. 

Lactophrys bicaudalis , Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, II, p. 1723, Plate, CCLNII. 

Field Characters: Fishes with the body encased in a bony box; carapace 
with a flat triagonal spine on each ventral ridge, none in front of eyes; the 
carapace closed and continuous behind the dorsal fin. Yellowish, with numer- 
ous small, round, brown spots on carapace, tail and caudal fin. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 16 inches. A 101 mm. fish weighed 63 grams. 

General Range: West Indies to Bahia, Ascension Island. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: A single specimen taken as the result 
of an airplane bomb explosion in 100 feet of water. 

Abundance: Rare. 

Method of Capture: High explosive. 

Food: Algae and unidentifiable material. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 101 mm. No. 6813. 


Common Trunk-fish; Chopin; 
Shellfish 

Lactophrys trigonus (Linnaeus) 




References: Ostracium trigonus, Linnaeus, 1758, Systema Natura, Ed. X, 
p. 330. 

Lactophrys trigonus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, II, p. 1723, Plate CCLXIII. 

Field Characters: Fishes with the body enclosed in a bony box; the cara- 
pace open behind the dorsal fin; ventral ridges ending in a large flat spine; 
no spines in front of eye. 

Size and Weight: Grows to 9 inches. A 216 mm. fish weighed 316 grams. 

General Range: West Indies, very common as far north as Bermuda and 
Key West, occasionally to Massachusetts; south to Bahia. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: One specimen brought in by fisher- 
man. Occasionally seen in the fish markets. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 216 mm., No. 7012. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


263 


Cow-fish; Cuckold; Toro 

Lactophrys tricornis (Linnaeus) 



References: Ostracion tricornis , Linnaeus, 1758, Systema Natura, Ed. X, 
p. 331. 

Lactophrys tricornis, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, II, p. 1724. 

Field Characters: Fishes with body enclosed in a bony case; the ventral 
ridges and frontal ridges with spines; color brown, yellow, blue or green, with 
irregular blue blotches. 

Size and Weight: Grows to a foot or more. An 89 mm. fish weighed 37 
grams, a 149 mm. fish 104 grams, and a 270 mm. fish 450 grams. 

General Range : Tropical parts of the Atlantic, very common from Carolina 
to Brazil, ranging North in the Gulf Stream to Chesapeake Bay and rarely 
to Massachusetts. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Rather widely distributed in the bay. 

Method of Capture: Seines, dynamite. 

Abundance: Fairly common, seen quite often in markets. 

Food: Alimentary canal of 72 and 100 mm. fish contained algae and remnants 
of sponge. The 260 mm. fish had eaten parts of algae, sponges and the spines 
of a small club-spined sea-urchin. 

Study Material: Color Plates, H24, Hill, HI 19; Photographs, 3765, 4118, 
4122; Specimens, 8; 72-260 mm., including Nos. 6808, 6827 and 7212. 

Family Tetraodontidae ; the Puffers 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Body comparatively elongate; dorsal and anal rays 12 to 15; nostrils 

not in a tube Lagocephalus 

AA. Body oblong, plump; dorsal and anal fins with 6 to 8 rays; nostrils on 
either side in a short tube Tetraodon 

Lagocephalus Swainson, 1839 


Smooth Puffer 

Lagocephalus laevigatus (Linnaeus) 


References: Tetrodon laevigatus , Linnaeus, 1766, Systema Natura, Ed. 
XII, p. 411. 

Lagocephalus laevigatus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, II, p. 1728. Plate CCLXVI, 
fig. 642. 



264 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Field Characters: Smooth-skinned fish capable of inflating the abdomen 
with air or water. Jaws beak-like, with a median suture. Belly covered with 
three rooted spines. Body elongate, the depth four and one half times the 
length. Olive green above, silvery white on sides and below. 

Size and Weight: Grows to a length of two feet. Our 200 mm. fish weighed 
244 grams. 

General Range: Massachusetts to Brazil. 

Food: Our single specimen was taken on a hook baited with a small fish. 

Study Material: Specimen, 1; 200 mm. 

Tetraodon Linnaeus, 1758 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 
(Specimens over 20 mm. long) 

A. Upper surfaces of body without conspicuous, more or less concentric, 

pale lines. 

B. Snout, back and sides covered with honey-comb-like reticulations of 

fine, pale blue lines; a sparse scattering of large, dark spots within the 
reticulations. Body with evident membranous (not ossified) scales on 

sides, having free margins marmoratus 

BB. Sides with a conspicuous series of large blackish circular spots; membra- 
nous scales if present not possessing free margins; rather elongate, long 

headed puffers spengleri 

AA. Upper surfaces with light lines enclosing circular and elliptical areas and 
forming reticulations on the sides; sides and upper surface covered 
with small black dots testudineus 


Spiny-backed Puffer 

Tetraodon marmoratus (Ranzani) 


References: Tetrodon marmoratus, Ranzani, 1840, Novi Comment. Ac. 
Sci. Inst. Bonon., IV, p. 73, Plate X, fig. 1. 

Sphoeroides marmoratus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 813. 

Field Characters: Small fishes with rather loose skin, the belly capable 
of being inflated with air or water; mouth small, teeth nipper-like, with a 
median suture; sides of head and body prickly. Sides with pale. blue reticula- 
tions enclosing large dark spots. 

Description: Two small specimens 18 and 33 mm. come within the descrip- 
tions of this species, although the head in both is slightly^ larger than the specific 
average. 

The blue reticulations are not visible on either of the preserved specimens, 
but this coloration was very conspicuous in the living fishes, marking them at 
once as different from the other Haitian Puffers. 



19281 Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 265 

A series of 22 small puffers, 6 to 14 mm. was taken at the surface at night, 
as they came to our submerged lamps. They are placed with some hesitation 
under this species. In form they resemble the 18 and 33 mm. specimens, 
being considerably heavier than the other Haitian species. In coloration they 
also are closest to marmoratus , possessing none of the conspicuous dorsal marks 
of testudineus or the large spots of spengleri. Of importance also is the fact 
that they have pale transparent caudal fins, agreeing with our slightly larger 
marmoratus and not with the other species. 

An 11.5 mm. specimen of this series can be described as follows: 

Head 2.3, depth 2.88; dorsal 8, anal 7, caudal 10 and pectoral 10. 

Body rather robust, its greatest width and depth at the gill slit; head large; 
snout 2.5 in head; interorbital bone, 2.5 in eye; skin with conspicuous prickles 
from behind eyes to dorsal fin, and on sides and belly, those on the sides more 
flattened and scale-like ; dorsal fin inserted posteriorly, the distance from snout 
to origin of dorsal fin 1.28 in length: the distance from origin of dorsal to tip 
of caudal 1.9 in length: anal fin similar to dorsal but lower: caudal fin truncate, 
the edges slightly rounded; upper rays of pectoral fin about twice as long as 
lower. 

In color this fish agrees well with the others, and may be described as follows : 

Entire dorsal surface (alcoholic specimens) and sides down to line of belly, 
dark brown, thickly peppered with small black spots. In a few specimens 
this coloration is continued on the bell}''. Lower surfaces pale yellow white. 
Lips and end of caudal peduncle pale yellowish. All other fins pale translucent. 

Color: (33 mm. fish from life). Above olive brown or greenish, with snout, 
back and sides covered with honey-comb-like reticulations of fine, pale blue 
lines. An irregular sparse scattering of large dark spots always in the blue 
cells, increasing in distinctness and number on the sides; on the sides are 11 
to 12 large spots bounded by white instead of pale blue, the white forming 
intervening spots. Below, ivory white becoming pale lemon from pectoral 
to anal fins. Caudal yellowish, unmarked. Iris gold at center changing to 
olive green on outer two-thirds. 

Size and Weight: Our 33 mm. fish weighed 2 grams. 

General Range: West Indies to Brazil. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Taken along shore over shallow, 
weed-covered banks, and at surface at night. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Method of Capture: Seines, traps and scoop nets at night. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 18-33 mm., including 6897, and the follow- 
ing small specimens tentatively placed here; 22, 6-14 mm., all taken at surface 
at night, including Nos. 6963, 6984, 6997, 7027, 7054, 7087A, 7097D, 7125, 
7152, 7243. 

Southern Puffer 

Tctraodon spengleri (Bloch) 


References: Tetrodon spengleri , Bloch, 1785, Naturg. Ausl. Fische, I, 135, 
Plate CXLIV. 



266 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Spheroides spengleri , Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 815. 

Field Characters: An elongate, smooth-skinned, flat-keeled fish, dark 
mottled over white below, with about twelve large, round, dark spots extending 
along sides from mouth to tail. Caudal divided into thirds by three vertical 
bands, black, white and black. 

Size and Weight: An 80 mm. fish weighed 13.5 grams. 

General Range : Massachusetts to West Indies and Panama. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Observed near shore and in coral 
reef three miles out. 

Abundance: Rare; two small specimens taken. 

Method of Capture: Seined and taken on hook. 

Study Material: Photograph, 4096; Specimens, 2; 80-84 mm., including 
Nos. 6896 and 7139. 


Turtle-headed Globefish; Fou 
fou sans piquant; Tambor 

Tetraodon testudineus Linnaeus 


References: Tetraodon testudineus, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X,p. 332. 

Sphoeroides testudineus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 817. 

Field Characters: Small to medium fishes with rather loose skin, the belly 
capable of being inflated with air or water; mouth small, the teeth nipper-like, 
with a median suture; upper surfaces dark, with pale, narrow bands forming 
more or less concentric ovals and circles. 

Description: The Haitian fish are quite typical. 

Size and Weight: Grows to .9 inches. A 32 mm. specimen weighed 1.2 
grams, and a 143 mm. fish weighed 73.5 grams. 

General Range: West Indies, occasionally northward to the vicinity of 
New York. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Quite widely distributed and found 
along shore. 

Abundance: Common. 

Method of Capture: Traps, seines, dynamite. 

Study Material: Specimens, 24; 30-171 mm., including No. 6898. 

Family Canthigasteridae 
Canthigaster Swainson, 1839 


Sharp-nosed Puffer 

Canthigaster rostratus (Bloch) 




1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 267 

References: Tetrodon rostratus, Bloch, 1782, Ichthyologia, Plate 146. 

Canthigaster rostratus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, II, p. 1741. 

Field Characters : Smooth-skinned puffer, snout elongated, body from the 
eye to the dorsal fin compressed and ridge-like, dorsal and ventral aspects of 
peduncle black; radiating lines around eye. 

Size and Weight: Our 50 mm. specimen weighed 6.5 grams. 

Color : General color of upper surfaces of head, body back to posterior portion 
of dorsal fin, and the chin, brownish. Sides and belly creamy white, the belly 
with a median, narrow bluish line. Head above, below and in front of eye, 
sides of head immediately in back of eye, dull orange, the orange continued 
as a narrow line on side of body as far back as posterior end of dorsal fin, the 
orange on the side of the head with many small bluish dots. A series of vertical 
blue lines on snout, the anterior ones continued onto the chin. A series of 
curved blue bands radiating outward from the eye,- — four forward and down- 
ward, and four downward and backward. Upper edge of eye blue. Pectoral 
fin with a yellowish base. Dorsal fin yellow at base, then blackish and with 
a series of short bluish bands extending downward and forward on the body 
from the base of the fin. Caudal fin translucent with a slight yellowish tinge, 
the upper and lower edge black. This black continued onto the body and 
reaching almost to the posterior base of the dorsal. A few longitudinal bluish 
bands within the upper black patch, the lowermost continued forward on the 
sides as a series of small blue spots. Blue on lower patch in more oblique 
bands and smaller spots. Iris gold. 

General Range: Florida, West Indies, Bermuda, and the Madeiras. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: The only specimen taken was shot 
with a small harpoon from an air rifle at Sand Cay on February 25th. A 
second individual was seen day after day while we were diving at the same 
reef but was not secured. 

Study Material: Color Plate, H46, No. 6958; Photograph, 3924; Speci- 
men, 1; 50 mm., No. 6958. 


Family Diodontidae; the Porcupine-Fishes 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Dermal ossifications consisting of slender, stiff, pointed movable spines. 

Diodon 

AA. Dermal ossifications consisting of short, stiff, immovable spines. 

Chilomycteris 

Diodon Linnaeus, 1758 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Frontal spines equal to or shorter than the post-pectoral ones.. . . .hystrix 
AA. Frontal spines longer than the post-pectoral ones holacanthus 


268 


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Short-spined Porcupine-fish ; 
Foufou avec piquant 

Diodon hystrix Linnaeus 

References: Diodon hystrix , Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 335. 

Diodon hystrix , Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine Fishes 
of Panama, III, p. 827. 

Field Characters: Small to medium, short and robust fishes with body 
covered with sharp, erectile movable spines; belly capable of spherical inflation; 
spines of front of head shorter or almost as long as those behind the pectoral 
fin. 

Description: The separation of the two West Indian species of Diodon 
is based chiefly upon the relative length of the frontal and post-pectoral spines. 
We have three young and two large adults which show the frontal spines 
distinctly short, and to this we follow Meek and Hildebrand in adding 22 
specimens which have the spines in the two areas of equal length. In onto- 
genetic growth there is a relative increase in size of the snout and interorbital 
and a considerable decrease in size of the eye. 

Size and Weight: A specimen of 56 mm. weighed 15 grams. Attains a 
length of three feet. 

Color: There is considerable individual change of color, both under stress 
of emotion and by night and day. At night, those which were taken at the 
submerged light were pale grey with the dark patches barely discernable. 
Iris and fins often lemon yellow. 

General Range: Recorded from all warm seas. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: The young are very common among 
the weeds and wharves near shore and at the surface at night; seldom seen 
near coral reefs. Adults secured by airplane bombs and in market. 

Method of Capture: Seining, dynamite. 

Food: Bottom debris, crustaceans, sponges, algae, etc. 

Enemies: Although apparently well protected by their armature of spines 
we found the following six species of fish feeding upon these puffers : 

Haemulon plumieri. 

Peprilus paru. 

Lutianus analis. 

Lutianus griseus (11 snappers had eaten 15 puffers). 

Lutianus synagris (14 individuals had eaten 15 puffers). 

Tylosurus raphidoma. 

In a series of sixty small puffers, seven had external parasitic isopods on 
either fins or skin, as follows: 

Specimen No. 1, — 2 parasites on right pectoral. 

Specimen No. 2, — 2 parasites on left pectoral. 

Specimen No. 3, — 2 parasites on left pectoral. 

Specimen No. 3, — 1 parasite on right pectoral. 

Specimen No. 3,-1 parasite on skin near anal. 



1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


269 


Specimen No. 4, — 1 parasite on left pectoral. 

Specimen No. 4,-1 parasite on right pectoral. 

Specimen No. 4, — 2 parasites on dorsal. 

Specimen No. 4, — 2 parasites on caudal. 

Specimen No. 4,-1 parasite on ventral. 

Specimen No. 5, — 3 parasites on right pectoral. 

Specimen No. 5, — 1 parasite on caudal. 

Specimen No. 6, — 1 parasite on left pectoral. 

Specimen No. 7, — 1 parasite on right pectoral. 

General Habits : When picked up these fish inflate themselves immediately, 
and if thrown back, turn over and deflate in from three to five seconds. When 
inflating in the air, crackling sounds are given forth. Usually when taken out 
of the water they live for ten or fifteen minutes, without struggling, and then 
gradually swell up to full rotundity in about five seconds, and after five minutes 
they die. They may flatten or remain quite round in death. (“Beneath 
Tropic Seas,” pp. 24-25.) 

Study Material: Photographs 4021, 4022; Specimens, 77:2; 290 and 312 mm. 
About 75 young, 55-65 mm. 


Long-spined Porcupine-fish 

Diodon holacanthus Linnaeus 


References: Diodon holacanthus , Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 335. 

Diodon holacanthus , Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 829. 

Field Characters: Small to medium, short and robust fishes with body 
covered with sharp erectile movable spines; belly capable of inflation; spines 
of front of head longer than those behind the pectoral fin. 

Description: The greater length of the frontal spines over those of the post 
pectoral ones, is the only consistent character. The data under hystrix applies 
equally to this species. 

General Range: Recorded from all warm seas. 

Study Material: Specimens. About 100 young 55-70 mm. 

Chilomycterus Bibron, 1846 


Cuvier’s Burr-fish 

Chilomycterus wntennatus (C uvier) 




270 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


PC; 1 


References: Diodon antennatus, Cuvier, 1818, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat., 
Paris, IV, p. 131. 

Chilomycterus antennatus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine 
Fishes of Panama, III, p. 832. 

Field Characters: Small fishes with skin covered with short, stiff, more 
or less immovable spines; mouth small, transverse; body usually covered with 
small black spots; a larger black spot on nape, a kidney shaped black spot 
above each pectoral fin, and a dark spot surrounding the anterior part of the 
dorsal fin. 

Description : The three specimens in the collection have the entire body and 
the caudal fin spotted with black, those on the fin small and few in number. 
On one of the fish the black nape spot is absent. The largest fish has very 
small spines about the head, and the supra-orbital spines and tentacle are 
represented only by their apparently much abraded bases. 

Size and Weight: Grows to about eight inches. A 127 mm. fish weighed 
160 grams. 

General Range: West Indies southward. Recorded from Porto Rico, 
Haiti, Jamaica, St. Croix, Trinidad, Panama, and Cape of Good Hope. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: One fish taken as the result of air- 
plane bombing, and two seined along shore over weed covered shallows. 

Abundance: Uncommon. 

Method of Capture: Seines and explosive. 

Food: Two specimens contained the remains of mollusks. 

Study Material: Photographs, 3752, 3753; Specimens, 3; 111-127 mm., 
including Nos. 6826 and 6973. 


Family Antennariidae ; Frog-Fishes 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 


A. Ventral fins well developed and long, often reaching nearly or quite to 

the origin of the anal fin Histrio 

A A. Ventral fins short, never remotely reaching the base of the anal fins. 

Antennarius 


Histrio Fischer, 1813 



Common Frog-fish 

Histrio gibbus (Mitcliill) 


References: Lophius gibbus, Mitcliill, 1815, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. 
N. Y., I, PI. IV, fig. 9. 

Histrio gibbus, Meek and Hildebrand, 1928, Marine Fishes of 
Panama, III, p. 1010. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 


271 


Field Characters: Strange, small-sized, froglike fish, living among floating 
seaweed; body oval, robust, mouth almost vertical, a long fleshy tentacle on 
head, pectoral fin withe lbow, rays mobile, used like fingers, ventrals long, 
reaching to anal; color variegated, spotted with yellow and white and black 
like seaweed. 

Description: Our specimens are typical. 

Size and Weight: Our largest specimen of 63 mm. weighed 15 grams. 

General Range: Panama, Key West and the West Indies. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Not rare under masses of sargassum 
weed brought in by the tide. 

Food: Shrimps and small fish; two individuals proved their cannibalistic 
nature by swallowing entire, smaller companions. 

Study Material: Photographs, 4148 to 4153 inclusive, 4167, 4189 and 4226; 
Specimens, 14; 14 to 63 mm., Nos. 7104, 7155, 7195D, 7199, 7211 and 7223. 

Antennarius Lacepede, 1798 


Short-tentacled Frogfish 

Antennarius inops Poey 


References: Antennarius inops, Poey, 1881, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 

X, p. 340. 

Antennarius inops, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of 

North and Middle America, III, p. 2718. 

Field Characters: Typical frogfish, with three separate dorsal spines; 
the first short, translucent, arising from the stem of the second, ending in an 
oval, fleshy bait; color brown variegated with white, three very wide bands 
radiating from the eye, forward, backward and downward. 

Description: Although our two specimens are very small, in measurements 
and spine structure they agree with the published descriptions. 

General Range: Porto Rico and Haiti. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Two small specimens taken under 
sargassum weed. 

Study Material: Specimens, 2; 12 and 14 mm., No. 7469. 

Family Ogcocephalidae; the Bat-Fishes 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Genera 

A. Disk with frontal region elevated, snout more or less produced forward, 

the tail stout; eyes lateral Ogcocephalus 

AA. Disk with the frontal region depressed, not elevated above the rest; 
snout rounded Halieutichthys 



272 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Ogcocephalus Fischer, 1813 
Key to Port-au-Prince Bay Species 

A. Snout produced, the rostral process pointed, 6 to 10 in length of 

body vespertilio 

AA. Snout shorter, the rostral process 12 to 15 times in length of body. 

nasutus 



Long-snouted Batfish 

Ogcocephalus vespertilio (Linnaeus) 


References: Lophius vespertilio, Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, I. 

Ogcocephalus vespertilio, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes 
of North and Middle America, III, p. 2737. 

Field Characters: Small, bottom fish, body depressed, broad, triangular, 
studded with tubercles; head as long as the rest of the body; a projecting bony 
rostral process six to ten times in length of body; cavity of rostral tentacle 
higher than broad. 

Description: Measurements of two specimens are as follows: 



No. 6823 

No. 6861 

Length 

64 mm. 

76 mm. 

Depth 

15 (4.3) 

15 (5.1) 

Width 

35 (1.85) 

42 (1.8) 

Head 

32 (2) 

37 (2) 

Eye 

5 (6.4) 

10.5 (3.5) 

Rostral process (snout) 

8 (8) 

9.5 (8) 

Pectoral length 

16 (2) 

18 (2) 


Two small individuals come within the rostral measurements of vespertilio, 
but this very extension of the anterior part of the head has resulted in a length- 
ening of the tentacular cavity, making it longer than broad. The maxillary 
reaches a vertical line only half-way back across the eye. In life all the tubercles 
are tipped with waving filaments of brownish grey. 

Size and Weight: The two specimens taken are two and one-half, and three 
inches in length. The latter weighed 17 grams. 

Color: Upper parts monochrome brown, except face below eye, a patch 
on each side of mid-back, and armpits, which are covered with good-sized, 
round, clark-brown spots, each narrowly bordered with silver. Ventral surface 
reddish; pectoral brilliant yellow on under surface of basal half, remainder of 
lower surface of pectoral black; posterior half of caudal black. Iris silvery, 
reticulated and mottled with dark brown, except anteriorly where it is very 
finely peppered with dark; pupil irregularly heart-shaped. 


1928J Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


273 


General Range : West Indies to Florida, occasionally north in mid-summer 
to New York. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Widely distributed over bottom. 
Abundance: Two specimens taken; six or eight others seen in market. 
Method of Capture: Seines dragged along the bottom. 

Study Material: Photographs, 3832, 3986 of living fish; Specimens, 2; 
64-76 mm., both males, No. 6861 and 6823. 


Short-snouted Batfish 

Ogcocephalus nasutus (Cuvier and Val- 
enciennes) 



References: Malthaea nasuta, Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1837, Hist. Nat. 
Poiss., XII, p. 452. 

Ogcocephalus nasutus, Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of 
North and Middle America, III, p. 2737. 


Field Characters: Same as Ogcocephalus vespertilio, but rostral process 
shorter, twelve to fifteen times in length of body, cavity of rostral process not 
higher than broad. 


iiption: Measurements of two 

specimens are a 

-s follows: 


No. 7299 

No. 7040 

Length (upper jaw to caudal) 

152 mm. 

174 mm. 

Depth 

31 (4.9) 

37 (4.7) 

Width 

82(1.85) * 

103 (1.7) 

Head 

70 (2.2) 

84 (2.1) 

Eye 

13 (5.4) 

13 (6.5) 

Rostral process (snout) 

11.5 (13.3) 

14.5 (12) 

Pectoral length 

34 (1.3) 

43 (1.9) 


Size and Weight: A specimen nearly seven inches long weighed 185 grams. 

Color: Above a mingling of olive-buff, cinnamon-drab and glaucous blue, 
with irregular blotches of honey yellow, and groups of dark brown dots near 
the gill-openings and back of the eyes; the face and sides of the head, and much 
of the sides of the body are also dark brown. The entire ventral surface is 
deep red, changing from indian red to dragon’s-blood; base of the anal fin, 
interior of the gill-openings and the inside of the lips and mouth are bright 
spectrum red. The tentacle, the tip of the caudal and the ventrals are pink; 
the base of the pectorals greenish yellow. The iris is variegated like the back, 
and the pupil, even after preservation, reflects the light as brilliant blue. 

General Range: West Indies. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Found generally on the bottom of the 
Bay. 

Abundance: Not rare; two specimens taken, others seen in the market. 


274 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X;l 


Method of Capture : Seines drawn along the bottom. 

Study Material: Color Plates, H30, H31, Dorsal, ventral, lateral and front 
views of 7040; Photographs, 3985, 4044, 4045, living fish; Specimens, 2; 152 and 
174 mm., Nos. 7040 and 7299. 

Halieutichthys Poey, 1863 


Reticulated Batfish 

Halieutichthys aculeatus (Mitchill) 


References: Lophius aculeatus, Mitchill, 1818, Amer. Mon. Mag., II, p. 325. 

Halieutichthys aculeatus, Evermann and Marsh, 1902, Fishes 
of Porto Rico, p. 338. 

Field Characters: Very small, pale-colored batfish with conspicuous dark 
reticulations all over disk; pectoral fins pale bluish white, black and turquoise 
blue, at least in young. 

Description: A typical specimen showed the following measurements: 



Length: 17.6 
Depth: 4 (4.4) 
Width: 11.5 (1.5) 
Head: 10.5 (1.68) 
Eye: 2.1 (5) 


Snout: .75 (14) 

Width of mouth: 2.5 
Interorbital : 1.1 (1.9) 

Length pectoral rays: 5.5 (1.9) 
Pectoral count: 18 
Dorsal count: 5 
Anal count: 4 
Caudal count: 9 


The width of the disk is slightly less than from snout to last dorsal ray; the 
bridge over the rostral cavity has a three-pointed spine above, and a similar 
one on each side; a large, simple spine between eye and nostril; a double- 
pointed spine on the supraorbital margin; three, low soft fleshy protuberances 
near the lower margin of eyeball. 

Size and Weight: The longest individual taken was 21 mm. in length. 

Color: Pale, cold gray with many fine, dark brown reticulations. Pectoral, 
gray and reticulated for the first eight rays, the reticulations tending into 
black, broad, cross-bars. The anterior elongated ten rays are bluish white 
for the basal third, the second third black with the spines golden, and the 
terminal third is pale turquoise* blue with yellowish spines. Dorsal dark. 
Caudal bluish white, deepening to turquoise at tip, with four brown cross bars. 
The iris is like the body, the pupil both in life and long after preservation 
showing a vivid iridescence of deep blue to green. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay , Haiti 275 

General Range: Western Atlantic; West Indies; Gulf of Mexico, and 
Gulf Stream. 

Occurrence in Port-au-Prince Bay: Observed only at surface light, at 
night. 

Abundance : Twelve young individuals were taken on nine nights in March 
and April. 

Method of Capture : Hand net at night, from schooner’s gang-way. 

Young: All specimens taken were young, under an inch in length. 

General Habits : Halieutichthys aculeatus has only once been taken in water 
shallower than twenty-four fathoms, while one hundred miles off Cape Fear it 
came up from ninety-five fathoms. Elsewhere, species of the genus have been 
found living at a depth of one hundred and thirty-seven fathoms. Aculeatus 
is a typical member of its family, which in structure and known facts of habitat 
is essentially composed of bottom livers, restricted to deep coastal waters. 
It seems probable that this family originated in tropical coastal waters and 
became slowly distributed outward and downward. 

It was an interesting surprise to find young Halieutichthys coming to the 
surface light, night after night, swimming easily and sustaining themselves 
without effort. The pectorals were constantly expanded to the widest extent 
and the propelling power was derived from the caudal, with some help from the 
dorsal and anal fins. The full pectoral expansion is equal to four-fifths of 
the entire dorsal surface of the body, so its sustaining power, given any forward 
impetus at all, is very considerable. Twice I saw these young fish come to the 
surface and cup their pectorals and actually float motionless, with the tips 
of the pectoral rays and the snout and eyes just out of water. 

From 9 P. M. during nine separate nights, these young batfish came singly 
to the light, up from the black depths, and allowed themselves to be scooped 
up. The light was two thousand candle power and dropped just below the 
surface at the schooner’s side, about two hundred yards from shore over a 
depth of six to ten fathoms. 

These individuals, both in pectoral colors and more deep-seated characters, 
present a number of differences from typical aculeatus, but not greater than 
can be attributed to immaturity. 

The bathymetrical activities of the young may be taken as an illustration 
of the somewhat discarded Von Baer’s law. (W. B.) 

Study Material: Color Plate, H61, No. 7042; Photographs, No. 3975, 3976, 
3977, of living fish; Specimens, 12; averaging 17 mm., Nos. 7042a, b, c, 7097, 7182. 


276 


Zoological N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X;l 


Marine Fish Recorded from Haiti and Santo Domingo 

In addition to the fishes recorded in the preceding pages, the following 
species have been listed from the island of Haiti. In making this list we have 
ignored the political boundaries between the two countries composing the 
island, as has been customary with most authors. 

The present list contains a single reference, not necessarily the first, to an 
account wherein the species is mentioned as found on the island. Combined 
with the Port-au-Prince Bay species, it forms a check-list of the known fishes 
of Haiti, exclusive of the fresh-water families Cichlidae and Poecilidae which 
will be treated in a later paper. We have attempted to make this list as com- 
plete as possible, but owing to the obscureness of some Haitian fish records, 
a few may have escaped us. The correction of such omissions will be gratefully 
received. 

In certain cases where we are not certain of the status of a species, we have 
included it under the name by which it was originally published. This applies 
especially to some of the gobies. 


Class ELASMOBRANCHII 


Order Batoidea 

Family Dasyatidae 

Dasyatis say (Le Sueur) 

Dumeril, A., 1865, Hist. Nat. Poiss., I, p. 603. 


Class PISCES 


Order Holostei 

Family Lepisosteidae 

f Cylindrosteus scabriceps Fowler 

Fowler, 1910, Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci. ; 1910, p. 607. 

(This record is very doubtful as, according to the describer of the 
fish, the Santo Domingan specimens may have been wrongly labelled.) 
Order Isospondyli 

Family Albulidae 

Dixonina nemoptera Fowler 

Fowler, 1910, Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci., 651. 

Family Clupeidae 

t Sardinella clupeola (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

Metzelaar, 1919, Over tropische Atlantische visschen, p. 11 (Identi- 
fication uncertain). 

Family Engraulidae 

Anchoviella perfasciatus (Poey) 

Gunther, 1868, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., VII, p. 391. 

Anchovia clupeoides (Swainson) 

Fowler, 1915, Copeia, No. 24, p. 50. 

Order Apodes 

Family Muraenidae 

Enchelycore nigricans Bonnaterre 

Lonnberg, 1895, Oefvers. Svensk. Vet. Akad. Forh., 52, 657-663. 
Gymnothorax ocellatus Agassiz 

Fowler, 1915, Copeia, 24, p. 50. 

Echidna catenata (Bloch) 

Lonnberg, 1895, Oefvers. Svensk. Vet. Akad. Forh., 52, 657-663. 


1928] Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 277 

Order Iniomi 

Family Synodontidae 

Synodus dominicensis Fowler 

Fowler, 1911, Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1911, p. 564. 

Order Synentognathi 
Family Belonidae 

Tylosurus timucu (Walbaum) 

Fowler, 1915, Copeia, 24, p. 50. 

Order^HETEitosoMATA 
Family Achiridae 

Achirus inscriptus Gosse 

Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of North and Middle America, 
III, p. 2696. 

Family Bothidae 

Platophrys ocellatus (Agassiz) 

Lonnberg, 1895, Oefvers. Svensk. Vet. Akad. Vorh., 52, 657-663. 
Order Thoracostei 

Family Syngnathidae 

f Hippocampus longirostris Cuvier 

Dumeril, A., 1865, Hist. Nat. Poiss., II, p. 518 (Identity uncertain). 
Order Percomorphi 
Family Mugilidae 

Mugil brasiliensis Agassiz 

Gunther, 1861, Cat. Fish. Brit. Museum, III, p. 431. 

Agonostomus percoides Gunther 

Gunther, 1861, Cat. Fish. Brit. Museum, III, p. 464. (A doubtful 
species, probably identical with monticola.) 

Joturus pichardi Poey 

Fowler, 1915, Copeia, 24, p. 50. 

Family Sphyraenidae 

Sphyraena borealis De Kay 

Fowler, 1903, Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1903, p. 750. (This 
species and picudilla are possibly the same.) 

Family Scombridae 

Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier) 

Gunther, 1860, Cat. Fish Brit. Mus., II, 373. 

Family Gempylidae 

Gempylus serpens Cuvier 

Fowler, 1904, Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1904, p. 767. 

Family Centropomidae 

Centropomus parallelus Poey 

Boulenger, 1895, Cat. Fish Brit. Mus., 2nd ed. ? I, p. 369. 

Centropomus gabbi Fowler 

Fowler, 1906, Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1906, p. 423. (Same as 
parallelus according to Meek and Hildebrand, 1925.) 

Family Epinephilidae 

Mycteroperca tigris (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

Gunther, 1859, Cat. Fish Brit. Mus., I, p. 112. 

Epinephilus flavolimbatus Poey 

Fowler, 1915, Copeia, 24, p. 50. 

Alphestes lightfooti (Fowler) 

Fowler, 1907, Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1907, p. 258. 

Family Lutianidae 

Lutianus mahogani (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

Fowler, 1915, Copeia, 24, p. 50. 

Lutianus buccanella (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

Fowler, 1915, Copeia, 24, p. 50. 

Lutianus vivanus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 


278 


Zoologica : N. Y. Zoological Society [X; 1 

Fowler, 1915, Copeia, 24, p. 50. (Deep-water form of the common 
red snapper.) 

Lutianus megalophthalmus Evermann and Marsh 

Metzelaar, 1919, Over tropische Atlantische Visschen, p. 67. 

Family Haemulidae 

Haemulon eckmani Lonnberg 

Lonnberg, 1895, Oefvers. Svensk. Vet. Akad. Vorh., 52, 657-663. 
Family Gerridae 

Diapterus olisthostomus (Goode and Bean) 

Fowler, 1915, Copeia, 24, p. 50. 

Diapterus plumieri (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

Fowler, 1915, Copeia, 24, p. 50. 

Family Sciaenidae 

Umbrina coroides (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

Fowler, 1915, Copeia, 24, p. 50. 

Corvula subaequalis (Poey) 

Fowler, 1915, Copeia, 24, p. 50. 

Family Branchiostegidae 

Caulolaiilus chrysops (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

Fowler, 1915, Copeia, 24, p. 50. 

Family Chaetodontidae 

Chaetodon ocellatus Bloch 

Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1831, Hist. Nat. Poiss., VII, p. 67. 

Family Corid ae 

Iridio poeyi (Steindachner) 

Fowler, 1915, Copeia, 24, p. 50. 

Family Sparisomidae 

Cryptotomus auropunctatus Cuvier and Valenciennes 

Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1839, Hist. Nat. Poiss., XIV, p. 290. 
Spariso?ria lorito Jordan and Swain 

Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of North and Middle America, 

II, p. 1637. 

Sparisoma rubripinne (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1839, Hist. Nat. Poiss., p. 199. 

Family Eleotridae 

Sicydium vicente Jordan and Evermann 

Jordan and Evermann, 1898, Fishes of North and Middle America, 

III, p. 2207. 

Eleotris amblyopsis (Cope) 

Hilgendorf, 1889, Sitz. Ges. Naturf. Berlin, p. 51-55. 

Eleotris pisonis Gmelin 

Regan, 1906-08, Pisces, Biol. Centr. Amer., p. 7. 

Eleotris maltzani Hilgendorf 

Hilgendorf, 1889, Sitz. Ges. Naturf. Berlin, p. 51-55. 

Eleotris smaragdus Hil 

Hilgendorf, 1889, Sitz. Ges. Naturf. Berlin, p. 51-55. 

Sicydium buscki Evermann and Clark 

Evermann and Clark, 1906, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 30,854. 

Evorthodus breviceps Gill 

Hilgendorf, 1889, Sitz. Ges. Naturf. Berlin, p. 51-55. 

Lophogobius cyprinoides (Pallas) 

Gunther, 1861, Cat. Fish Brit. Mus., Ill, p. 8. 

Gobiosoma bosci (Lacepede) 

Hilgendorf, 1889, Sitz. Ges. Naturf. Berlin, p. 51-55. 

The following fossil species have been recorded from Haiti. 

Shark remains of undetermined families. 

Carcharodon megalodon 

Moore, J. C., 1853, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. London, 9, 129-132 


1928] 


Beebe and Tee-Van: The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 


279 


Oxyrhina xiphodon 

Moore, J. C., 1853, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. London, 9, 129-132. 
Hemipristis serra 

Moore, J. C., 1853, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. London, 9, 129-132. 
Odontaspis dubius 

Moore, J. C., 1853, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. London, 9, 129-132. 
Family Cichlidae 

Cichlasoma woodringi Cockerell 

Cockerell, T. D. A., 1924, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 63, Article 7. 
(Taken from locality considered to be of upper or middle Miocene 
age. It is of interest to note that a species of Cichlasoma is still 
abundantly found in Haiti.) 



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ZOOLOGICA 


SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE 
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VOLUME X. NUMBERS 2, 3 AND 4 
Department of Tropical Research Contribution Nos. 475, 476 and 477. 


CICHLID FISHES IN THE WEST INDIES WITH ESPECIAL 
REFERENCE TO HAITI, INCLUDING THE DESCRIP- 
TION OF A NEW SPECIES OF CICHLASOMA. 

John Tee-Van 

General Associate, Department of Tropical Research 

AN ANNOTATED LIST OF THE CYPRINODONT FISHES 
OF HISPANIOLA, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF 
TWO NEW SPECIES. 

George S. Myers 

United States National Museum 

ADDITIONS TO THE FISH FAUNA OF HAITI AND 
SANTO DOMINGO. 

William Beebe 

Director, Department of Tropical Research 
and 

John Tee-Van 

General Associate 


PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 

THE ZOOLOGICAL PARK, NEW YORK 

November 29, 1935 


Jteto iforfe Zoological ftocietp 

General Office: 101 Park Avenue, New York City 


Officers 

President , Madison Grant 
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Class of 1936 

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^tutorial Committee 

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William Bridges 

♦Deceased 


Zoologica, Volume X, Number 2 


CICHLID FISHES IN THE WEST INDIES WITH ESPECIAL 
REFERENCE TO HAITI, INCLUDING THE DESCRIP- 
TION OF A NEW SPECIES OF CICHLASOMA. 1 

John Tee-Van 

General Associate, Department of Tropical Research 
(Figs. 269-272 incl.) 

OUTLINE 

PAGE 


Introduction 281 

Cichlid Fishes in the West Indian Islands Exclusive of Haiti. . . . 282 
Cichlid Fishes in the Island of Haiti 286 

Identification of the Contemporary Haitian Species and Compari- 
son with the Cuban Form 286 

Comparison of the Contemporary Haitian Species with the Fossil 
Haitian Form 290 

Description of a New Species of Haitian Cichlid Fish: Cichlasoma 
haitiensis 294 

Natural History Notes 297 

Summary ...... 298 

References 300 


INTRODUCTION 

The present paper is a continuation of studies made on the 
fishes of Haiti which were started in 1927 under the direction 
of Dr. William Beebe, as a result of the Haitian Expedition of 
the Department of Tropical Research of the New York Zoo- 
logical Society. The marine fish of the island were reported 
upon by Beebe and Tee-Van in 1928, the mainly freshwater 
families Cichlidae and Poeciliidae being omitted in their ac- 


1 Contribution No. 475, Department of Tropical Research, New York Zoological Society. 

281 


282 Zoologica : N. Y. Zoological Society [X;2 

count. The specimens of the former family are here reported 
upon, and the fishes of the latter will be treated by Dr. George 
S. Myers of the United States National Museum. 

Cichlid fishes have been the source of considerable con- 
troversy, both as to their distribution, recent and fossil, and 
as to the validity of many species. The present paper, it is 
hoped, will add to the understanding of the Antillean forms. 


CICHLID FISHES IN THE WEST INDIAN ISLANDS 
EXCLUSIVE OF HAITI 

Fishes of the family Cichlidae have at one time or another 
been reported from the following West Indian Islands: Trini- 
dad, Barbados, Jamaica and Cuba, in addition to the records 
that are the subject of this paper. 

Trinidad: As far as the West Indian Islands are con- 

cerned, the Trinidad records may be immediately dismissed. 
The zoological affinities of Trinidad with South America are so 
close that there is no reason for considering the island as part 
of the West Indian archipelago, and this is further borne out by 
the fact that the Trinidad cichlids are also known from the 
neighboring mainland. 

Barbados : The record of Cichlasoma adspersum (Gunther, 
1862) from Barbados is exceedingly questionable. Hubbs (1920, 
p. 4) has shown that the single specimen upon which the species 
was based falls easily within the range of variation of the 
Cuban species, Cichlasoma tetracanthus. In confirmation of this 
it may be stated that Pellegrin (1904), who had specimens of 
Cichlasoma from Cuba, gave them the name adspersum , thus 
suggesting the similarity if not identity of the fish of the Cuban 
and Barbadian records. Later, Myers (1928, pp. 34-85) stated 
that he chose to believe for the present that the Barbadian record 
was an error. As the species has been unrecorded from Bar- 
bados or any of the surrounding islands since the original 
description, and as the single specimen can be shown to be 
identical with the Cuban species, I see no reason for not con- 
cluding that the Barbadian record was an error, and that 
adspersum should be relegated to the synonymy of tetracanthus. 
Hubbs (1920) has already come to this conclusion. 


1935] Tee-Van: Cichlid Fishes in the West Indies 283 

Jamaica: Pellegrin (1904, p. 187) recorded Cichlasoma 

octofasciatum (Regan), a Central American cichlid, from Ja- 
maica. This record is most likely an error, although it is quite 
possible that cichlids may be found on the island, as the 
geographical location of the island is within the range of the 
genus. However, the probability of a Jamaican species of Cich- 
lasoma being identical with one from Central America, con- 
sidering the high degree of speciation to be found in the latter 
region, is very small. Under any circumstances, Pellegrin’s 
record need not trouble us as far as the Cuban and Haitian 
forms discussed in this paper are concerned, as the specimen 
he recorded belonged to the group in Cichlasoma possessing eight 
to ten anal spines, while the others mentioned have but four. 

Cuba: Cichlids have long been known from the island of 

Cuba, tetracanthus having been described by Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes in 1831. During recent years the systematic treatment 
of the Cuban cichlids has been rather a tempestuous one. It may 
briefly be reviewed as follows : 

Eigenmann in 1904 studied a series of 236 specimens from 
the island, and came to the conclusion that “An examination of 
all of these proves either the presence of several instead of a 
single species or a remarkable variation with localities.” He 
hesitatingly divided his specimens into five subspecies of tetra- 
canthus, and one new species, nigricans, stating, however, that, 
“I venture to describe here certain of the aberrant forms as new, 
without, however, feeling that they are distinct varieties or 
species, or that some of the other forms referred to H. tetra- 
canthus are not also new.” 

Pellegrin in his revision of the Cichlidae (1904) deter- 
mined all of his Cuban specimens as a dspersum, listing no speci- 
mens under the name of fuscomaculatus, the synonym that he 
chose to use in place of tetracanthus. 

Regan in his 1905 revision of the genus Cichlasoma, synon- 
ymized, without comment, under C. tetracanthus, all of the forms 
erected by Eigenmann. His action was based on twenty-six of 
Eigenmann’s specimens. 

Eigenmann in his “Catalogue of the Fresh-Water Fishes 
of Tropical and South Temperate America,” (1909), disagreed 
with this decision, as he restored all of his original subspecies 
and species to full specific rank. 


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Hubbs in 1920 examined part of the material upon which 
Eigenmann had worked, and some additional specimens. After 
reiterating Eigenmann’s account of the extreme variability of 
the Cuban forms and otherwise discussing the situation, he 
states: “In other words, the variations have at most an im- 

perfect geographical significance. The variations in form pos- 
sibly are sexual, for some large individuals are slender, while 
others are robust ; the variations in color are perhaps correlated 
with sex, and imperfectly with age. Most of the variations, 
however, seem to be of an individual, rather than racial, sexual, 
or age, character.” 

Hubbs also reviewed the status of each of the species and 
subspecies named by Eigenmann and concluded that, “Unless 
further evidence of their distinctness is forthcoming, therefore, 
more than one form of cichlid can scarcely be recognized in 
Cuba.” 

To summarize the West Indian situation, it is apparent 
that, omitting Haiti, cichlid fishes are definitely known in the 
West Indian islands only from Cuba, that the Cuban fish is an 
exceedingly variable one, and that while the present Jamaican 
record is questioned, it is quite possible that fishes of this 
group will be found on that island. 

In connection with the variability of the Cuban fish, it is 
of interest to record the present distribution of the species of 
Cichlasoma on the mainland of Central and South America. The 
distributions given in Eigenmann’s Catalogue (1904) plus the 
ranges given for new species since the publication of that volume 
result in the following tables : 


Range Number of Species 

South America Recorded 

Paraguay to Trinidad 1 

Paraguay to Orinoco 1 

La Plata Basin 1 

La Plata Basin and S. E. Brazil 4 

E. Central Brazil 1 

Amazons 4 

Amazons, Guiana 4 

Rio Negro and Orinoco 1 


1935] Tee-Van: Cichlid Fishes in the West Indies 285 

Range Number of Species 

South America (continued) Recorded 

Ecuador 2 

Colombia 4 

Total Number of South American 

Species 18 

Central America 

Panama and Colombia 1 

Panama 5 

Panama and Guatemala 1 

Costa Rica 8 

Nicaragua 14 

Salvador 1 

Honduras 1 

British Honduras 1 

Honduras and Guatemala 1 

Guatemala 13 

Guatemala to Mexico 3 

Mexico to Nicaragua 1 

Mexico 21 

Total Number of Central American 

Species 71 


These tables are suggestive when the variability of the 
Cuban form is taken into consideration. They show that in the 
continental mass of South America, species are relatively few 
in number and on the whole possess wide distributions. In 
Central America the condition is quite different. Here the 
variability of the fishes of the genus has expressed itself in the 
production of some 71 known forms, four times as many as in 
the much larger but more uniform land mass of South America. 
The recorded ranges of the Central American fish are also much 
smaller, many being restricted to one river or lake system. 
Although the geographical conditions in the two regions are 
quite different, it is felt that the large number of species from 
Central America may be the result of lack of comparative 
material, both geographical and as far as size and sex are con- 
cerned, and, judging by the Cuban fish, that many of the pres- 


286 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X;2 

ent recognized species may represent but phases or local races 
of other species. 

CICHLID FISH IN THE ISLAND OF HAITI (HISPANIOLA) 

The presence of fishes of this family in the island of Haiti 
was unknown until 1924, when Cockerell described a fossil 
species, Cichlasoma woodringi, from upper or middle Miocene 
strata. 

In 1928 Myers noted the first living fish, as the result of a 
specimen taken in the Gurabo River in the northern part of the 
Dominican Republic. He stated that his single specimen “is 
close to or identical with C. tetr acanthus of Cuba, differing only 
slightly from Regan's description of that fish. The pelvic fins 
reach the anal fin, the caudal peduncle is nearly as long as deep, 
and the dorsal spines increase in length to the ninth, thence 
slightly decrease to the last." This description differs from the 
material from the Haitian Expedition, and will be noted later. 

During the Haitian Expedition of the Department of Trop- 
ical Research many cichlids were observed and sixty-nine speci- 
mens ranging from 23 mm. to 215 mm. were preserved. 

An examination of this material reveals a considerable 
amount of variation, both in form and in color, the latter rang- 
ing from pale gray to brownish black, with and without black 
bands, bars and spots. These variations are somewhat difficult 
to correlate with other factors. However, field notes seem to 
bear out that there is a sexual difference in some of the color 
variations, as a pale and a dark colored specimen were often 
taken at the same time. Unfortunately, our smaller sized ma- 
terial is not sufficiently well preserved to determine this ques- 
tion. The variations in form, while not as extensive as those 
shown by the Cuban fishes, are still quite considerable. 


IDENTIFICATION OF THE CONTEMPORARY HAITIAN 
SPECIES AND COMPARISON WITH 
THE CUBAN FORM 

The Haitian fishes examined are from four localities and 
three drainage basins, as follows : 


1935] Tee-Van: Cichlid Fishes in the West Indies 287 

1 — Gurabo River near Las Quemados, Santo Domingo. This 
is in the drainage basin of the Rio Yaqui del Norte. 

2 — Hinche, on the Guayamouc River, Haiti. This is part 
of the Artibonite River system. 

3 — Etang Saumatre, a saline lake in the Cul-de-Sac Plain 
of Haiti. 

4 — Grande Riviere de Cul-de-Sac, in the plain of the same 
name in Haiti. 

The two last mentioned localities are in the same general 
basin, and although the lake has no outlet and is separated from 
the river by a distance of approximately 10 kilometres, the fishes 
of the two localities appear to be the same. 

Examination of the material reveals that the Haitian fish 
is close to the Cuban species, as might be expected, and that the 
situation is similar to the one in that island as far as apparent 
variability is concerned. It is also evident from this relatively 
scanty material that specimens from the other drainage basins 
of Haiti are needed for comparison, as variation correlated with 
locality is indicated by the materials. 

These conclusions are based on the following facts : 

1. The Gurabo River specimen, from a basin separated 
from those of the other fishes, is evidently a separate form. In ap- 
pearance and measurements it is different from our Cul-de-Sac 
Plain specimens, but its relationship is difficult to establish on 
the basis of a single fish. This specimen is the one that Dr. 
Myers reported upon in 1928, and he will report further on it in 
other publications. Whether the differences demonstrated by 
this fish from the other Haitian fishes are to be ascribed to 
variation or whether each of the drainage basins possesses a 
separate form will depend upon the procuring of additional 
specimens. 

2. The Hinche specimens from the Artibonite basin can- 
not be directly compared either with the Gurabo River or the 
Cul-de-Sac Plain fish, because of the disparity in size. The three 
fish are 141 mm., 161 mm. and 215 mm. long, while the largest 
Cul-de-Sac fish is 117 mm. Apparently they are close to the 
latter fish and in the chart they have been included as part of 
the growth stages. Smaller material from the Artibonite basin 
is needed for comparison. 


288 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X;2 

3. As has been mentioned, the fish of the two localities in 
the Cul-de-Sac Plain are the same as far as can be determined. 
There is considerable variability in the group, but as a whole 
they are more uniform than the Cuban forms. 

To demonstrate the similarity of the Cuban and Haitian 
forms, the following table, listing Regan's and Eigenmann’s 
descriptions of Cuban fish plus the characters of the Haitian fish, 
has been made : 


CHARACTER 

Cuban Fish 

Haitian Fish 


Regan 

Eigenmann 

Cul-de-Sac Plain 
and Hinche 

Depth in length 

2 to 2.6 

2 to 2.7 

2.2 to 2.65 

Head in length 

2.5 to 3 

2.6 to 2.7 

2.3 to 2.85 

Eye in head 

3 to 4.3 

3.5 to 5 

3 to 5.4 

Snout 

Shorter than 
postorbital head 

Same 

Slightly shorter 
than postorbital 
head 

Maxillary 

Premaxillary 

Process 

Extending to be- 
low anterior 
margin of eye 
Extends to 
above anterior 
third of eye 

Same 

Not quite reach- 
ing anterior mar- 
gin of eye 
Same 

Jaws 

Gill-Rakers 

Equal, or the 
lower slightly 
projecting 
8 to 10 

Same 

Same 

Same 

Scales 

28 to 31 

27 to 29 

30 to 32 

Dorsal Fin 

XV-XVI,10to 

12 

XIV-XVI, 10 
to 12 

XIII-XV, 11 to 12 

Anal Fin 

IV, 8 to 10 

IV, 8 to 10 

IV, 8 to 9 


The chart (Fig. 269), illustrating a few of the characters 
mentioned above, shows some of the changes related to age. 
It emphasizes the unreliability of comparison of unequal sized 
specimens in this group of fishes. 

While the similarity of the Haitian fish to the Cuban is 
quite close, there are also differences to be observed. Because 
of the variation of the forms, comparisons are not as easy to 
make as they might be, but some of the differences are given in 
following paragraphs. 

A character that is not well demonstrated in the table given 



Fig. 269. Proportions of Cichlasoma haitiensis correlated with growth, and comparison of 
proportions of Cichlasoma tetracanthus of Cuba as recorded by Regan and Eigenmann. 


290 


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above is the difference in the number of spines in the dorsal 
fins of the Cuban and Haitian fishes. When we compare the 
data given by Eigenmann for his 236 Cuban fishes with that of 
the Haitian series, we find that the Haitian fish average one 
dorsal spine less than those of Cuba. The following table, based 
on 305 specimens, shows how this average works out : 


Species 

Total Number 
of Specimens 




Number of Dorsal Spines 



13 

14 

15 

16 

Cuban 

236 

~ 

1 

233 

2 

Haitian 

69 

2 

61 

6 

— 


Considering that the difference is based upon a relatively 
large series of specimens, and that there is no likelihood of con- 
tact between the Cuban and Haitian forms, there is no hesitation 
in establishing a name for the Haitian Cul-de-Sac Plain fish, 
Cichlasoma haitiensis, based on this character and others to be 
mentioned. It will be of interest to see whether this average 
difference can be demonstrated for all Haitian fish or whether 
it is true only of the present Cul-de-Sac Plain and Hinche 
material. 

In addition to the difference in the dorsal fin count, the 
Haitian fish have a slightly longer snout and a somewhat greater 
scale count than those from Cuba. These characters are in- 
cluded in the description of the species on page 294. 

COMPARISON OF THE CONTEMPORARY HAITIAN 
SPECIES WITH THE HAITIAN FOSSIL FORM 

Cockerell, in 1924, as has been mentioned, described a fish 
from Miocene beds from the vicinity of Los Cahobas, Haiti. 
This species, as indicated in the following table, is exceedingly 
close to the living Haitian fish. The similarity of the fossil 
species to the modern is paralleled in the plants that were taken 
at the same time and place as the fossil fish and recent plants. 


1935] Tee-Van: Cichlid Fishes in the West Indies 


291 


This is emphasized by Berry (1923) . In speaking of the locality 
at which Cichlasoma woodringi was taken and referring to the 
plants taken at the same location, he states (p. 3) : ‘'The local- 

ity W 185 F, which is considered of middle or upper Miocene age, 
contains the same Gymnogramme found at two other localities 
which are also referred to the Miocene. In the absence of 
clearly defined stratigraphic evidence I would be inclined to 
consider all three localities of the same age. Although the pres- 
ent collections are not conclusive, I would be inclined to regard 
the few Miocene plants collected as pointing to late, rather than 
to early Miocene age.” Later, on the same page, is this state- 
ment: "The flora described is too small to be of any special 

significance. It is, perhaps, superfluous to point to its modern 
facies and tropical character.” 

In order to compare the fossil with the modern species, a 
74 mm. modern fish from Etang Saumatre has been chosen, a 
length comparable to that of the fossil, and its characters listed 
side by side with those of Cockerell's original description. 


Comparison of the Contemporary Haitian 
Species with the Fossil Haitian Form 


Character 

Dorsal fin count.., 
Anal fin count 
Base of pelvic fin. . 

Body shape 

Lower Jaw 

Scales 


woodringi 

Original 

description 

XIV, 10 or 11 
IV, 10 

Distinctly before 
level of beginning of 
dorsal fin. 

Practically as in tet- 
racanthus 

Somewhat 

protruding 

Quadrate, a little 
over 2 mm. broad, 
with 7 to 14 basal 
radii, and in the 
apical field, fine, 
ctenoid elements ar- 
ranged in decussat- 
ing series. (Position 
of scale not stated) 


haitiensis 


XIV, 11 
IV, 10 

Slightly behind level 
of beginning of the 
dorsal fin 

Same 

Same 


Quadrate, 3.5 mm. 
long by 3.84 mm. 
deep, 7 to 12 basal 
radii, fine ctenoid 
elements in apical 
field arranged in in- 
terdigitating rows 
(Scale from middle 
of side) 


292 


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Comparison of the Contemporary Haitian 
Species with the Fossil Haitian Form 


Measurements in Millimeters : 

Eye 

Orbit to end of lower jaw 

Orbit to end of upper jaw 

Length of spinous dorsal 

Length of soft dorsal 

Length post, dorsal spines 

Length soft dorsal rays 

Vertebrae in region of soft dorsal. .... 

Longest anal spines 

Soft anal rays 

Tip of lower jaw to base of anal fin. . 

Base of pelvic to base of anal fin 

Depth of body at level of pelvic fin . . . 
Depth of body at about end of soft 
dorsal fin 


woodringi haitiensis 


7.5 7.5 

About 16 10 

“ 14 9.3 

“ 21 .....25.2 

“ 9 ...10.2 

“ 9 ...8.7 

Over 10, damaged 13.5 

3 in Length of one 

about 4.4 vertebra 2.3 

About 10.5 9.4 

Over 21 16 

46 52 

About 20 22 

26.6 28.2 

12.3 12 


Examination of the table reveals the following differences 
between the fossil and living forms. The fossil species is de- 
scribed as having: 

1. Pelvic fin base distinctly before the origin of the dorsal 
fin, instead of equal to or slightly behind. 

2. Smaller sized scales. 

3. Different sized vertebrae. 

4. Shorter anal rays. 

5. Longer distance between the orbit and the tips of the 
upper and lower jaws. 

In order to check up on these differences, Dr. George S. 
Myers, Curator of Fishes at the United States National Museum, 
was asked to reexamine the fossil fish. His notes, which he has 
given me permission to quote and for which I tender my thanks, 
are as follows: 

“I have obtained the type of Cichlasoma woodringi from 
Dr. Gilmore and examined it under a binocular. It is on a slab 
of very friable material. I find that there are very clearly 15 
dorsal spines, instead of 14 as given by Cockerell, and 10 soft 
rays. There are four anal spines, though part of the last is split 
off and looks like a fifth. The soft anal rays cannot be counted. 

“In examining the scales and other external features I have 
picked out a Cichlasoma from Source Trou Caiman, Haiti, col- 
lected by Dr. R. M. Bond, of exactly the same size as the fossil, 


1935] Tee-Van: Cichlid Fishes in the West Indies 


293 


and used it as reference. On the type slab, the scales are well 
preserved only on the breast at the region which would be cov- 
ered by the appressed pectoral. Referring to the recent fish I 
find the scales at that point exactly like those of the fossil in 
size, and so far as I can see, in ornamentation as well. 

“As the principal diagnostic character of C. woodringi, 
Cockerell uses the anterior position of the pelvics. I have care- 
fully examined these fins and their bases in the type. They are 
scarcely 3 mm. anterior to the position in the recent Trou Cai- 
man fish. Furthermore, the fossil has been much crushed and 
the bones disarranged in the thoracic region and I have little 
doubt that the right pelvic has been pushed forward out of its 
normal position. 

“In all other ways in which it is possible to compare the 
fossil with the recent fish, such as head length, shape of body, 
etc., I can see no specific differences whatever between the type 
of C. woodringi and the recent specimen from Trou Caiman.” 

These notes of Dr. Myers remove the different sized scales, 
the disparity in the position of the pectoral fins, and the differ- 
ence between the measurements of the distance between the jaws 
and the eye — the latter two evidently being due to the compres- 
sion and consequent forward extension of the anterior part of 
the fish during fossilization — from the alleged distinction be- 
tween the fish. Two characters remain, the shorter anal rays 
and the difference in vertebrae size. 

As far as the rays are concerned the difference is not an 
especially good one, as there might easily be sufficient variation 
to account for this. 

The difference in size of vertebrae, however, seems to con- 
stitute a real distinction between the two forms. The difference 
in measurements has already been noted. Dr. Myers in his re- 
examination of the holotype of C . woodringi states: “I have 
worked out the number of vertebrae as follows: There appear 
to be two (plus hy pleural = 3) lost at the tail. By gently work- 
ing off the matrix which shows as a light blotch across the fish 
in Cockerell’s plate, I can count all the rest of the caudal verte- 
brae, and by counting the neural spines, get the number of 
abdominal centra. My count is 33 (including the hypleural as 
one of these) or 14 plus 19. I do not think that there can be an 
error of more than two in my count.” 


294 Zoologica : N. Y. Zoological Society [X;2 

For comparison with this data the vertebrae counts of six 
Etang Saumatre specimens have been tabulated. All six agree 
in possessing the same number of vertebrae that Regan recorded 
for modern Cuban C. tetracanthus — 13 abdominal, plus 15 cau- 
dal, plus 1 hypleural (urostyle). 

It is evident, therefore, that, even accepting Dr. Myers' 
minimum count of 31, the fossil cichlid can be distinguished from 
the contemporary form by slightly smaller and more numerous 
vertebrae. The distinction can be shown thus: 




Abdominal 

Caudal 

Urostyle 

(Hypleural) 

Total 

C. woodringi 

1 spec. 

14 

16 or 18 

1 

31 to 33 

C. haitiensis 

6 spec. 

13 

15 

1 

29 


DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF HAITIAN 
CICHLID FISH 



Fig. 270. Cichlasoma haitiensis Tee-Van. Type specimen, 108 mm. standard length. 


Cichlasoma haitiensis new species 

Type: No. 7302, Haitian Expedition, New York Zoological 
Society, Etang Saumatre, near Maneville, Cul-de-Sac Plain, 
Haiti, March 15, 1927 ; standard length 108 mm. Type in the 


1935] Tee-Van: Cichlid Fishes in the West Indies 


295 


collections of the Department of Tropical Research of the New 
York Zoological Society. 

Sixty-five specimens from the type locality and Grande 
Riviere de Cul-de-Sac, plus three specimens from Hinche, are 
also in the collection. 

Field characters: Small to medium sized, compressed 
fishes living in fresh water, occasionally in brackish, with a long 
dorsal fin composed of rays and spines, the spinous portion 
longer than the soft; a single nostril on each side of the head; 
small canine teeth present anteriorly. Grayish to brownish 
black, variable; body plain or with small black spots. Occa- 
sionally dark vertical bands are present and a common color 
pattern is a spot at the base of the tail, one on the middle of the 
sides and one at the upper margin of the opercle. 

Description : 2 Depth of body 2.2 to 2.65 (2.56) in the 
length; length of head 2.34 to 2.75 (2.7) ; snout slightly shorter 
than or equal to postorbital part of head (2.7) ; diameter of eye 
3 to 5 in head (4.7) ; interorbital space slightly less than eye 
diameter in a 29 mm. fish and a 57 mm. specimen, slightly 
greater than eye diameter in a 117 mm. fish (3.9 in head in 
type), once and two-thirds the eye diameter in a 215 mm. 
Hinche fish. Maxillary slightly exposed (2.95 in head) extend- 
ing to just below the anterior margin of the eye or not quite 
reaching the eye; jaws equal or the lower slightly projecting; 
preopercle with a shallow notch on its posterior limb; teeth of 
the upper jaw with anterior pair of teeth enlarged, in larger 
specimens two or three pairs are enlarged ; lower jaw with two or 
three pairs enlarged, forming weak canines ; fold of the lower lip 
continuous; 8 to 10 gill rakers on the lower part of the first 
arch; 5 branchiostegal rays. Scales 30 to 33 plus a few small 
scales on the caudal, 4 between the lateral line and the anterior 
part of the soft dorsal, 7 between the lateral line and the origin 
of the spinous dorsal, a small sheath of scales, especially notice- 
able on the soft dorsal ; lateral line pores averaging 18 to 20 plus 
9 to 11. Dorsal fin XIII to XV, 11 to 12, the first spine short, 
the spines then gradually increasing to the last, but occasionally 
the penultimate 4 or 5 are equal in length and the last spine 

2 For ease of comparison the order of description is the same as that used for tetracanthus 
by Regan. The proportions are those of a series of 25 specimens examined and measured. 
The proportions of the type specimen are given in parentheses. 


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Fig. 271. Cichlasoma haitiensis. Specimen from Etang Saumatre, Haiti, 1G0 mm. 

standard length. 

longest; soft dorsal fin tip extending, when laid back, from the 
base of the caudal fin in small, to almost to the tip of the caudal 
fin in large, specimens. Anal IV, 8 to 10. Pectoral fin tip not 
reaching to the vertical of the origin of the anal fin; pelvic fin 
reaching the anus or slightly beyond, in some specimens shorter. 
Caudal subtruncate or rounded. Profile rounded from dorsal fin 
to eye, then more or less straight from eye to snout. 

Color highly variable. Pale gray through olivaceous brown 
to almost black, with varying degrees of the following patterns : 
Some or all of the patterns may be completely absent. Body with 
small black spots. A series of vertical bands on the body, most 
prominent in small fishes. A black spot on the middle of the 


Fig 272. Cichlasoma. Specimen from Hinche, Gurabo River, Haiti, with gibbous forehead, 
standard length 215 mm. This is the largest specimen mentioned in this paper. 


1935] Tee-Van: Cichlid Fishes in the West Indies 297 

sides, another at the base of the caudal, and a much paler one 
at the origin of the lateral line; these three spots, especially in 
small fish, sometimes connected by a narrow black line. Fins 
pale to dusky; in dark specimens the fins are almost as black 
as the body. 

The three large specimens from Hinche have not been in- 
cluded in the above description. They are very close to the 
present species and may be the same. The disparity in size 
makes comparison impossible. 

Larger specimens have gibbous foreheads, as is usual 
among cichlids and some other families. 


NATURAL HISTORY NOTES 

Common Name: In Haiti these fish are known as “Odo.” 

Occurrence in Haiti : This species has been taken by the 
Haitian Expedition at the following localities: Fresh water 
stream at MAneville, Etang Saumatre, and various places in 
Etang Saumatre to the eastward of Maneville; Grand Riviere 
near the Agricultural Station in the Cul-de-Sac Plain. It is prob- 
ably distributed through the streams of the basin. 

Etang Saumatre 3 is brackish, the salinity being about one- 
fifth that of sea water. It has no drainage at present, and it is 
fed by small streams. 

Abundance: In many localities, such as those at Etang 
Saumatre, this is a common species. In this lake they were suf- 
ficiently abundant to be a source of food for the natives, and 
small baskets of these fish were observed being carried to 
town. 

Method of Capture: Taken by us mostly in small seines. 
The natives capture them by using sheets of cloth in place of 
seines. These they manoeuver under the fish and then rapidly 
bring water, fish and all to the surface. One small Negro boy 
was especially adept at capturing Odos. His method was to stalk 
a fish and chase it into a small cavity in the bottom. He then 
dived under, closing up the cavity with his hands, and removed 
the fish. 


3 For details of this lake see Woodring, Brown and Burbank, 1924. 


298 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X;2 

Sociability: The majority of these fish were found soli- 
tarily or in pairs, rarely in small groups of six to eight. They 
were often seen in considerable numbers among schools of poeci- 
lids. This was especially true of localities in Etang Saumatre 
along rocky shorelines where fresh water streams ran into the 
lake. In the Grand Riviere they were found in company with 
fresh water mullets, Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft). 

Food: The stomach contents of numerous individuals from 
Etang Saumatre included algae and other water plants and 
quantities of small white turret shells. Dead shells of this mol- 
lusc were exceedingly abundant along the shores of this lake. 

Size at Maturity : Fishes of 75 mm. standard length are 
capable of breeding. An 87 mm. fish taken on March 15 con- 
tained about 300 eggs ready for spawning, each egg being a 
broad oval, 1.5 mm. by 2 mm. in diameter. A male of 112 mm. 
taken on the same day had considerably enlarged gonads. 


SUMMARY 

Cichlid fishes have been reported, excluding Trinidad as 
belonging, zoologically, to the continental mass of South Amer- 
ica, from the West Indian islands of Barbados, Jamaica, Cuba 
and Haiti. 

The Barbados record is considered as an error in locality 
for a Cuban fish. 

The Jamaican record is also a questionable one, although 
it is quite possible that cichlid fishes will be found on that island. 
The fish upon which the Jamaican record was based belonged to 
the group of species possessing 8 to 10 anal spines, while those 
of Cuba and Haiti, with which this paper is concerned, have but 
four. 

The history of the Cuban fish shows that this form is ex- 
ceedingly variable, the variation having resulted in the descrip- 
tion of five new subspecies and one species, all of these later 
being synonymized under tetracanthus. It is probable that fur- 
ther field study will show that some of the Cuban forms can be 
correlated with factors such as sex. 

In connection with the variability of the Cuban fish, the 
species of Cichlasoma from Central and South America have 


1935] Tee-Van: Cichlid Fishes in the West Indies 299 

been tabulated, with the result that it is shown that in the 
smaller but more varied land mass of Central America there are 
four times as many species as in the larger but more uniform 
mass of South America. Although it is evident that there is a 
great deal more variation in the northern portion of the range of 
the genus, it is also suggested that, judging by the Haitian and 
Cuban species, many of these forms may later be shown to be 
variations or phases of other species. 

Cichlid fishes are known in Haiti from a fossil species de- 
scribed by Cockerell, from a contemporary specimen reported by 
Myers and from the present Haitian Expedition material. 

Examination of the contemporary Haitian fish reveals that 
it is close to tetracanthus of Cuba. From the scanty material 
at hand it seems that there is either a separate form from each 
of the drainage basins from which specimens are at hand, or 
that there is wide variation, as has been found in Cuba. 

The Haitian Cul-de-Sac Plain specimens, when compared 
with the Cuban form, show an average lesser number of spines 
in the dorsal fin, a longer snout and a slightly greater number 
of scales. Whether the difference in number of spines of the 
dorsal fin will hold true of the Haitian fishes as a whole, or 
whether it represents merely the characters of the Cul-de-Sac 
Plain fish, is not known. The Cul-de-Sac Plain fish is considered 
as a new species, Cichlasoma haitiensis. 

Comparison of the living Haitian fish with the Miocene 
fossil Cichlasoma woodringi Cockerell, has been made. From a 
reexamination of the fossil by Dr. George S. Myers, Curator of 
Fishes of the United States National Museum, and comparison 
with a contemporary specimen, it is evident that the fossil fish 
cannot be distinguished externally from the living form. How- 
ever, the fossil form has smaller and more numerous vertebrae, 
and for the present this species must be maintained. 

A new species, Cichlasoma haitiensis , is described from 
Cul-de-Sac Plain fishes. 

Natural History notes are given relating to Common Name, 
Occurrence in Haiti, Abundance, Method of Capture, Sociability, 
Food and Size at Maturity. 


300 


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REFERENCES 

Beebe, W. and Tee-Van, J., 1928, Zoologica, Vol. X, No. 1. 

Berry, E. W., 1923, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 62, Art. 14. 

Cockerell, T. D. A., 1924, Proc., U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 63, Art. 7. 
Eigenmann, C. H., 1904, Bull. U. S. Fish. Comm., Vol. XXII, for 1902, 
pp. 23-235. 

Eigenmann, C. H., 1910, Rep. Princeton Univ. Exped. to Patagonia, 1896- 
1899, Vol. Ill, part IV. 

Gunther, A., 1862, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., Vol. IV. 

Hubbs, C. L., 1920, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool., Univ. of Mich., Ann Arbor, No. 90. 
Myers, G. S., 1928, Copeia, No. 167, pp. 33-36. 

Pellegrin, J., 1904, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, 16, pp. 41-402. 

Regan, C. T., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 7, Vol. XVI. 

Woodring, W. P., Brown, J. S., and Burbank, W. S., 1924, Geology of the 
Republic of Haiti, Port-au-Prince, 1924. 


Zoologica, Volume X, Number 3 


AN ANNOTATED LIST OF THE CYPRINODONT FISHES 
OF HISPANIOLA, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF 
TWO NEW SPECIES 1 

George S. Myers 

United States National Museum 
(Figs. 273-279 incl.) 

The cyprinodont fishes obtained,, in Haiti by Dr. William Beebe and 
Mr. John Tee- Van in 1927 were turned over to the writer for study in con- 
nection with his work on the fishes of Hispaniola. Since the final paper 
revising and illustrating the fresh-water fish fauna of the island will be 
still further delayed, it seems best at this time to list the known species 
of the cyprinodonts and bring together the rather scattered recent literature 
on the group. In listing the species I have briefly recorded the specimens 
obtained by Dr. Beebe’s expedition. The full data on this material will 
be set forth later in my monograph. 

Besides the cyprinodonts, the fresh-water fish fauna of Hispaniola in- 
cludes only one (or perhaps two) cichlids, an Agonostomus, and a few 
gobies. Since the marine fishes and the cichlids have already been covered 
in other papers in this volume of Zoologica, the present contribution prac- 
tically completes the list of the known fishes of the island. 

I wish to thank Dr. Beebe and Mr. Tee-Van for the use of their im- 
portant material and for their interest and help. The figures illustrating 
the paper were made by Mr. Pablo L. Bravo. The drawings of Mollienisia 
dominicensis and Limia dominicensis were made at the expense of the 
United States National Museum. 

Family Cyprinodontidae 
Subfamily Fundulinae 
Genus Rivulus Poey 
Rivulus heyei Nichols 

Rivulus heyei Nichols, 1914, p. 143 (Saona Isl.) ; Myers, 1925, p. 370 
(on holotype) ; Myers, 1927, p. 123 (name only). 

This species is as yet known only from the holotype, 20 mm. long, and 
not in particularly good condition. Mr. Nichols tells me that the specimen 
was found swimming in the camp water-bucket by Mr. de Booy while he 
was camping on Saona Island, off the southeastern coast of Hispaniola. 
If it were not for the fact that this detail of the collecting is remembered, 
I should be inclined to doubt the locality, since Rivulus has never been taken 
on Hispaniola itself. However, the various species of the genus are very 
secretive, usually inhabiting masses of vegetation in very small bodies of 

1 Published by permission of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Contribution No. 476, Department of Tropical Research, New York Zoological Society. 

301 


302 Zoologica: N. Y . Zoological Society [X;3 

water. Search should be made for Rivulus in such places all over the main 
island. 

R. heyei is not well distinguished from the Cuban R. cylindraceus and 
more material must be secured before its systematic status is clear. 


Subfamily Cyprinodontinae 
Genus Cyprinodon Lacepede 

I have experienced some difficulty in attempting to determine the posi- 
tion of a species, described below as Cyprinodon bondi, in accordance with 
Hubbs’ key to the genera of American Cyprinodontinae (Hubbs, 1926, p. 
16). It soon became apparent that some of the characters used by Hubbs 
to separate his new genus Floridichthys from Cyprinodon were not constant, 
but that others not hitherto noticed set Floridichthys apart as a very dis- 
tinct genus. My difficulty was caused by the fact that adults of bondi , al- 
though the fish is undoubtedly a member of the genus Cyprinodon, agree 
with most of the key characters given by Hubbs for Floridichthys. I give 
revised definitions of the two genera below. 


Cyprinodon 

1. Nearly all of the preorbital area (excepting the upper part, on a 
level with the nostrils) scaly, the free edges of the scales directed upward; 
squamation always rising in front above level of lower part of eye. 

2. Anterior edge of squamation of top of snout formed of several scales 
which are usually somewhat irregular, leaving a variable (usually rather 
narrow) naked area between them and the premaxillary groove. 

3. Scaly flap separating pelvic fins usually short and somewhat ir- 
regular; it is composed of one or two distal scales and two to five basal 
scales, all of which are to some degree asymmetrical. 

4. Inner border of iris smoothly oval. 

5. Dorsal fin of adult males smaller and higher, the last two rays much 
shorter than the longest anterior ones. 

6. Caudal peduncle either somewhat slender throughout or else deep 
anteriorly and constricted at caudal base. 

7. Scales rather thin and squamation in general less regular; dorsal 
origin more posterior; almost always an ocellus or dark spot on the basal 
part of the last dorsal rays in the female. 


Floridichthys 

1. Preorbital area naked above a line running down from the lower 
part of the orbit to the lower part of the maxillary ; anterior cheek squama- 
tion not rising above level of lower part of eye. 

2. Anterior edge of squamation of top of snout formed of one broad, 
regular plate, emarginate in front, covering nearly whole width of snout, 
and leaving a rather wide naked area between it and the premaxillary 
groove. 

3. Scaly flap separating pelvic fins long, strictly regular, and sym- 
metrical, composed of two large, wide, regular scales in tandem order, the 
distal one elongated. 

4. A small, pointed projection of the iris extending down over the 
upper part of the pupil of the eye. 

5. Profile of erected dorsal fin of adult males lower and more broadly 
rounded, the last two rays almost as long as the highest anterior ones. 

6. Caudal peduncle uniformly very deep. 


1935 ] Myers: Cyprinodont Fishes of Hispaniola 


303 


7. Squamation heavy and very regular; dorsal origin more anterior; 
no ocellus or dark spot on the basal part of the last dorsal rays in the 
female. 

From the above it will be seen that I have totally abandoned the en- 
largement of the humeral scale, the restriction of the branchial apertures, 
and the ciliation of the scales as differences between these two genera. In 
C. bondi the humeral scale of the adult is not normally enlarged, although 
a few specimens show it and it is always more or less evident in the young. 
The branchial openings of bondi are as large as those of carpio, the geno- 
type of Floridichthys, and there is little difference between bondi and cer- 
tain other species of Cyprinodon ( elegans , macularius ) in this character. 
Adult male bondi do not show the ciliation of the scales of other forms of 
Cyprinodon, except slightly on the cheek, where the ctenii are usually 
strongest. 

Jordanella agrees with Cyprinodon rather than with Floridichthys in 
the frontal and preorbital squamation, but differs from both in the greatly 
reduced (and sometimes absent) scaly flap between the pelvics. Further, 
Jordanella does not show the peculiar tongue of iris, and I believe that, on 
the whole, it is much more closely related to Cyprinodon than to Flori- 
dichthys. The Old World genus Aphanius is very close to Cyprinodon but 
differs, besides the elongate form, in the more weakly united premaxillaries. 
The surfaces at the point of junction are small, and the median, posteriorly 
directed, premaxillary processes are decidedly narrower than in the Ameri- 
can genus. Tellia, from the Atlas region of northwest Africa, is said to 
differ from “ Cyprinodon’ 9 (equals Aphanius) only in the absence of pelvic 
fins, a character of doubtful value since Cyprinodon macularius often (and 
C. diabolis almost always) lacks these fins. I have seen no material of 
Tellia, but the published figures lead me to suspect that it is not as close to 
Aphanius as has been supposed. Its body and head form, though shorter, 
reminds one of Empetrichthys, and its pharyngeals and other characters 
need reexamination. 


Cyprinodon bondi, new species 

Diagnosis: A very large Cyprinodon, the adults reaching at least 82 
mm. total length, this being in excess of any known member of the genus. 
It is remarkably different from all others known to me in the large size, 
high scale count (28 to 30 to end of hypural), the lack of enlargement of 
the humeral scale in the adult, the long straight predorsal profile, and the 
slightly emarginate (or at least very sharply truncate) caudal fin, 

Holotype: U.S.N.M. 100960. Adult female, 66 mm. standard length, 
82 mm. total. Etang Saumatre, Haiti, Feb. 20, 1933. R. M. Bond. 

Paratypes: U.S.N.M. 100961. Ten smaller specimens, the largest 35 
mm. standard length. Same locality, date and collector as holotype. Nu- 
merous other paratypes collected in Etang Saumatre by Dr. Beebe and 
Mr. Tee- Van. 

Counts and measurements (in mm.) of three finely preserved specimens 
(holotype and two largest paratypes) in Dr. Bond’s series are now given. 
Standard length 66, 35, 31. Total length 82, 46, 41. Depth 31, 14.5, 13. 
Head 21, 11, 10. Snout 7, 3.5, 3.5. Eye 6, 4, 3.5. Interorbital 7.5, 3.3, 2.5. 
Width of operculum 5.5, 3.5, 3.3. Least depth caudal peduncle 12, 6.3, 5.5. 
Length penultimate dorsal ray 7.5, 5, 4.5. Length third dorsal ray 14, 8, 7.5. 
Predorsal length 37, 19, 17.5. Preorbital width 6, 3, 2.5. Preventral length 
(to tip lower jaw) 38, 19, 17. Length pectoral fin 18, 10, 9. Dorsal x'ays 
(count) 11, 11, 11. Anal 11, 11, 11. (The dorsal and anal are each usually 
11; in one specimen they are 12-12, and in another 11-10). Pectoral 17-16, 
16-16, 17-17. Pelvic 7, 7, 7. Caudal 7-12-7, 7-12-6, 7-12-7. Scales lateral 


304 Zoologica: N . Y. Zoological Society [X;3 

28 + 3, 30 + 3, 28 + 4. Scales transverse (dorsal origin to pelvic origin) 14, 
14, 14. Scales predorsal 11, 11, 12. 

In the high scale count this species would seem to agree with the Cuban 
Cyprinodon felicianus (Poey, 1868, p. 412; Jordan and Evermann, 1896, p. 
676). C. felicianus was described from a single specimen which may not 
now be in existence. Poey’s description is incomplete, many points now 
considered important having been omitted. Breder (1932) has recently in- 
cluded felicianus in that part of his synopsis of West Indian Cyprinodons 
characterized by the lack of an enlarged humeral scale. Since no specimens 
have been reported since Poey’s time, and the humeral scale was not men- 
tioned in his description, I am at a loss to explain Breder’s placement un- 
less he had access to the type or more recent unreported material. 

There are two lots of Cuban Cyprinodons received from Poey and la- 
beled as C. felicianus in the United States National Museum (37434 and 
37535). None of these specimens agrees with Poey’s description in the high 
scale count, unless one includes the scales on the base of the caudal. How- 
ever, the single example (male) in lot 37535 is exactly the same (standard) 
length as that given by Poey for his male holotype. This specimen has 30 
scales if one counts a few in front of the upper end of the opercle and on 
the caudal base behind the hypural, not usually included by modern workers. 
This specimen may be the holotype, but if it is, felicianus is very close to, or 
identical with, C. variegatus riverendi. Lot 37434 represents the same form. 
The humeral scale is enlarged and the scales are 25 or 26. 

Dr. Luis Howell Rivero has been so kind as to make a search for the 
type of felicianus in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. He finds no 
specimen agreeing exactly with Poey’s measurement, but there are others, 
sent by Poey as felicianus , similar in their characteristics to those in the 
National Museum. 

Since the specimens of felicianus in the National and Harvard collec- 
tions were sent to these two institutions by Poey as representative of his 
species, I am inclined to accept them as such, in spite of the fact that the 
type is not certainly recognizable among them. This being the case, I am 
forced to consider bondi as new, since it in no way closely resembles Poey’s 
specimens. The other West Indian Cyprinodons all have even fewer scales 
than felicianus. 

C. bondi is named for Dr. R. M. Bond, who collected the types during an 
ecological investigation of the Hispaniolan lakes. The species will be fig- 
ured and more completely described in my final paper on the cyprinodonts 
of Hispaniola. 


Family Poeciliidae 
Subfamily Gambusiinae 
Genus Gambusia Poey 
Gambusia dominicensis Regan 

Gambusia dominicensis Regan, 1913, p. 989, pi. 99, fig. 7 (Haiti) ; 
Hubbs, 1926, p. 25 (in key; copied). 

This species is common in southern Haiti. Dr. Beebe and Mr. Tee- 
Van obtained it in the Cul-de-Sac Plain five miles north of Port-au-Prince 
and at Etang Saumatre. 

? Gambusia oligosticta Regan 

? Gambusia oligosticta Regan, 1913, p. 988, text-fig. 169B, pi. 99, fig. 
1, 2 (Jamaica); Hubbs, 1926, p. 25 (in key; copied). 


1935] Myers : Cyprinodont Fishes of Hispaniola 


305 


I have examined one lot of Gambusias (U.S.N.M. 78247) collected by 
Mr. J. B. Henderson at Thomazeau, in the Cul-de-Sac Plain of Haiti, which 
I cannot at present separate from the Jamaican oligosticta. They have 
the same heavy body and long head and the gonopodial characters are 
practically identical. 


Gambusia beebei, new species 

Diagnosis: A very large species, belonging to the subgenus Gambusia , 
allied to the Antillean group containing punctata, wrayi, gracilior, and 
others. In the gonopodium the spines of ray 3 are very long, considerably 
overtopping the hook of ray 4, the longest spine more than equal to two- 
thirds of the combined basal length of all. The extremely long, heavy 
head (nearly a third standard length), the long snout (over a third head), 
and the long, heavy jaws are seen in no other species, although approached 
by wrayi, from which beebei differs otherwise in the longer spines and 
their basal segments of ray 3 and in the much more posterior dorsal 
and anal. No spots or speckling and no suborbital bar present. 

Material: Sixty-four females, 35 to 93 mm. total length, and 3 males, 
36 to 58 mm. total length, all obtained at Lake Miragoane, in the south- 
western peninsula of Haiti, by William Beebe and John Tee- Van. The 
species is known only from this one collection and station. 

Holotype: No. 7168, Dept. Tropical Research, New York Zoological 
Society. Adult male, 47 mm. standard length, 58 mm. total. Etang de 
Miragoane, Haiti, S. W. end of lake, from Aux Cayes Road. Apr. 12, 
1927. William Beebe and John Tee-Van. 

Description of Holotype: Dorsal 9. Scales lateral 31, plus 3 on 
caudal. Scales predorsal 16. 

Head .27. 2 Interorbital .08. Eye .09. Snout .095. Maxillary end 
to tip of lower jaw .115. Depth .22. Peduncle .15. Snout tip to dorsal 
origin .63. Snout tip to anal origin .49. Height of longest dorsal ray 
.145. Length of pectoral .18. 

Form elongate, pike-like; head very long and pointed, both from above 
and from side. Lower jaw very prognathous. A flattened continuous 
curve from snout to dorsal. Body scarcely or not at all angulated. Lower 
profile behind anal fin slightly convex. Caudal fin with outer rays slightly 
produced and central margin convex. 

Gonopodium .52 of standard length. Segments of enlarged third ray 
rather short and wide, the 13 distal segments with long spines. Longest 
spine, with its basal limb, more than two-thirds total basal length of the 
spine-bearing segments. The central spines all have an elongated lower 
limb similar to those of G. punctata. The lobe formed by the spines con- 
siderably overtops the tips of the two divisions of ray 4. Elbow of 
anterior division of ray 4 well developed, composed of 2 segments only 
partially divided, with two others entering slightly at the proximal base. 
Segments of anterior branch of ray 4 distal to elbow not coalesced with 
a ridge-like extension from the elbow. Posterior division of ray 4 with 
terminal hook and 4 distinct serrae, these not especially long or hooked. 
Ray 5 below the terminal hook not greatly bowed. 

Below yellowish, above brownish. Occiput and midpredorsal line 
blackish. Chin and sides of lower jaw dusted with black. A fine dark 
hair-line along middle of whole length of sides, strongest above pectorals, 

2 The proportions are given in hundredths of the standard length and are expressed as 
though taken on an ideal longitudinal axis of the body. This method is not used in the 
measurements of Cyprinodon bondi, which were taken from point to point, as indicated, 
with dividers. 


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Fig. 273. Gambusia beebei Myers. Old female, paratype, 93 mm. total length. 



Fig. 274. Gambusia beebei Myers. Adult male, holotype, 58 mm. total length. 


weak on tail. Sides above this streak dusky, 3 with edges of scales heavily 
dark-edged. No black dots or speckles on sides. No suborbital bar. Fins 
without speckles, but with faint dusting of dark chromatophores along 
rays. 

Description of Female: No. 7299, Dept. Tropical Research, New 
York Zoological Society, total length 93 mm. Dorsal 9. Anal 11. Scales 
lateral 32 -f- 3. Scales predorsal 16. 

Head .30. Interorbital .11. Eye .07. Snout .105. Maxillary end to 
tip lower jaw, .13. Depth .23. Peduncle depth .12. Snout tip to dorsal 
origin .66. Snout tip to anal origin .61. Dorsal broken. Length longest 
anal ray .16. Length pectoral .18. 

Form elongate, pike-like; head very long and heavy, jaws somewhat 
rounded from above. Length of upper lip nearly half eye. Distance from 
tip of snout to cleft of mouth equal to eye. Width of mouth from cleft to 
cleft equal to interorbital. Dorsal profile concave to nape, thence shortly 
convex, the curve straightening to dorsal. Central portion of top of snout 
raised into a characteristic “nasal boss,” not evident in young or half- 
grown females. Body not angulated. Anal margin more or less straight 
after the third and fourth rays, which are prolonged. 4 Caudal edge slightly 
convex, the outer rays a little produced. Appressed pectoral fin reaches 
middle of appressed pelvic fins. 

Coloration as in male. 5 

Variation: The scales vary but little, lateral 30 or 31, predorsal 15 
or 16. The dorsal is consistently 9, varying to 8 in a few. The anal in 
the female is 10 or 11. The first two rays and the last are small. The 
smaller females lack to a large extent the concave profile at the nape 

a Too heavily indicated in Fig. 274. In all cases in which the figures disagree with the text, 
the latter is to be taken as correct. 

4 Only the third shown prolonged in the drawing. 

5 The figure of the female likewise shows too heavy an indication of a lateral band. 


1935 ] Myers : Cyprinodont Fishes of Hispaniola 


307 


although this is usually somewhat evident. None but the very largest 
shows the upraised “nasal boss.” The largest male (holotype) shows a 
longer, sharper snout, both from above and from the side, than do the two 
smaller ones. He further differs from these two in the structure of the 
gonopodium, the spine-bearing segments of ray 3 being more numerous 
and the spines and their basal limbs being longer. Further, the suture 
which in the holotype nearly divides the main segment of the “elbow” of 
ray 4 into two, has not appeared in these smaller fishes. These facts in- 
dicate that after maturity the gonopodium may change with age. 

Following are proportions of seven females of graded size, of standard 
lengths of 64.5, 61, 53, 46, 37, 35, and 28.5 mm., respectively. Head .285, 
.32, .315, .28, .29, .26, .29. Interorbital .10, .11, .11, .10, .11, .11, .10. Eye 
.075, .09, .085, .085, .09, .085, .09. Snout .105, .115, .11, .09, .10, .095, 
.095. Snout tip to dorsal origin .68, .67, .66, .68, .66, .65, .67. 

Discussion of relationships: The great size, the elongate form, 
the large head, the long jaws, the peculiar dorsal profile and nasal boss of 
the older females, as well as the bodily proportions and the gonopodial 
structure of the male, set off this species as one of the most distinct in 
the genus. It has been directly compared with specimens of all of the 
West Indian Gambusias save melapleura and caymanensis, (neither of 
which seem at all close) including type material of wrayi, gracilior, 
oligosticta and manni. It differs widely from all of them in a number of 
characters. 

In Hubbs’ key to the species of Gambusia (Hubbs, 1926, p. 21), beebei 
falls within the subgenus Gambusia on gonopodial characters. It does 
not, however, agree with the bodily proportions expressed in division d2, the 
mouth having a deep lateral cleft, the jaws being rather pointed from 
above, especially in the male, the width of the head less than the distance 
from snout tip to posterior border of eye, and the width of the upper jaw 
being less than the great length of the upper jaw, measured to end of 
maxillary. Within the subgenus Gambusia, beebei agrees with division hi 
of Hubbs’ key in having the spines of ray 3 considerably overtopping the 
terminal hook of ray 4, but differs in that the longest spine is somewhat 
less in length than the bases of the combined spinous segments. 

The three species included in division hi by Hubbs are senilis, nobilis 
and affinis, all inhabitants of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. I 
have compared examples of all three with beebei, and there is indeed a 
remarkable similarity in the gonopodia 0 . The most obvious difference is 
to be seen in the considerably longer basal limbs of the spines of ray 3 of 
beebei. Furthermore, the form of the “elbow” of ray 4 differs, and the “ser- 
rae” are much less elongate and hooked in the new form. When one 
comes to the bodily proportions and general appearance, beebei at once 
shows that it is not closely related to these tiny mainland species. The wide 
cleft of the mouth, the long snout and jaws, the enormous head, the nasal 
boss and concave nape of the old females, the color, and, not least, the 
large size, do not allow us to place beebei near these forms. 

Proceeding to other possible relatives, we find the new form differing 
from Hubbs’ group h2 in the length of the spines of ray 3, which overtop the 
hook of ray 4. This is the group of the subgenus Gambusia confined, with 
the sole exception of nicaraguensis, to the Antilles. With nicaraguensis, 
beebei agrees to some extent in the form of the anal of the female, but 

6 Our specimens of G. nobilis were collected at Phantom Lake, Toyahvale, Texas, by G. M. 
Kranzthor and the writer. May 21, 1929, and form the first large series of this fish ever 
collected. Hubbs (1929, p. 2) has redescribed nobilis from a few specimens collected by 
others near Toyahvale. It will be noted in Regan’s figure of the gonopodium of senilis (Re- 
gan, 1913, text-fig. 168E) that the spines of ray 3 are of a peculiar straight form, very 
different from the rather curved shape seen in other species. It is thus of interest that in 
our large series of nobilis, surely all one species, this straight senilis type of spines is 
seen in some specimens, while in others a more elongate curved type is present. There 
are numerous intermediates connecting the two types. 


308 


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Fig. 275. Gambusia beebei Myers. Distal end of gonopodium of holotype. 
Camera lucida drawing by G. S. Myers. 


differs in all the points mentioned above with reference to senilis , nobilis 
and affinis as well as the added ones of the lesser depth and lesser com- 
pression of the body. 

Of the island forms no material of either the Jamaican melapleura or 
caymanensis, from Grand Cayman, has been available for comparison. The 
males of neither are known, and the described females (Regan, 1913, p. 988 
and 990) are of small size (largest 47 mm. for melapleura and 26 mm. for 
caymanensis). Very likely both are smaller species than the new one; bee- 
bei is certainly immature at 26 mm. and probably at 47 mm. also. Speci- 
mens of beebei of about 40 mm. show the following apparent differences 
from melapleura. Dorsal 8 and 9 (versus 11 or 12). Interorbital IV 2 (ver- 
sus 1%) in head. Dorsal origin midway between caudal base and a point 
somewhat behind pectoral origin. Least depth of peduncle equals half head. 
No traces of spots on fins or body. Compared with the description of cay- 
manensis, small females of beebei are seen to differ most significantly in 
dorsal position, this fin being still further forward in caymanensis than in 
melapleura, and in interorbital width (IV 2 in head versus 2 to 214). The 
color is likewise very different; beebei has no suborbital bar, no series of 
spots on the dorsal and no markings on the caudal. 

There remain seven Antillean species for comparison, manni 7 of the 
Bahamas, punctata and puncticulata of Cuba, wrayi, oligosticta and gra- 
cilior from Jamaica, and dominicensis from Hispaniola itself. Dr. Carl L. 
Hubbs has been kind enough to compare one of the smaller males and a 
series of females of beebei with the types of manni. He writes as follows: 
“The Haiti Gambusia ... is certainly not manni. It is a very much larger 
fish, with a much longer snout (more instead of less than one-third head), 
slenderer, without trace of suborbital bar and with the barest trace of fin 
spots and of axial streak.” 

The figures of the gonopodia of dominicensis, oligosticta, wrayi and- 
gracilior given by Regan (1913, Text-Figs. 168 and 169) show that none of 
these species have the spines of ray 3 nearly as long as those of beebei, 
and it should be particularly noted that in none do these spines have a long, 
well-developed basal limb, so conspicuous in beebei. Punctata, on the other 
hand, has the spines of ray 3 long, with a well-developed basal limb, but the 
gonopodium differs in other ways. In the first place the bowing below the 
hook of ray 5 is much greater in punctata than in beebei, and secondly the 
spines of ray 3, although themselves proportionally almost as long as in the 
new species, reach scarcely past the hook of ray 4. These spines, in beebei, 
are more numerous (12 versus about 9) and project much further beyond 
the hook of ray 4. The greater bowing of ray 5 and the more bunched spines 
of ray 3 give the tip of the gonopodium of punctata a characteristic thick- 
ened, rounded appearance, very different from that of the new species. In 
form, punctata differs widely from beebei in the much deeper body, shorter 


7 See Hubbs, 1927. 


1935 ] Myers: Cyprinodont Fishes of Hispaniola 309 


jaws, snout and head, and the presence of rows of spots on the body and 
fins, as well as in fin counts and fin positions. 

The Cuban puncticulata is a small fish, rather variable in its charac- 
ters, showing little similarity to the new fish. The Jamaican oligosticta, of 
which I have seen type material received by exchange from the British 
Museum, is very close to puncticulata and may not be distinguishable. Oli- 
gosticta is represented by a so far unreported similar form in Haiti, which 
is likewise doubtfully distinct from puncticulata. From all three forms 
beebei differs in the associated characters of very large head, long jaws and 
snout, as well as in the dorsal position, the general body form and the 
absence of spots. The long spines and their basal limbs in ray 3 of the 
gonopodium and the blunt serrae of ray 4 are further differences of note. 

Gambusia gracilior, of which I have examined typical material received 
by exchange from the British Museum, is a small species which, in the very 
short spines of ray 3 of the gonopodium, shows no close relationship with 
beebei. The small head, the short jaws and snout, the spotted fins and the 
small size are distinctive. Dominicensis is close to gracilior and differs in 
the same way. We have large series of this species, the common Gambusia 
of Haiti. 

With Gambusia wrayi, from Jamaica, beebei shows more similarity than 
with any other form. It thus has been of value to have at hand two (adult 
male and female) of Regan’s types of wrayi , on loan from the British Mu- 
seum. For this courtesy I must express the greatest thanks to Mr. J. R. 
Norman, Assistant Keeper of the Department of Zoology. In the rather 
large, heavy head, the elongate form, the comparatively large size and the 
absence of spots, wrayi approaches or agrees with beebei , but on comparison 
of these types of wrayi with specimens of beebei of similar size, numerous 
differences come to light. In the first place, these smaller females of beebei 
have not attained nearly their full growth, although some are probably 
adult. Of course we have no way of telling whether or not wrayi may grow 
larger than the types, but the two specimens at hand (male 29.5 mm. stand- 
ard length, female 43 mm.) have the full-bodied appearance of mature 
Gambusias while beebei of the same size looks slender and immature. Fur- 
ther, these beebei have a longer head (about 3 2/5 versus 3 2/3 in the 
standard length), longer snout (which, due to the longer head, is contained 
in the head length about thrice, as it is in wrayi), much longer jaws, a 
much more slender head, body and caudal peduncle, and a more posterior 
dorsal. The heavy, undershot jaw of beebei , with its blackish dusting of 
chromatophores, distinguishes the specimens at a glance from wrayi. 

Another difference has been noted, in a character not hitherto used for 
the distinction of species of this genus. The frontal and ethmoid region of 
the top of the head is, in Gambusia , separated from the supraorbital region 
by a distinct groove on each side which dies out over the center of the orbit 
and usually runs outward as it approaches the fold separating the pre- 
maxillary from the top of the head. This ethmo-frontal area between the 
two grooves is the region which, in old females of beebei , is upraised into 
what I have called the “nasal boss.” In examining wrayi it is seen that the 
ethmo-frontal grooves (as we may call these structures) are rather wide 
apart, slightly converging posteriorly, near their ends, and diverging but 
little anteriorly. In beebei, on the other hand, the grooves are only about 
half as far apart, diverging slightly but evenly for a distance, and then 
flaring suddenly outward as they approach the premaxillary groove. Fe- 
males of beebei, likewise, have a distinctly narrower interorbital and a 
sharper lower jaw, viewed from above, than does wrayi. 

In gonopodial characters wrayi may be considered to show but little 
other than a general similarity to beebei. The bowing of ray 5 below the 
terminal hook appears greater in Regan’s figure (Regan, 1913, Text-Fig. 


310 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


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168b) but in the type in hand this is much less evident. It is in the spines 
of ray 3 that the greatest differences are observed. In wrayi they are short 
and scarcely overtop the terminal hook of ray 4, and the basal limb is short 
and not prolonged. In beebei, even in the smaller males, the spines are 
much longer, considerably overtopping ray 4, and the long basal limbs are 
well developed. 

Thus, in spite of resemblances to wrayi , it would seem that beebei is 
an isolated member of the genus Gambusia with no very close relatives 
among the known forms. Possibly its relationships are to be sought in 
some yet-to-be-discovered species in Jamaica, in Cuba, or even in Hispaniola. 

Since the above was written, Breder (1934) has described Gambusia 
hubbsi from Andros Island, Bahamas. This small fish is similar to manni, 
oligosticta and puncticulala, and is not at all closely related to our new form. 

Habits and habitat: This species is known only from the type col- 
lection and nothing is recorded of its habits other than that the specimens 
were obtained with a 20-foot seine on a sandy beach. Lake Miragoane is a 
fresh-water lake. 

Remarks: With punctata of Cuba, this is the largest Gambusia known. 
Eigenmann (1903, p. 223) has recorded a punctata 92 mm. in length, but 
whether this includes caudal or not I cannot say. The largest female beebei 
is 93 mm. total, a very large Gambusia indeed. 

I take pleasure in dedicating this interesting species to Dr. William 
Beebe in recognition of his extensive ichthyological work in Haiti. 

Subfamily Poeciliinae 
Genus Mollienisia Le Sueur 
Mollienisia dominicensis (Evermann & Clark) 

Platypoecilus dominicensis Evermann and Clark, 1906, p. 852, fig. 2 
(San Francisco Mts., Santo Domingo, 40 miles from Santo Domingo City). 

Limia dominicensis (in part) Regan, 1913, p. 1015 (excluding descrip- 
tion and all of synonymy save reference to Evermann and Clark) . 

Limia caudofasciata (not of Regan) Nichols and Myers, 1923, p. 2 
(Lo Bracita, Prov. Pacificador, S. D.). 

Mollienisia dominicensis Myers, 1931, p. 2 (Lo Bracita, Prov. Pacifica- 
dor, S. D.; Artibonite System, Haiti). 

Diagnosis: A small Mollienisia with a small dorsal fin, the origin of 
which is midway between the head (females) or the eye (males) and the 
caudal base. The normal number of dorsal rays is 8% and of anal rays 9%. 
The lateral series of scales number 28 to 30. In the male, the first pelvic 
ray is short, with a conspicuous, fleshy, clavate tip which is closely attached 
to a broad bony protuberance of the second ray at the middle of the latter. 
Gonopodium with the membranous hook of ray 3 and the terminal retrorse 
segment of the posterior branch of ray 5 well-developed. Ray 3 with more 
or less well-developed spinous processes on the posterior side, as in M. lati- 
pinna. The chief gonopodial difference between this species and M. sphenops , 
M. latipinna, and their close relatives lies in the spinous processes of the an- 
terior face of ray 3. In the other forms these are simple spines. In M. 
dominicensis , on the contrary, these processes are nearly all widely T-shaped 
or even faintly bifurcate at their tips, only a very few (sometimes only one) 
of the distal processes being developed as simple spines. Color dark, the 
scales of the upper parts heavily dark edged. Both sexes with a black spot 
(stronger in females) at the base of the posterior dorsal rays, the fin dark- 
edged in males. Males with six to ten narrow, blackish, vertical bars, much 
narrower than the interspaces, from dorsum to venter, beginning above the 
anal base. Female with faint traces of vertical bars. 


1935 ] Myers: Cyprinodont Fishes of Hispaniola 


311 



Fig. 276. Mollienisia dominicensis (Evermann and Clark). Adult female, 
L’Atalaye Plantation, Haiti. Twice natural size. 



Fig. 277. Mollienisia dominicensis (Evermann and Clark). Adult male, 
L’Atalaye Plantation, Haiti. Twice natural size. 


The rather striking differences between this species and others in the 
genus Mollienisia , particularly in the gonopodium, lead me to propose the 
new subgenus Psychropoecilia, genotype Platypoecilus dominicensis , the 
name being in allusion to the clear mountain torrents which are the habitat 
of the species. 

This is the species described by Evermann and Clark (1906) as Platy- 
poecilus dominicensis . However, the confusion which has arisen since Regan 
erroneously synonymized the species with Limia dominicensis (Cuvier and 
Valenciennes) leads me to believe that it would be much better to rename 
the Mollienisia. Further, according to one interpretation, Jordan and Clark’s 
name, having once been sunk as a homonym (and synonym) of Limia do- 
minicensis (Cuvier and Valenciennes), cannot be resuscitated. I submitted 
the facts to Dr. C. W. Stiles, Secretary of the International Commission of 
Zoological Nomenclature, for his private opinion, and he assures me that, 
under a strict application of the Rules, the species must be renamed. In 
spite of the fact that I believe the renaming of Evermann and Clark’s 
species would clarify the situation, I cannot subscribe to the view that the 
mere synonymizing of a species with another bearing an identical specific 
name is sufficient cause for renaming the species of later date. General ac- 
ceptance of such procedure would leave the way open for anyone to (erro- 


312 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [X;3 

neously) synonymize many species, even of different genera, with the mo- 
tive of renaming them himself at a later date. 

Besides the material recorded by Nichols and Myers (1923) and Myers 
(1931), I have examined a fine series of 250 specimens of M. dominicensis 
(U. S. N. M. 88884, 100286, and 100287) collected in a small mountain 
stream, in the Artibonite system, at l’Atalaye Plantation, about 3 miles west 
of San Michel, Haiti, during March, 1928, by A. J. Poole, as well as the 
holotype of the species in the National Museum. 


Genus Limia Poey 

Limia perugiae (Evermann & Clark) 

Platypoecilus perugiae Evermann and Clark, 1906, p. 851 (San Fran- 
cisco Mts., S. D.). 

Limia perugiae Myers, 1925, p. 371 (name only). 

This species, which is still known only from a single female specimen, 
is probably a Limia. It appears to be very close to L. melanonotata but it is 
more slender and the caudal peduncle is much longer. I have examined 
the type and find that the distance from the end of the base of the anal 
fin to the first short supplementary lower caudal rays is much greater than 
the body depth at the origin of the dorsal, while in young melanonotata of 
the same size this measurement is much less than the body depth at the 
dorsal origin. Further, perugiae was taken in the mountains of southeastern 
Santo Domingo, while melanonotata is essentially a fish of the lowlands 
of Haiti. 

Limia melanonotata Nichols and Myers 

Limia melanonotata Nichols and Myers, 1923, p. 1 (Las Lajas, on L. 
Saumatre, S.D.). 

This species, as yet known only from the type series of females and 
one female from Maneville, Haiti, appears to be the largest, most striking, 
and most abundant Poeciliid of the Cul-de-Sac Plain. It is a deep-bodied 
fish very close to L. nigrofasciata Regan, but is distinguished by a number 
of characters. The younger females are marked with a few series of black 
spots down the middle of the sides which fade out slightly in the full grown 
adults of 60 mm. standard length. The male, which never develops the 
peculiar humpbacked profile of adult nigrofasciata , has a high, black 
dorsal fin and a yellow caudal with a wide, black, terminal border. There 
are several narrow, vertical, dark bars on the posterior part of the body. 

The finest and largest specimens I have seen were the series taken in 
Source Trou Caiman by Dr. A. W. Herre and Dr. R. M. Bond.. 

Dr. Beebe and Mr. Tee-Van secured this species in great abundance 
in fitang Saumatre, and from a locality 5 miles north of Port-au-Prince. 


Limia nigrofasciata Regan 

Limia nigrofasciata Regan, 1913, p. 1015, pi. 101, fig. 1, 2 (Miragoane, 
Haiti) ; Nichols and Myers, 1923, p. 1 (Las Lajas, S.D.; Maneville, Haiti). 

Limia arnoldi Regan, 1913, p. 1016, pi. 101, fig. 5 (Miragoane, Haiti). 

Through the courtesy of Mr. J. R. Norman of the British Museum I 
have been able to examine two of Regan’s types of Limia arnoldi, and I am 
fully in agreement with Rachow (1914, p. 194, footnote 8) that the species 
was based on subadult examples of nigrofasciata. Regan’s material of 
arnoldi and nigrofasciata consisted of aquarium specimens sent to him by 


1935] Myers : Cyprinodont Fishes of Hispaniola 


313 


Rachow and by J. P. Arnold, the two distinguished aquarists of Hamburg. 
These men knew this species well in aquaria and Rachow’s opinion was 
certainly to be relied on. 

Nigro fas data is a very variable species, as shown by the large series 
I have examined, and the younger adult males are very different from the 
old humpbacked individuals such as the one Regan figured. 

The species is abundant in the Cul-de-Sac Plain and about fitang 
Saumatre. Beebe and Tee-Van obtained a fine series at Lake Miragoane, 
the type locality. 

Limia dominicensis (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

Poecilia dominicensis Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1846, p. 131, pi. 526, 
fig. 1 (Santo Domingo). 

Limia dominicensis (in part) Regan, 1913, p. 1015 (on type material; 
excluding types of Poecilia melanogaster and Platypoecilus dominicensis 
Evermann and Clark in synonymy). 

This species was the first Poeciliid known from Hispaniola, although 
judging from the material I have seen, it is one of the rarest. Regan had 
two of Cuvier and Valenciennes’ types, and he referred Gunther’s five 
female types of Poecilia melanogaster to the species, as well as including 
Evermann and Clark’s Platypoecilus dominicensis. The latter is, as indi- 
cated above, a Mollienisia. Through the courtesy of Mr. J. R. Norman, I 




Fig. 279. Limia dominicensis (Cuvier and Valenciennes). Male type (cotype) of Poecilia 
dominicensis Cuvier and Valenciennes. 2% times natural size. The cheek and 
opercular scales have fallen off the specimen. 


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[X;S 


have been able to examine one of the types of melanogaster and to compare 
it with a male and female from the type lot of Poecilia dominicensis 
Cuvier and Valenciennes, received by exchange from the Paris Museum 
through the good offices of Dr. J. Pellegrin. (These two types of domini- 
censis are now U.S.N.M. 94584.) I have no hesitation in pronouncing 
melanogaster to be a different species. The type locality of melanogaster 
is not certainly known, but Gunther (1866, p. 346) thought the types 
might be from Jamaica. The type examined by me seems to be the same as 
a Jamaican Limia very close to L. caudofasciata Regan. Limia melano- 
gaster is then, a Jamaican fish 8 differing from caudofasciata chiefly in the 
stouter body, the coloration, and the very large, black “pregnant spot” 
developed by the females. Males of melanogaster frequently have a 
smaller black spot in the same position! 

The only examples of Limia dominicensis yet known appear to be the 
types, from an unknown locality in Santo Domingo. The two I have seen are 
small fish, with the color much faded. There are seven or eight faint ver- 
tical bars, similar to those of nigrofasciata and the female has a black spot 
at the base of the posterior dorsal rays. The body is fairly elongate and the 
dorsal of the male is not enlarged. 


Limia ornata Regan 

Limia ornata Regan, 1913, p. 1016, pi. 101, fig. 7 (Haiti). 

This boldly spotted species was described from five females. It has 
been well known in Germany as an aquarium fish and has been described and 
figured many times in German aquarium books and journals. Dr. Beebe and 
Mr. Tee- Van secured a fine series at Lake Miragoane. 


Limia heterandria Regan 

Limia heterandria Regan, 1913, p. 1017, pi. 101, fig. 3, 4 (La Guayra, 
Venezuela, in error); Myers, 1925, p. 371 (on type of H. zonata Nichols), 

Heterandria zonata Nichols, 1915, p. 603, fig. 3 (Sanchez, Samana 
Peninsula, S. D.). 

I have already indicated that zonata is a synonym of heterandria and 
that the type locality of the latter species, which was based on aquarium 
specimens from Germany, must be incorrect. 


Limia nicholsi Myers 

Heterandria versicolor (not of Gunther) Nichols, 1915, p. 603, fig. 1, 2 
(San Juan River at Samana, S. D.). 

Limia nicholsi Myers, 1931, p. 1 (San Juan River at Samana, S. D.; 
on Nichols’ material). 

This species is known only from the types. 


Limia versicolor (Gunther) 

? Poecilia dominicensis (not of Cuvier and Valenciennes; in part) 
Gunther, 1866, p. 346 (Santo Domingo; excluding Barbados specimen). 

8 This fish has been described and figured as a new species, Limia tricolor, by Stoye 
(1933). It is also mentioned and figured by Stoye (1935, p. 65, pi. 14) and by Innes (1935, 
p. 298, fig.). Stoye mentioned no types in his original description, but examples have been 
deposited by him in the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. 


1935 ] Myers: Cyprinodont Fishes of Hispaniola 


315 


Girardinus versicolor Gunther, 1866, p. 352 (Santo Domingo). 

? Poe cilia ( A crop oe cilia) tridens Hilgendorf, 1889, p. 52 (Port-au- 
Prince, Haiti). 

Limia versicolor Regan, 1913, p. 1017, text-fig. 173E (Santo Domingo). 

I am not at all sure that Hilgendorf's Poecilia tridens refers to this 
species. I have seen only three specimens certainly referable to versicolor. 
They were collected by Dr. Beebe and Mr. Tee- Van at Source Mariani, 
Haiti. 


LITERATURE CITED 

Breder, C. M., Jr. 

1932. An annotated list of fishes from Lake Forsyth, Andros Island, Ba- 
hamas, with descriptions of three new forms. Amer. Mus. Novit., 
No. 551, pp. 1-8, figs. 1-3. 

1934. A new Gambusia from Andros Island, Bahamas. Amer. Mus. 
Novit., No. 719, pp. 1-3, figs. 1-2. 

Cuvier, G., and Valenciennes, A. 

1846. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Vol. 18. 

Eigenmann, Carl H. 

1903. The fresh-water fishes of Western Cuba. Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
vol. 22, 1902, pp. 211-236, pis. 19-21. 

Evermann, B. W., and Clark, H. W. 

1906. New fishes from Santo Domingo. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 30, 
pp. 851-855, fig. 1-3. 

Gunther, A. 

1866. Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. Vol. 6. 

Hilgendorf, F. 

1889. Ueber eine Fischsammlung von Haiti, welche 2 neue Arten, 
Poecilia (subg. n. Acropoecilia) tridens und Eleotris maltzani, 
enthalt. Sitzb. Gesel. Naturf. Freunde, Berlin, 1889, pp. 51-55. 

Hubbs, Carl L. 

1926. Studies of the fishes of the order Cyprinodontes. VI. Material 
for a revision of the American genera and species. Misc. Publ., 
Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan, No. 16, pp. 1-87. 

1927. Studies of the fishes of the order Cyprinodontes. VII. Gambusia 
manni , a new species from the Bahamas. Copeia, No. 164, pp. 
61-66. 

1929. Studies of the fishes of the order Cyprinodontes. VIII. Gambusia 
gaigei, a new species from the Rio Grande. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool., 
Univ. Michigan, No. 198, pp. 1-11. 

INNES, W. T. 

1935. Exotic aquarium fishes, a work of general reference. 1st ed. 
Philadelphia. 

Jordan, D. S., and Evermann, B. W. 

1896. The fishes of North and Middle America. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
No. 47, vol. 1. 

Myers, G. S. 

1925. Results of some recent studies on the American killifishes. The 
Fish Culturist, Philadelphia, vol. 4, No. 8, pp. 370-371. 

1927. An analysis of the genera of Neotropical killifishes allied to 
Rivulus. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 9, vol. 19, pp. 115-129. 

1931. Poeciliid fishes of the genus Mollienisia in Hispaniola, with notice 
of a new Limia from the Samana Peninsula. Amer. Mus. Novit., 
No. 503, pp. 1-2. 


316 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[X; 3 


Nichols, J. T. 

1914. Gobiosoma longum and Rivulus heyei, new fishes from the West 
Indian fauna. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 33, pp. 143-144, 
1 fig. 

1915. On Heterandria zonata sp. nov. and Heterandria versicolor (Gun- 
ther) from the island of San Domingo. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., vol. 34, pp. 603-604, figs. 1-3. 

Nichols, J. T., and Myers, G. S. 

1923. A new Limia from San Domingo. Amer. Mus. Novit., No. 79, 

pp. 1-2. 

POEY, F. 

1868. Synopsis Piscium Cubensium. Repertorio Fisico-Naturale Isl. 
Cuba, vol. 2, pp. 279-484. 

Rachow, A. 

1914. Zur Nomenklatur unserer viviparen Zahnkarpfen (Poeciliinae) , 
nebst Bemerkungen fiber einige neue Arten. Blatt. ffir Aquarien- 
und Terrarienkunde, vol. 25, No. 11, pp. 185-199, fig. 1-22. 

Regan, C. Tate 

1913. A revision of the Cyprinodont fishes of the subfamily Poeciliinae. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1913, pp. 977-1018, pis. 99-101. 

Stoye, F. H. 

1933. A new steel-blue Limia from Jamaica. The Home Aquarium Bul- 
letin, East Orange, New Jersey, vol. 3, no. 6, August, 1933, pp. 
12-14, 1 Text-fig. 

1935. Tropical fishes for the home, their care and propagation. 2nd ed., 
New York. 


Zoologica, Volume X, Number 4 


ADDITIONS TO THE FISH FAUNA OF HAITI AND 
SANTO DOMINGO 1 

William Beebe, Sc. D. 

Director, Department of Tropical Research 

and 

John Tee-Van 

General Associate, Department of Tropical Research 

In 1927 the Haitian Expedition of the Department of 
Tropical Research of the New York Zoological Society, under 
the direction of Dr. William Beebe, spent five months in the 
field studying the fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay and nearby 
territory. The present paper completes the reports on the fishes 
of that expedition. 

For a summary of the species of fish known from the island 
the reports published in Zoologica, Vol. X, Nos. 1, 2 and 3, 
must be consulted and to these should be added the list of 
species noted in this paper. This list is composed of species re- 
ported from Haiti-Santo Domingo, the references to which had 
either been omitted from the previous papers or had appeared 
after they were issued. There is also one correction of identifi- 
cation, and one species added from an unpublished record. 

The three published fish reports of the expedition, men- 
tioned above, are as follows : 

“The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti, With a Summary 
of the Known Species of Marine Fish of the Island of Haiti and 
Santo Domingo/’ William Beebe and John Tee-Van, ZOOLOGICA, 
Scientific Contributions of the New -York Zoological Society, 
Vol. X, No. 1, 1928, pp, 1-279. 

“Cichlid Fishes in the West Indies with Especial Reference 
to Haiti, Including the Description of a New Species of Cichla- 
soma,” John Tee-Van, Zoologica, Vol. X, No. 2, 1935, pp. 281-300. 


1 Contribution No. 477, Department of Tropical Research, New York Zoological Society. 

317 


[X; 4 


318 Zoologica : N. Y. Zoological Society 

“An Annotated List of the Cyprinodont Fishes of His- 
paniola, with Descriptions of Two New Species,” George S. 
Myers, Zoologica, Yol. X, No. 3, 1935, pp. 301-316. 


ADDITIONAL SPECIES RECORDED FROM THE ISLAND OF 
HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO 

Family Syngnathidae 
Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg 

Ginsburg, I., Journ. Washington Acad. Sci., Vol. 23, No. 12, 1933, p. 561. 
Family Mugilidae 

Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 

Fowler, H. W., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Vol. 71, 1919, p. 153. 

Family Centropomidae 
Centropomus cuvieri Bocourt 

Fowler, H. W., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Vol. 58, 1906, p. 428. (This 
species has been synonymized with C. pedimacula, which in turn has 
been placed under C. pectinatus). 

Family Haemulidae 

Haemulon album Cuvier and Valenciennes 

Fowler, H. W., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Vol. 81, 1929, p. 638. 

Anisotremus surinamensis (Bloch) 

Fowler, H. W., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Vol. 81, 1929, p. 640. 

Family Gerridae 

Eucinostomus harengulus Goode and Bean 

Fowler, H. W., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Vol. 81, 1929, p. 646. (This 
species has been synomized at various times under E. pseudogula and 
also under E. calif omiensis ) . 

Family Sciaenidae 
Bairdiella chrysura (Lacepede) 

Fowler, H. W., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Vol. 80, 1928, p. 462. 

Umbrina broussonnettii Cuvier and Valenciennes. 

Fowler, H. W., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Vol. 81, 1929, p. 653. (Re- 
corded as Sciaena broussonnettii). 

? Stellifer rastrifer Jordan and Eigenmann. 

Fowler, H. W., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Vol. 81, 1929, p. 651. (Lo- 
cality of specimen not certain). 

Family Coridae 

Iridio bivittata (Bloch) 

In Zoologica, Vol. X, No. 1, p. 203, this species was included, following 
Meek and Hildebrand’s conclusions, under Halichoeres radiatus. Meek 
and Hildebrand, as has already been noted (Zoologica, Vol. XIII, No. 


1935 ] Tee-Van: Fish Fauna of Haiti and Santo Domingo 319 


7, 1933, p. 150) were quite wrong in merging these two forms, and it is 
therefore necessary to reestablish this as a valid Haitian species. 

Family Scaridae 

Scarus emblemcuticus Jordan and Rutter 

Fowler, H. W., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Vol. 80, 1928, p. 462 (Re- 
corded as Callyodon emblematicus) . 

Family Gobiidae 

Bollmania litura Ginsburg 

Ginsburg, I., Smithsonian Misc. Coll., Vol. 91, No. 20, 1935, p. 1. 

Family Antennariidae 
Antennarius nuttingi Garman 

Two specimens of this species from Jeremie, Haiti, are in the collections 
of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge. 



jBLeto fgorfe Zoological B>otktp 

Scientific Publications 

A completely classified list of the subjects included 
in each of the finished volumes of Zoologica, and all 
other publications of the New York Zoological Society 
will be furnished on application. 

Address 

H. R. MITCHELL 

Manager y Zoological Park 

185th St. and Southern Boulevard, New York City 



> 




Zoologica, Volume X, Numbers 1-1\ 


ini) ex 


Ablennes Jordan and Fordice 1886, 65-66 
hians (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 8, 65- 
66 

Abudefduf Forskal 1775, 192, 198 
saxatilis (Linnaeus), 12, 198 
Acanthemblemaria Metzelaar 1919, 244-249 
key to species, 244 
arbor escens new sp., 14, 244-246 
spinosa Metzelaar, extralimited, 244 
variegata new sp., 14, 244, 247-248 
Acanthuridae, 12, 20, 183-185 
Acanthurus Forskal 1775, 183-185 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
183-184 

bahianuti Castelnau, 12, 184-185 
caeruleus Block and Schneider, 12, 183, 
184 

hepalus (Linnaeus), 12, 183, 185 
Achiridae, 9, 25, 76-77, 277 
Achirus Lacepede 1803, 76-77 
inscriptus Gosse, 277 
lineatus (Linne), 9, 76-77 
Adds Jordan 1904, 228, 235 

moorei (Evermann and Marsh), 14, 235 
A'etobatus narinari (Euphrasen), 7, 31 
Agonostomus, 301 

microps Gunther, 9, 92 
monticola (Bancroft), 9, 91-92, 162, 298 
percoides Gunther, 91, 277 
Ahlia egmontis (Jordan), 8, 51-52 
Albula Gronow 1763, 37-39 

vulpes (Linnaeus), 7 , 37, 56 
Albulidae, 7, 25, 37-39, 276 
Alectis Rafinesque 1815, 103, 113, 
ciliaris (Bloch), 10. 113. 

Alphestes Bloch and Schneider 1801, 124, 131 
afer (Bloch), 10, 131 
lightfooti (Fowler), 277 
American Museum of Natural History, 5, 
104 

Amia Gronow 1763, 118-120 . 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
118 

binotatus Poey, 10, 118-119 
pigmentarius (Poey), 10, 118, 119-120, 
121 

Amiidae, 10, 21, 118-120 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 118 
Anacantbini, 8, 73 
Anchovia clupeoides (Swainson), 276 
Anchoviella Fowler 1911, 45-49, 122, 151 

key to Port-au-Prince Bav species, 
45 

choerostoma (Goode), 7, 45, 47 

epsetus (Bonnaterre) , 7, 44, 45, 46-47, 

98 

longipinna new sp., 7, 45, 48-49 
lyolepis (Evermann and Marsh), 7, 45, 
47-48 

perfasdatus (Poey), 276 
Anchovy, Bonnaterre’s, 46-47 
long-pectoralled, 48-49 
whalebone, 49-50 
Angel-fish, 183 

black, 181-182 

Angelichthys Jordan and Evermann 1896, 
183 

dliaris (Linnaeus), 12, 183 
Anguilla rostrata (Le Sueur), 8, 50-51 
Anguillidae, 8, 24, 50-52 
Anisotremus Gill 1861, 154, 162-163 
surinamensis (Bloch), 318 
virginicus (Linnaeus), 11, 162-163 
Antennariidae, 15, 19, 270-271, 319 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 270 


Antennarius Lacepede 1798, 270. 271 
inops Poey, 15, 271 
nuttingi Garman, 319 
Aphanius, 303 
Apodes, 8, 50-59, 276 
Apogonichthys Bleeker 1859, 121 
stellatus Cope, 10, 121 

Arbaciosa Jordan and Evermann 1896, 14, 
251, 252-253 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
252 

rupestris (Poey), 14, 252 
sp., 14, 252-253 
Archosargus Gill 1865, 166 

unimaculatus (Bloch), 11, 166 
Argente, 148-149 
Arnold, J. P., 313 
Artibonite River, Haiti, 287 
Athcrina harringtonensis araea (Jordan and 
Gilbert), 9, 89 

harringtonensis harringtonensis , 89 
Atlierinidae, 9, 26, 88-89 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 88 
Auchenistius Evermann and Marsh 1899, 
228, 240-241 

stahli Evermann and Marsh, 14, 240- 
241 

Auchenopterus fajardo, 221 
Aulostomi, 9, 86-87 
Aulostomidae, 9, 23, 86-87 
Aulostomus Lacepede 1803, 86-87 

maculatus Valenciennes, 9, 86-87, 88 
Auxis thazard (Lacepede), 9. 99-100 

Bairdiella Gill 1861, 172. 174 
chrysura (Lacepede), 318 
ronchus (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 12, 
174 

Baker, George F., 5 
Balaju, 69-71 
Balao, 66-68, 69-71 
Batistes Linnaeus 1758, 253-254 
vetula Linnaeus, 14, 253 
Balistidae, 14, 23, 253-254 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 253 
Bally-hoo, 66-68, 69-71 
Barbados cichlid fishes, 282, 298 
Barbaray jaune et gris, 171-172 
rouge, 171 
Barbero, 184 
Barbudo, 96 
Barracuda, great, 93-94 
guachancho, 94-95 
picudilla, 95 

Bass, purple and gold fairy, 143-144 
sea-, 124-133, 201 
Batfish, long-snouted, 272-273 
reticulated, 274—275 
short-snouted, 273-274 
Bathygobius Bleeker 1878, 221 

soporator (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 13, 
221 

Bathystoma Scudder 1863, 154, 155-156 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
155 

rimator (Jordan and Swain), 11, 155-156 
striatum (Linnaeus), 11, 156 
Batoidei, 7, 30-32, 276 
Baucket, 206-207 
Beebe, William, 281 

Beebe. William, “Beneath Tropic Seas,” , 
192, 260 

Beebe, William, “A Tarpon Nursery in 
Haiti,” 34-36 

Beebe, William and John Tee-Van, Addi- 

( 321 ) 


322 


Zoologica 


[Volume X 


tions to the Fisli Fauna of Haiti and 
Santo Domingo, 317-319 
Beebe, William and John Tee Wan, The 
Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti, 
with a Summary of the Known Species 
of Marine Fish of the Island of Haiti 
and Santo Domingo, 1-279 

(Figs. 1-268 inch and Plate A) 
Belonidae, 8, 24, 63-65. 277 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 63 
Berry, E. W„ 291, 300 
Berwind, John C., 5 
Berycoidei, 9 : 78-83 
Big-eye, spineless, 144-145 
Bingham Oceanographical Collection, Pea- 
body Museum, 5 
Bizoton shore, Haiti, 1 
Black angel, 181-182 
Blanquilla, Plumier’s, 177-178 
Blennidae, 14, 22, 241-244 
Blennies, 228-250 

Blenny, bushy-headed spiny, 244-246 
Cope’s two-spotted, 229-231 
coral scaleless, 249-250 
fa jar do, 239-240 
fringe-naped, 231 
green Thalassia, 240-241 
Haitian snake, 242-244 
Haitian spotted, 232-233 
marbled, 236-237 
Moore’s, 235 
rough-scaled, 229 
tri-ocellated, 238-239 
variegated spiny-headed, 247—248 
white-cheeked, 233-235 
Bodianus rufa (Linne), 13, 200, 201-202 
Bollmania litura Ginsburg, 319 
Bond, Dr. R. M., 292, 304, 312 
Bone-fish, 37-39 
Booy, Mr. de, 301 

Borno, President and Madame, 3, 133 
Bothidae, 8, 25, 73-76, 277 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 73 
Bout-de-tabac, 141-142 
Bouze, 253 

Brachygenys Scudder 1868, 154, 157 
chrysargeus (Gunther), 11, 157 
Branchiostegidae, 278 

Brannerella culebrae (Evermann and Marsh), 
14, 228, 236-237 
Bravo, Pablo L., 301 

Breder, C. M., jr„ 5, 193, 206, 207, 304, 310, 
315 

Bregmaceros Thompson 1840, 73 

atlanticus Goode and Bean, 8, 73 
Bregmacerotidae, 8, 22, 73 
Brewster. Robert, 5 
British Museum, 309 
Bumper, 110-112 
Bureteado, 154-155 
Burr-fish, Cuvier’s 269-270 
Butterfly-fish, 179, 180 

Cabezon, 176 
Cabrilla, 129-130 
Caco gris, 160 
Caconeta, 28 

Calamus Swainson 1839, 163-165 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 

163 

arctifrons Goode and Bean, 11, 163, 165 
bajanado (Bloch and Schneider), 11, 163, 
164-165 

calamus (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 11, 
163-164 

proridens Jordan and Gilbert, 11, 163, 

164 

Callyodon emblematicus, 319 
Candil, 78-79 

Cantherines pullus (Ranzani), 14, 255 
Canthidermis sobaco Poey, 14, 254 
Canthigaster Swainson 1839, 266-267 
rostratus (Bloch), 15, 266-267 


Canthigasteridae, 15, 23, 266-267 
Caran, 109-110 

Carangidae, 10, 19, 20, 103-117 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 
103-104 

Caranx Lacepede 1802, 103, 106-110 

key to Port-au-Prince Bav species, 
106 

bartholomaei Cuvier and Valenciennes, 
10, 106, 108 

cry sos (Mitchill), 10, 106, 109-110 
hippos (Linnaeus), 10, 106-107 
latus Agassiz, 10, 73, 106, 108 
ruber (Bloch), 10, 106, 109 
Carbonero, 109 
Carcharinidae, 7, 23, 27-30 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 27 
Carcharinus Blainville 1816, 27, 28 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
28 

falciformis (Bibron), 7, 28-29 
limbatus (Muller and Henle), 7. 28 
megalodon, 278 
Card claire, 147-148 
Carde gris, 152 

roulesse, 150-151 
Cardinal fish, peppered, 119-120 
spot-finned, 121 
two-spotted, 118-119 
Cartinau, 79-80 
Casabe, 110-112 
Catalineta, 182-183 
Cataphracti, 12, 186-191 
Caulolatilus chrysops (Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes), 278 
Ca valla, blue-striped, 109 
Cavally, 106-107 
Cazard, 97-98 

Central America, cichlid fishes of, 285, 298, 
299 

Centropomidae, 10, 20, 121-124, 277, 318 
Centropomus Lacepede 1803, 121-124 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
121 

cuvier i Bocourt, 318 

ensiferus Poey, 10, 121, 123-124 

gabbi Fowler, 277 

parallelus Poey, 277 

pectinatus Poey, 10, 121-122, 318 

pedimacula, 318 

undecimalis (Bloch), 10, 121, 122-123 
Cephalacanth idae , 12, 22, 24, 191-192 
Cephalacanthus volitans (Linnaeus), 12, 191- 
192 

Cephalopholis Bloch and Schneider 1801, 
124-126 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay sub- 
species, 124 

fulvus punctatus (Linnaeus), 10, 124, 
125.-126 

fulvus ruber (Bloch and Schneider), 10, 
124-125 

Ceratacanthus Gill 1861, 259-261 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
259 

schoepfi (Walbaum), 14, 259-260 
scripta (Osbeck), 14, 260-261 
Cetengraulis Gunther 1868, 45, 49-50 
edentulus (Cuvier), 7, 49-50, 98, 122 
Chaenopsidae, 14, 22, 249-250 
Chaetodipteridae, 12, 178-179 
Chaetodipterus Lacepede 1803, 178-179 
faber (Broussonet) , 12, 178-179 
Chaetodon capistratus Linnaeus, 12, 180 
ocellatus Bloch, 278 
striatus Linnaeus, 12, 179-180 
Chaetodontidae, 12, 21, 179-183, 278 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 179 
Cherna, 131 

Americana, 128 

Chilomycterus Bibron 1846, 267, 269-270 
antennatus (Cuvier), 15, 269-270 
Chirivita, 181 


Numbers 1-4] 


Index 


323 


Chirocentrodon Gunther 1868, 39, 43 
taeniatus Gunther, 7, 43 
Chiropsalmus, 111 

Chloroscombrus Girard 1858, 103, 110-112 
chrysurus (Linnaeus), 10, 94, 102, 108, 
110-112 

Chonophorus Poey 1860, 221-222 

taiasica (Lichtenstein), 13, 221-222 
Chopa blanca, 166-167 
Chopin, 261, 262 
Chromides, 12, 192-200 
Chromis, blue, 193-194 
brown, 194-195 
Chromis Cuvier 1815, 192-194 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
192 

cyaneus (Poey), 12, 192, 193-194 
rnarginatus (Castelnau), 12, 192, 193, 
194 

Chub, 166-167 

Bermuda, 166-167 
Cibi Mancho, 109 
Cichlasoma, 279 

(Fig. 272), 296 

adspersum (Gunther 1862), 282, 283 
fuscomaculatus, 283 

haitiensis, new sp., 290, 291, 292, 294- 
299 

(Fig. 269), 289, (Fig. 270), 294, 
(Fig. 271), 296 
nigricans, 283 
octofasciatum (Regan), 283 
tetracanthus, 282, 286, 294, 298, 299 
woodringi Cockerell, 279, 286, 291, 292, 
299 

Cichlid Fishes in the West Indies with 
Especial Reference to Haiti, including 
the Description of a New Species of 
Cichlasoma, by John Tee-Van, 281-300 
(Figs. 269-272 incl.) 
introduction, 281-282 
cichlid fishes in the West Indian Islands 
exclusive of Haiti, 282-286 
cichlid fishes in the Island of Haiti, 286 
identification of the contemporary 
Haitian species and comparison 
with the Cuban form, 286-290 
comparison of the contemporary Hai- 
tian species with the fossil Haitian 
form, 290-294 

description of a new species of Haitian 
cichlid fish, Cichlasoma haitiensis, 
294-297 

natural history notes, 297-298 
summary, 298-299 
references, 300 

Cichlidae, 1 , 218, 276, 279, 281-300 
Cigar-fish, 104-105 
Citharichthys Bleeker 1862, 75-76 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
75 

spilopterus Gunther, 8, 73, 75, 76 
uhleri Jordan, 8, 75 

Clepticus parrae (Bloch and Schneider), 13, 

200, 202 

Clingfish, large-eyed, 251-252 
red, 252-253 
rock-living, 252 
Clinidae, 14, 22, 228-240 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 228 
Clupanodon pseudohispanicus (Poey), 7, 39- 
40 

Clupeidae, 7, 25, 39-43, 276 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 39 
Cockerell, T. D. A., 286, 290, 291, 292, 293, 
299, 300 

Cockeye pilot, 198 
Coif re, 262 

Collecting methods, 2 

Conodon Cuvier and Valenciennes 1830, 154- 
155 

nobilis (Linnaeus), 11, 154-155 
Ceridae, 13, 21, 202-207, 278, 318 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 202 
Cornet-fishes, 87-88 


Corvina, 176 

Corvula subaequalis (Poey), 278 
Coryphaena Linnaeus 1758, 101 
hippurus Linnaeus, 10, 101 
Coryphaenidae, 10, 20, 21, 101 
Cow-fish, 263 
Cow-pilot, 198 

Cremnobates Gunther 1861, 228, 237-240 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
237 

argus new sp., 14, 237, 238-239 
fajardo (Evermann and Marsh), 14, 
239-240 
Creole, 134, 202 
Crevalle toro, 106-107 
Croaker, brown large-eyed, 176—177 
spongy-headed, 173 
Crosby, Floyd, 5 

Cryptotomus auropunctatus Cuvier and Va- 
lenciennes, 278 

ustus (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 13, 
207-208 

Cuban cichlid fishes, 282-299 
Cuban cyprinodons, 304 
Cuckold, 263 
Cutlass-fish, 100-101 
Cyanea, 111 

? Cylindrosteus scabriceps Fowler, 276 
Cynoglossidae, 9, 25, 77-78 
Cynoscion jamaicensis (Vaillant and Bo- 
court), 12, 177 
Cyprinodon, 302 

Lacepede, 302-304 
bondi, 302, 303-304 
carpio, 303 
diabolis, 303. 
elegans, 303 
felicianus, 304 
macularius, 303 
variegatus river endi, 304 
Cyprinodont Fishes of Hispaniola, An 
annotated List of the, with Descrip- 
tions of Two New Species, by George 
S. Myers, 301-316 

(Figs. 273-279 incl.) 

Cyprinodon tidae, 301-304 
Cyprinodontinae, 302-304 
Cypselurus Swainson 1839, 72-73 
bahiensis (Ranzani), 8, 72-73 

Dasyatidae, 7, 23, 30-31, 276 
Dasyatis say (Le Sueur), 276 
Decapterus Bleeker 1851, 103, 104-105 
punctatus (Agassiz), 10, 104-105 
Demoiselle, common, 195-196 
Haitian, 196-197 
white-spotted, soft-toothed, 200 
yellow-tailed, soft-toothed, 199 
Department of Tropical Research, Tenth 
Expedition, 1 

Diapterus Ranzani 1840, 167, 170 

olisthostomus (Goode and Bean), 278 
plumieri (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 278 
rhombeus (Cuvier), 11, 170 
Diodon Linnaeus 1758, 267-269 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
267 

holacanthus Linnaeus, 15, 267, 269 
hystrix Linnaeus, 15, 103, 151, 267, 
268-269 

Diodontidae, 15, 23, 267-269 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 267 
Diol pas bleu, 164-165 
Discocephali, 14, 227-228 
Dixonina nemoptera Fowler, 276 
Doctor-fish, 185 
Dogfish, Haitian, 26-27 
Dolphin, 20, 101 

Doratonotus Gunther 1862, 202, 206-207 
megalepis Gunther, 13, 206-207 
Dormitator Gill 1862, 217, 219 
maculatus (Bloch), 13, 219 
Doryrhamphus lineatus (Valenciennes), 9, 
84 

Drummer, ground, 174 


324 


Zoologica 


[Volume X 


Mongolar, 177 
white-mouthed, 172-173 
Drunken-fish, 261 
Du Pont, Coleman, 5 
Dules auriga, 142 

dispilurus Jordan and Evermann, 142 
subligarius, 142 
Dussumieridae, 7, 25, 43-45 

Echelidae, 8, 25, 51-52 
Echeneididae, 14, 24, 227-228 
Echeneis Linnaeus 1758, 227-228 

naucrates (Linnaeus), 14, 227-228 
Echidna catenata (Bloch), 276 
Eel, black-finned cusk, 251 
common, 50-51 
Moray, common spotted, 55 
Moray, olive-green, 54 
Moray, purple-mouthed, 54-55 
pike-headed, 51 
snake, black-spotted, 52-53 
snake, yellow-spotted, 53 
true, 50-51 
worm-, 51-52 

Eigenmann, C. H., 283, 284, 288, 289, 290, 
300, 310 

Eigenmann, C. H., “Catalogue of the Fresh- 
Water Fishes of Tropical and South 
Temperate America,” 283, 284 
Elasmobranchii, 7, 26-32, 246 
Eleotridae, 19, 217-219, 278 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 217 
Eleotris amblyopsis (Cope), 278 
mattzani Hilgendorf, 278 
pisonis Gmelin, 278 
smaragdus Hil, 278 
Elopidae, 7, 25, 32-33 
Elops saurus Linnaeus, 7, 32-33 
Emblemaria, 245 
Emblemariidae, 14, 22, 244-249 
Empetrichthys, 303 

Enchelycore nigricans Bonnaterre, 276 
Engraulidae, 7, 25, 46-49, 276 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 45 
Ephippidae, 21, 178-179 
Epinephelidae, 10, 21, 124-133, 277 
Epinephelus Bloch 1793, 124, 127-130 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
127-128 

flavolimbatus Poey, 277 
guttatus (Linnaeus), 10, 128, 129-130 
mono (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 10, 
127 128 

striatus (Bloch), 10, 128M29 
Equcs Bloch 1793, 172, 174-175 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
174 

lanceolatus (Linnaeus), 12, 174, 175 
punctatus Bloch and Schneider, 12, 174- 
175 

Esmerelda, 222-223 

Eucinostomus Baird and Girard 1854, 167- 
168 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species 
167 

calif or niensis (Gill), 11, 167, 168, 318 
quia (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 11, 
167-168 

harengulus Goode and Bean, 318 
pseudogula, 318 

Eudulus Fowler 1907, 134, 142-143 

dispilurus (Gunther), 11, 142-143 
Euleptorhamphus Gill 1859, 71 
velox Poey, 8, 71 
Euselachii, 7, 26-30 
Evermann, B, W. and H. W. Clark, 311 
Evermann and Marsh, “The Fishes of 
Porto Rico,” 2, 44, 47, 105, 114, 142, 
223, 229, 236, 237 

Evermannichthys Metzelaar 1919, 223-224 
metzelaari Hubbs, 13, 223-224 
Evorthodus breviceps Gill, 278 


Exocoetidae, 8, 24, 72-73 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 72 

Fadate, 153 
Field, Marshall, 5 
File-fish, 260-261 

common, 259-260 
dusky, 255 
Poey’s, 258-259 
reticulated, 256-257 
scrawled, 260-261 

Fish Fauna of Haiti and Santo Domingo, 
Additions to the, By William Beebe and 
John Tee-Van, 317-319 
“Fishes of North and Middle America,” by 
Jordan and Evermann, 44, 46, 53, 92, 
119, 194, 211, 212, 245 
(The) Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti, 
with a Summary of the Known Species 
of Marine Fish of the Island of Haiti 
and Santo Domingo, by Wiliam Beebe 
and John Tee-Van, 1-279 

(Figs. 1-268 incl. and Plate A) 
introduction with maps, 1-5 
(Plate A), 4 

systematic table of contents, 7-15 
list of new species, 16 
key to families, 17-26 
annotated list of fish of Port-au-Prince 
Bay, Haiti, 26-275 

marine fish recorded from Haiti and 
Santo Domingo, 276-279 
“ (The) Fishes of Porto Rico,” by Evermann 
and Marsh, 2, 44, 47, 105, 114, 142, 223. 
229, 236, 237 

Fistularia Linnaeus 1758, 87-88 
tabacaria Linnaeus, 9, 87-88 
Fistulariidae, 9, 23, 87-88 
Flammeo Jordan and Evermann 1898, 82-83 
marianus (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 9, 
82—83 

Flasher, 145-146 
Flat fish, 182 

Floridichthys, 302, 302-303 
Flounder, peacock. 74 
Flounders, 73-76 
Flyingfish, dark-winged, 72-73 
short- winged, 72 
Foufou avec piquant, 208-209 
sans piquant, 266 
Freeman, Dr. George F., 3, 5, 197 
Frere-Jacque, 78-79 
Frogfish, common, 270-271 
short-tentacled, 271 
Fry, hog-mouth, 47 
Fundulinae, 301-302 

Gaff-topsail, 117 
Galeorhinidae, 7, 23, 26-27 
Galeorhinus Blainville 1816, 26-27 
sp., 7, 26-27 
Galliwasp, 60-62 
Gambusia Poey, 304-310 
affinis, 307 

beebei new sp.. 305-310 
beebei Myers, (Figs. 273, 274), 306, (Fig. 
275), 308 

caymanensis, 307, 308 

dominicensis Regan, 304, 308. 309 

gracilior, 305, 307, 308, 309 

hubbsi, 310 

manni, 307, 308 

melapleura, 307, 308 

nicaraguensis, 307 

nobilis, 307 

punctata, 305, 308 

puncticulata, 308, 309 

senilis, 307 

vorayi, 305, 307, 308, 309 
? Gambusia oligosticta Regan, 304-305, 307, 
308, 309 

Gambusiinae, 304-310 


Numbers 1-4 1 


Index 


Q 

O 


25 


Gar, 63, 94 

Garrupa Jordan 1890, 124, 130 
nigrita (Holbrook), 10, 130 
Gempylidae, 277 
Gempylus serpens Cuvier, 277 
Gerres Cuvier 1824, 167, 169-170 

cinereus (Walbaum), 11, 169-170 
Gerridae, 11, 21, 167-170, 278, 318 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 167 
Ghost-fish, spot-cheeked, 47-48 
Giant devil fish, 32 
Gill rakers, 18 

Gillias jordani Evermann and [Marsh, 14, 
228, 229 

Gilmore, Dr,, 292 

Ginglymostoma Muller and Henle 1837, 26 
cirratum (Bonnaterre) , 7, 26 
Girardinus versicolor Gunther, 315 
Globefish, turtle-headed, 266 
Goatfish, red, 171 
yellow, 171-172 

Gobies, 1, 219, 220-227, 276, 301 
Gobiesocidae, 14, 24, 251-252 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 251 
Gobiesox Lacepede 1799, 251-252 

macrophthalmus Gunther, 14, 251-252 
Gobiidae, 13, 24, 221-227, 319 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 220- 
221 

Gobioidea, 13, 217-226 
Gobiomorus Lacepede 1806, 217, 218 
dormitator Lacepede, 13, 219 
Gobionellus bayamonensis, 223 
Gobiosoma Girard 1859, 224-226 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
224 

bosci (Lacepede), 278 
horsti Metzelaar, 13, 224-226 
macrodon, new sp., 13, 224, 226-227 
Gobius Linnaeus 1758, 222-223 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
222 

fasciatus (Gill), 13, 222 
oceanicus Pallas, 13, 222-223 
Goby, emerald-tongued, 222-223 
fringe-shouldered. 221-222 
giant-scaled sponge, 223-224 
Gill’s banded, 222 
large-toothed scaleless, 226-227 
many-fanged, 219-220 
white-lined sponge, 224-226 
Gonave, Gulf of, Haiti, 1 
Gramma Poey 1868, 143-144 

hemichrysos Mowbray, 11, 143-144 
Grande Riviere de Cul-de-Sac, Haiti, 287, 
295, 297 

Grandgele grand forte, 129-130 
Great manta, 32 
Grouper, black, 130 
Nassau, 128-129 
red, 128 

Grunt, black, 160-161 
boar, 159-160 
common, 158-159 
French, 158 
gray, 160 

large-toothed conodon, 154-155 
open-mouthed, 158 
red-mouthed, 155-156 
small-mouthed golden, 157 
striped, 156, 160 
yellow, 159-160 
Guacamaia, 210-211 
Guapena, 175 
Guardfish, 63-65 
Guaseta, 131 

Guativere, black, 125-126 
red, 124-125 
Guavina, 218, 221-222 
mapo, 219 

Gudger, Dr. E. W., 5 
Gurabo River, D. R., 286, 287 


Gurnard, flying, 191-192 
spotted, 191 
Gymnogramme, 291 

Gymnosarda allctterata (Rafinesque) , 9, 99 
Gijrhnothorax funebris Ranzani, 8, 53, 54 
moringa (Cuvier), 8, 54, 55 
ocellatus Agassiz, 276 
vicinus (Castelnau), 8, 54, 55 

Haemulidae, 22, 1*161, 278, 318 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 154 
JIaemulon Cuvier 1829, 154, 157-161 

key to Port-au-Prince Bav species, 
157-158 

album Cuvier and Valenciennes, 318 
bonariense Cuvier and Valenciennes, 11, 
160-161 

eckmani LonnbCrg, 278 
flavolincatum (Desmarest), 11, 158 
macrostomum Gunther, 11, 160 
plumieri (Lacepede), 11, 158-159 
sciurus (Shaw), 11, 159-160 
Haiti, cichlid fishes of, 286-299 
(Figs. 270-272) 

Haiti, fossil species recorded from. 278-279 
Haiti, marine fish recorded from, 276-278 
Haiti, Port-au-Prince Bay, The Fishes of, 
see Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti 
Haitian expedition, New York Zoological 
Society, 281-300, 317-319 
in Bulletin, 5 
map, Plate A, 4 
Half-beak, 69 — 71 
flying, 71 

orange-tailed, 66-68 
Ilalichoeres Ruppell 1835, 202, 203-305 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
203 

caudalis (Poey), 13, 203 
garnoti (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 13. 
203, 204-205 

radiatus (Linnaeus), 13, 203-204 
Ilalieutichthijs Poey 1863, 77, 271, 274-275 
aculeatus (Mitchill), 15, 274-275 
Hamlet, 128-129 
Harkness, Edward S., 5 
Harvest-fish, 102, 111 
Hemipristis serra, 279 
Hemirhamphidae, 8, 24, 66-71 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 66 
Hemirhamphus Cuvier 1817, 66-68 

brasiliensis (Linnaeus), 8, 66-68, 69 
pigmentation changes, 68 
Henderson, J. B., 305 
Hepsetia Bonaparte 1837, 88 

stipes (Muller and Troschel), 9, 88 
Herre, A. W., 312 
Herring, 39-45 

Atlantic thread, 42 
big-eyed, 32-33 
round, 213-215 
Herringlet, silver-lined, 43-45 
spiny- toothed, 43 
Ileterandria zonata Nichols, 314 
Heterosomata, 8-9, 74-78, 277 
Hildebrand, S. F., 5 
Hilgendorf, F., 315 
Hind, brown, 126 
red, 129-130 

Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810, 83 
punctulatus Guichenot, 9, 83 
reidi Ginsburg, 318 

? Hippocampus longirostris Cuvier, 277 
Ilistioclinus veliger, 241 
Ilistrio Fischer 1813, 270-271 
gibbus (Mitchill), 15, 270 
Hogfish, 201 

Ilolacanthus Lacepede 1803, 182-183 
tricolor (Bloch), 12, 182-183 
Holocentridae, 9, 22, 78-83 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 78 
Holocentrus Gronow 1763, 78, 79-82 


326 


Zoologica 


[Volume X 


key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
79 

ascensionis (Osbeck), 9, 79-80 
coruscus Poey, 9, 80-81 
vexillarius Poey, 9, 81, 82 
Holostei, 276 
Horse crevalle, 106-107 
Houndflsh, 63-65 

Hubbs, Carl L., 282, 284, 300, 302, 307 
Ilypoplectrus Gill 1862, 134, 135-139 

puella Cuvier and Valenciennes, 135- 
138 

unicolor (Walbaum), 11, 135-139 
Hyporhamphus Gill 1859, 69-71 

unifasciatus (Ranzani), 8, 67, 68, 69-71 
pigmentation changes, 70 

Indian fish, 182 
iniomi, 8, 60-62, 277 
Iridio bivittata (Bloch), 318 
poeyi (Steindachner) , 278 
Isabelito, 183 
Isospondyli, 7, 32-50, 276 

Jack, common, 106-107 
golden, 109-110 
hard-tailed, 109-110 
horse-eye, 108 
yellow, 107 
Jacome, 141-142 

Jamaica cichlid fishes, 282, 283, 284, 298 
Jenkinsia Jordan and Evermann 1896, 43-45 
lamprotaenia (Gosse), 7, 43-45, 89 
stolifera, 44-45 
Jewfish, black, 130 
spotted, 130-131 

Jordan and Evermann, “ Pishes of North and 
Middle America,’’ 44, 46, 53, 92, 119, 
194, 211, 212, 245 

Jordan and Seale, “Review of the Engrauli- 
dae,” 46 
Jordanella, 303 
Jotorus pichardi Poey, 277 
Jugulares, 14, 229-251 
Juif, 144-145 
Jurel, 109-110 

Kareng-a-plime, 115-116, 178-179 
Kola, 152-153 
Kuser, Anthony R., 5 
Kyphosidae, 11, 22, 166-167 
ICyphosus Lacepede 1802, 166-167 
sectatrix (Linnaeus), 11, 166-167 

Labridae, 13, 20, 200-202 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 200 
Labrisomus Swainson 1839, 228, 231-235 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
231 

albigenys new sp., 14, 233-235 
haitiensis new sp., 14, 232-233 
nuchipinnis (Quoy and Gaimard), 14, 
231, 233 

Lachnolaimus maximum (Walbaum), 13, 200, 
201 

Lactophrys Swainson 1839, 261-263 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
261 

bicaudalis (Linnaeus), 14, 261, 262 
tricornis (Linnaeus), 15, 261, 263 
trigonus (Linnaeus), 15, 261, 262 
triqueter (Linnaeus), 14, 261-262 
Lady fish, 37-39, 56, 201-202 
Lagarto, 60-62 

Lagocephalus Swainson 1839, 263-264 
laevigatus (Linnaeus), 15, 263-264 
Lamentin Reefs, Haiti, 1 
Lancet-fish, 185 

Larimus Cuvier and Valenciennes 1830, 172. 
176 

breviceps Cuvier and Valenciennes, 12, 
176 

Leather-fish, 257-258 


Lepisosteidae, 276 
Lepophidium Gill 1863, 251 

brevibarbe (Cuvier), 14, 251 
Leptocephalid larvae, 8, 37-39, 55-59 
Leptocephalus amphioxus, 59 

latus Eigenmann and Kennedy, 8, 56-57 
michael-sarsi Lea, 8, 56, 58 
microphthalmus new sp., 8, 56, 58-59 
mucronatus Eigenmann and Kennedy, 
8, 56, 57 

rex Eigenmann and Kennedy, 8, 56, 59 
Leptophilypnus crocodilus new sp., 13, 217, 
219-220 

Lieutenant, The, 1 
Lija, 257-258 

Colorado, 255 
Limia Poey, 312 
arnoldi, 312 

caudofasciata Regan, 314 
dominicensis (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 
301, 311, 313-314 
(Figs. 278, 279), 313 
heterandria Regan, 314 
melanogaster, 314 

melanonotata Nichols and Myers, 312 
nicholsi Myers, 314 
nigrofasciata Regan, 312-313 
ornata Regan, 314 

perugiae (Evermann and Clark), 312 
versicolor (Gunther), 314, 315 
versicolor Regan, 315 
Liza bianco, 90-91 
Lizard-fish, 56, 60-62 
Agassiz’s, 60 

Lobotes Cuvier 1829, 145-146 

surinamensis (Bloch), 11, 145-146 
Lobotidae, 11, 21, 145-146 
Lophogobius cyprinoides (Pallas), 278 
Los Cahobas, Haiti, 290 
Lutianidae, 11, 22, 147-153, 277 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 146 
Lutianus Bloch 1790, 146-152 

key to Port-au- Prince Bay species, 
146-147 

analis (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 11, 
146, 147-148 

apodus (Walbaum), 11, 147, 151-152 
aya, 107 

buccanella (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 
277 

campechanus (Poey), 11, 146, 150 
griseus (Linnaeus), 11, 47, 147, 152 
jocu (Bloch and Schneider), 11, 147, 
150-151 

mahogani (Cuvier and Valenciennes) , 

277 

megalophthalmus Evermann and Marsh, 

278 

synagris (Linnaeus), 11, 146, 148-149 
vivanus (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 277 

McKaig, N., jr., 34 
Mackerel, 89 

frigate, 99-100 
king, 97 
painted, 97 
Spanish, 97-98 
yellow, 109-110 
Maguerite, 182-183 
Malacanthidae , 12, 21, 177-178 
Malacanthus Cuvier 1829, 177-178 
plumieri (Bloch), 12, 177-178 
Malacoctenus Gill 1860, 228, 229-231 
biguttatus (Cope), 14, 229-231 
Man-of-war fish, Portuguese, 103 
Manta, great, 32 
Manta Bancroft 1829, 32 

birostris (Walbaum), 7, 32 
Marian, 82-83 
Marine fishes, Haiti, 281 
“Marine Pishes of New York,’’ by J. J. 

Nichols and C. M. Breder, jr., 3 
“Marine Pishes of Panama,’’ by Meek and 


Numbers 1-4] 


Index 


327 


Hildebrand, 5, 39, 110, 154, 160, 193, 
194 

Mariposa, 179-180, 181-182 
Maximilian, Fritz, 5 
Medance, 166 

Meek and Hildebrand, “Tlie Marine Fishes 
of Panama,” 5, 39, 110, 154, 160, 193, 
194 

Megalopidae, 7, 25, 33-36 
Mero de la Alto, 130 

Metzelaar, J., “Over Tropisch Atlantische 
Visschen,” 46 

Micropogon Cuvier and Valencie nn es 1830, 
172-173 

furnieri (Desmarest), 12, 172-173 
Microspathodon Gunther 1862, 192, 198-200 
key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
198 

chrysurus (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 
13, 198, 199 

niveatus (Poey), 13, 198, 199, 200 
Mills, Ogden, 5 

Miocene strata, Haiti, 286, 290, 291 
Mobulidae, 7, 23, 32 
Mojarra, common, 168 
dark-barred, 169-170 
Lefroy’s, 168-169 
rhomboid, 170 
silver, 167-168 

Mollienisia Le Sueur, 310-315 

dominicensis (Evermann and Clark), 

301 

(Figs. 276, 277), 311 
latipinna, 310 
sphenops, 310 

Monacanthidae, 14, 23, 254-259 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 254 
Monacanthus Cuvier 1817, 108, 256-259 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
256 

ciliatus (Mitchill), 14, 257-258 
oppositus Poey, 14, 55, 258-259 
tuckeri Bean, 14, 256-257 
Mongolar drummer, 177 
Moonfish, bristle-finned, 114 
Morris, Lewis R., 5 
Mugil Linnaeus 1758, 90 
brasiliensis Agassiz, 277 
cephalus Linnaeus, 318 
curema Cuvier and Valenciennes, 9, 90- 
91, 162 

Mugilidae 9, 26, 90-92, 277, 318 
Mullet, blue-back, 90-91 
fresh-water, 298 
thick-lipped fresh- water, 92 
white, 90-91 

yellow-tailed fresh- water, 91-92 
Mullidae, 12, 20, 171-172 
Muraenesocidae, 8, 25, 51 
Muraenesox savanna (Cuvier), 8, 51 
Muraenidae, 8, 25, 53-55, 276 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 53- 
54 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, 304 
Mutton fish, 147-148 
Mycteroperca Gill 1862, 124, 127 

tigris (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 277 
venenosa apua (Bloch), 10, 127 
Myers, George S., Cyprinodont Fishes of 
Hispaniola, An Annotated List of the, 
with Descriptions of Two New Species, 
301-316 

(Figs. 273-279 incl.) 

Myers, George S., 282, 286, 287, 292, 294, 
299, 300 

Myliobatidae, 7, 23, 31 
Myrichthys Girard 1859, 52-53 
acuminatus (Gronow), 8, 53 
oculatus (Kaup), 8, 52-53 
Myripristis Cuvier 1829, 78-79 

jacobus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 9, 
78-79 


Naucrates Rafinesque 1810, 104, 117 
ductor (Linnaeus), 10, 117 
Needlefish, 63-65 
ribbon, 65-66 
Negro-fish, 125-126 
Negue, 128-129 

coleur rouge, 128 
New York Aquarium, 5 
Nichols, J. T., 2, 5, 100, 254 
Nichols, J. T. and C. M. Breder, jr., “Ma- 
rine Fishes of New York,” 3 
Nictitating membrane, 18 
Nigger-fish, 125-126 
Nomeidae, 10, 20, 103 
Nomeus Cuvier 1817, 103 

gronovii (Gmelin), 10, 103 
Norman, J. R., 309, 312, 313 

Ocyurus Gill, 1862, 146, 152-153 

chrysurus (Bloch), 11, 94, 152-153 
“Odo,” 297 
Odontaspis dubuis, 279 
Odontoscion Gill 1862, 172, 176-177 

dentex (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 12, 
176-177 

Ogcocephalidae, 15, 19. 271-274 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 271 
Ogcocephalus Fischer 1813, 272-274 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
272 

nasutus (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 15, 272, 
273-274 

vespertilio (Linnaeus), 15, 272-273 
Old wench, 253 
Old wife, 253 

Oligoplites Gill 1863, 104, 112-113 

saurus (Bloch and Schneider), 10, 112- 
113 

Ophichthyidae, 8, 25, 52-53 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
52-53 

Ophidiidae, 14, 22, 251 
Ophioblennius ferox new sp., 14, 242-244 
Opisthonema Gill 1861, 39, 42 

oglinum (Le Sueur), 7, 42, 151 
Orectolobidae, 7, 23, 26 
Ostraciidae, 14, 18, 261-263 
Otolithidae, 12, 20, 177 
Outalibi, 124-125 
Oxyrhina xiphodon, 279 

Palometa, 115-116, 117 
Pampano, 117 

round, 115-116 

Paranthias Guichenot 1868, 133, 134 

furcifer (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 10, 
134 

Parasites, 98, 268-269 
Parathunnus. Kishinouye 1923, 99, 100 
obesus (Lowe), 9, 100 
Parche, 180 

Parexocoetus Bleeker 1866, 72 
mesogaster (Bloch), 8, 72 
Paris Museum, 314 
Parr, Albert E., 5, 143 
Parroquette, 213 
Parrotfish, 20 

blue, 211, 214 
brown, 209-210 
dark-green, 215 
gray, 216 
green, 210-211 
green and black, 211-212 
painted-tailed, 208-209 
punctulated, 209 
red, 213 
red-tailed, 217 
scorched, 207-208 
snort-snouted, 215-216 
stocky, 216-217 
vermillion-banded, 214-215 
Paru, 182 


328 


Zoologica 


[Volume X 


Pediculati, 15, 270-275 
Pelicans, 89 

Peliegrin, J„ 282, 283, 300, 314 
Peprilus Cuvier 1829, 102 

paru (Linnaeus), 10, 102, 111 
Percomorphi, 9, 88-185, 277 
Petit negre, 126, 135-139 
Petrometopon Gill 1865, 124, 126 

cruentatus coronatus (Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes), 10, 126, 129-130 
Pez de pluma, 164 
Pharyngognathi, 13. 201-217 
Pilot fish, 117 
Pipe-fish, 83-86 
lineated, 84 
Mackay’s, 84-85 
Poey’s 85-86 
Rousseau’s, 85 

Pisces, 7-15, 32-275, 276-279 
Plate-fish, 261 

Platophrys lunatus (Linnaeus), 8, 73, 74 
ocellatus (Agassiz), 277 
Platypoecilus dominicensis Cuvier and Va- 
lenciennes, 311, 313 
(Figs. 278, 279), 313, 314 
Plectognathi, 14, 253-269 
Poecilia melano g aster , 313, 314 
? Poecilia ( Acropoecilia ) tridens Hilgendorf, 
315 

Poeciliidae, 1, 218, 276, 281, 304-316 
Poeciliinae, 310-315 
Poey, F., 304, 316 
Polynemidae, 9, 25, 96 
Polynemus Linnaeus, 96 

virginicus Linnaeus, 9, 96 
Pomacanthus Lacepede 1803, 181-182 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
181 

arcuatus (Linnaeus), 12, 181-182 
paru (Bloch), 12, 182 
Pomacentridae, 12, 20, 192-200 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 192 
Pomacentrus Lacepede 1803, 192, 195-197 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
195 

freemani new sp., 12, 195, 196-197 
fuscus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 12, 
195-196, 197 

Pomadasidae, 11, 154-163 
Pomadasys Lacepede 1803, 154, 161-162 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
161 

corvinaeformis (Steindachner) , 11, 161 
crocro (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 11, 
161-162 

Poole, A. J., 312 
Porcupine-fish, long-spined, 209 
short-spined, 208-209 
Porgy, grass, 165 

jolt-head, 164-165 
little-head, 164 
saucer-eyed, 163-164 
shad, 165 
Pork fish, 162-163 

Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti, The Fishes of, 
see The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, 
Haiti 

“Porto Rico, The Fishes of,” by Evermann 
and Marsh, 2 
Portugais, 181 

Portuguese man-of-war fish, 20, 103 
Pratt, George D., 5 
Priacanthidae, 11, 21, 144-145 
Priacanthus Oken 1817, 144-145 

arenatus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 11, 
144-145 

Prionodes Jenyns 1842, 134, 139-141 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
139 

tabacarius (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 
11, 139, 141-142 
tigrinus (Bloch), 11, 139-141 
Prionotus Lacepede 1802, 191 
punctatus (Bloch), 12, 191 
Promicrops Poey 1868, 124, 130-131 
ilaiara (Lichtenstein), 10, 130-131 


Pseudochromidae, 11, 21, 143-144 
Pseudoscarus Bleecker 1861, 207, 210-212 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
210 

coelestinus (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 

13, 210, 211 

guacamaia (Cuvier), 13, 210-211 
pleianus (Poey), 13, 210, 211-212 
Psychropoecilia, 311 
Pudding wife, 203-204 
Puffer, sharp-nosed, 266-267 
smooth, 263-264 
southern, 265-266 
spiny-backed, 264-265 

Quia-quia, 104-105 

Rabirubia de la alto, 134 
Rachow, A., 312, 313, 316 
Ray, eagle, 31 

round sting, 30-31 
sting, 30-31 
Reef ecology, 2-3 

Regan, C. Tate, 286, 288, 289, 294, 300, 308, 
309, 316 

Remoras, 227-228 

Rhomboplites aurorubens (Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes), 11, 101, 107, 146, 153 
Ribbon-fish, lance-shaped, 175 
spotted, 174-175 
Rivero, Dr. Luis Howell, 304 
Rivulus Poey, 301-302 
cylindraceus, 302 
heyei Nichols, 301-302 
Robalos, 121-124 
Rock beauty, 182-183 
Ronco, 174 

prieto, 160-161 
ronco, 158-159 
Ronde, 150 

Roughcheek, croaker-like, 161 
crocro, 161-162 
Round robin, 104-105 
Rudder fish, 166-167 
Runner, 109-110 
Rupiscartes Swainson 1839, 242 

atlanticus (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 

14, 242 

Russell, General and Mrs. John H., 3, 190 
Rypticus Cuvier 1829, 124, 131-133 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
131 

bornoi new sp., 10, 131, 132-133 
coriaceus (Cope), 10, 131, 133 

Saga, 221-222 
Salmonete, 171 

amarilla, 171-172 
Sand Cay, Haiti, 1 

Santo Domingo, marine fish of, 276-279 
Saona Island, Hispaniola, 301 
Sard rouge, 150 
Sardine, 40-41 

false Spanish, 39-40 

Sardinella Cuvier and Valenciennes 1847, 
39-41 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
40 

macrophthalmus (Ranzani), 7, 40, 41 
sardina (Poey), 7, 39, 40-41 
? Sardinella clupeola (Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes), 276 

Scad, goggle-eyed, 105-106 
round, 104-105 
Scaridae, 13, 20, 207-217, 319 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 207 
Scarus Forskal 1775, 207, 208-210 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
208 

croicensis Bloch, 13, 94, 208, 209-210 
emblematicus Jordan and Rutter, 319 
punctulatus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 
13, 208, 209 

taeniopterus Desmarest, 13, 208-209 
Scliiff, Mortimer L., 5 
Schoolmaster, 151 


Numbers 1-4] 


Index 


329 


Sciaena broussonnettii, 318 
Sciaenidae, 12, 20, 172-176, 278, 318 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 172 
Sciaenids, 1 

Scoliodon Muller and Henle 1837, 27 
terrae-novae (Richardson), 7, 27-28 
Scomberomorus Lacepede 1802, 97-98 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
97 

cavalla (Cuvier), 277 
maculatus (Mitchill), 9, 50, 97-98 
regalis (Bloch), 9, 97 
Scombridae, 9, 20, 97-98, 277 
Scorpaena Linnaeus 1758, 185, 186-188 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
186 

brasiliensis Cuvier and Valenciennes, 
12, 186, 187 

grandicornis Cuvier and Valenciennes, 
12, 186, 187 

isthmensis Meek and Hildebrand, 12, 
186, 188 

plumieri Bloch, 12, 186 
Scorpaenidae, 12, 19, 185-190 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 185 
Scorpaenodes Bleeker 1857, 185, 189-190 
russelli new sp., 12, 189-190 
Scorpion fish, long-horned, 187 
Plumier’s, 186 
small-scaled, 187 
smooth-cheeked, 188 
Sea-bass, 124-133, 201 
Sea-basslet, mottled, 142-143 
Sea-horses, 83 
dotted, 83 

Selar, large-eyed, 105-106 
Selar Bleeker 1851, 103, 105-106 

crumenophthalmus (Bloch), 10, 105-106 
Selene Lacepede 1803, 104. 114-115 
vomer (Linnaeus), 10, 114-115 
Sergeant major, 198 
Serrana, 175 

Hispana, 174-175 
Serranid, harlequin, 139-141 
Serranidae, 10-11, 21, 133-143, 201 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 133- 
134 

Service Technique, Haiti, 2, 5, 34, 197 
Shark, hammerhead, 29-30 
nurse, 26 

scythe-shaped, 28-29 
sharp-nosed, 27-28 
spot-fin ground, 28 
true, 27-30 

Sliark-sucker, short-disked, 227-228 
Sheepshead, tropical, 166 
Shellfish, 261, 262 

Sicydium buscki Evermann and Clark, 278 
vicente Jordan and Evermann, 278 
Silverside, broad-headed, 88 
slender, 89 
Sleeper, 218, 221 

common spotted, 219 
Snake-fish, 56, 62-63 
Snapper, dog, 150-151 
golden-red, 153 
gray, 152 
Lane, 148-149 
red, 150 

Snook, comb-toothed, 121-122 
common, 122-123 
sword-spined, 123-124 
Soap-fish, 133 

Haitian, 132-133 
Sobaco, 254 
Sole, lineated, 76-77 
Sous-ge, 184 

South America, cichlid fishes of, 284-285, 
298, 299 

Spade-fish, 178-179 
Sparidae, 11, 22, 163-166 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 163 


Sparisoma Swainson 1839, 207, 212-217 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
212 

abildgaardi (Bloch), 13, 212, 213 
aurofrenatum (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 
13, 212, 214-215 
brachiale (Poey), 13, 213, 217 
chrysopterum (Bloch and Schneider), 13, 

212, 214 

flavescens (Bloch and Schneider), 13, 

213, 216-217 

lorito Jordan and Swain, 278 
radians (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 13, 
213, 215-216 

rubripinne (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 
278 

squalidum (Poey), 13, 213, 216 
viride (Bonnaterre), 13, 213, 215 
Sparisomidae, 278 
Spheroides testudineus, 108 
Sphyraena Klein 1778, 92-95 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
92-93 

barracuda (Walbaum), 9, 92, 93-94, 95 
borealis De Kay, 95, 277 
guachancho Cuvier and Valenciennes, 
9, 92, 94-95 

picudilla Poey, 9, 93, 95 
Sphyraenidae, 9, 26, 92-95, 277 
Sphyrna Rafinesque 1810, 29-30 
zygaena (Linnaeus), 7, 29-30 
Sphyrnidae, 7, 23, 29-30 
Squirrel-fish, black-barred, 82 
common, 79-80 
large-mouthed, 82-83 
shining, 80-81 

Stathmonotus Bean 1885, 249-250 
corallicola new sp., 14, 249-250 
Stellifer Oken 1817, 172, 173 

colonensis Meek and Hildebrand, 12, 173 
? Stellifer rastrifer Jordan and Evermann, 
318 

Stiles, Dr. C. W., 311 
Stromateidae, 10, 19-20, 22, 102 
Strongylura Van Hasselt 1824, 63-65 
raphidoma (Ranzani), 8, 63-65 
Surgeon, blue, 184 
common, 185 
crescent- tailed, 184-185 
Surmullets, 171-172 
Syacium Ranzani 1842, 74 
Syacium micrurum Ranzani, 8, 74-75 
Symphurus Rafinesque 1810, 77-78 

plagusia (Bloch and Schneider), 9. 77- 
78 

Synentognathi, 8, 63-72, 277 
Syngnathidae, 9, 24, 83-86, 277, 318 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 83 
Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758, 84-86 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
84 

elucens Poey, 9, 84, 85-86 
mackayi (Swain and Meek), 9, 84-85 
rousseau Kaup, 9, 84, 85 
Synodontidae, 8, 25, 60-62, 277 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 60 
Synodus dominicensis Fowler, 277 

foetens (Linnaeus), 8, 56, 60-62, 63 
intermedins Agassiz, 8, 60 

Tambor, 266 
Tamoya haplonema. 111 
Tang, blue, 184 

ocean, 184-185 
Tarpon, 33-36 

Tarpon Jordan and Evermann 1896, 33-36 
atlanticus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 7, 
33-36 

“A Tarpon Nursery in Haiti,” by William 
Beebe, 34-36 
Tee-Van, Helen, 5 

Tee-Van, John, Cichlid Fishes in the West 


330 


Zoologica 


[Volume X 


Indies with Especial Reference to Haiti, 
including the Description of a New 
Species of Cichlasoma, 281-300 
(Figs. 269-272 incl.) 

Tee-Van, John, and William Beebe, Addi- 
tions to the Fish Fauna of Haiti and 
Santo Domingo, 317-319 
Tee-Van, John, and William Beebe, The 
Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti, 
1-279 

(Figs. 1-268 inch and plate A) 
for paged outline see Fishes of 
Port-au-Prince Bay 

Tellia, 303 

Ten pounders, 32-33 
Tetraodon Linnaeus 1758, 264-266 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
264 

marmoratus (Ranzani), 15, 264-265 
spengleri (Bloch), 15, 264, 265-266 
testudineus Linnaeus, 15, 264, 266 
Tetraodontidae, 15, 23, 263-266 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 263 
Thalassoma Swainson 1839, 202, 205-206 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
205 

bifasciatus (Bloch), 13, 205, 206 
nitidus Gunther, 13, 205-206 
Thane, Edith, 5 
Thomazeau, Haiti, 305 
Thoracostei, 9, 83-86, 277 
Threadfin, seven-fingered, 96 
Threadfish, 113 
Thunnidae, 9, 20, 98-100 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay genera, 98 
Tobacco-fish, 141-142 
Tom Tate, 155-156 
Tongue fish. 77-78 
Toro, 263 

Townsend, Dr. C. H., 213 
Trachinocephalus Gill 1861, 60, 62-63 
my ops (Forster), 8, 56, 60, 62-63 
Trachinotus Lacepede 1802, 104, 115-117 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
115 

falcatus (Linnaeus), 10, 115-116 
glaucus (Bloch), 10, 117 
Trichiuridae, 10, 22, 100-101 
Trichiurus Linnaeus 1758, 100-101 
lepturus Linnaeus, 10, 100-101 
Trichocorixa reticulata (Guerin), 123 
Trigger-fish, queen, 253 
ocean, 254 

Triglidae, 12, 19, 24, 191 
Trinidad cichlid fishes, 282 


Triple-tail, 145-146 
Trumpet-fish, 86-87 
Trunk-fish, 261-262 
common, 262 
spotted, 262 
Tunnies, 98-100 
Tunny, deep-bodied, 100 
little, 99 

Turbot, transparent, 74-75 
Tylosurus timucu (Walbaum) , 277 

Ulaema Jordan and Evermann 1895, 167, 
168-169 

lefroyi (Goode), 11, 168-169 
Umbrina broussonnettii Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes, 318 

coroides (Cuvier and Valenciennes), 278 
Unicorn fish, 73 

U. S. National Museum, 5, 299, 301 
XJpeneus Cuvier 1829, 171-172 

key to Port-au-Prince Bay species, 
171 

maculatus (Bloch), 12, 171 
martinicus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 12, 
171-172 

Urobatis Garman 1913, 30-31 
sloani (Blainville) , 7, 30-31 

Vaca, 135-139 
Verrugato, 172-173 
Vieja, 214 

Vomer Cuvier 1817, 103, 114 

setapinnis cubensis Nichols, 10, 114 

Walcott, Frederic C., 5 
Weak-fishes, 177 
West Indian cyprinodons, 304 
West Indian Islands, cichlid fishes of, 
(exclusive of Haiti), 282-286, 299 
Whiff, spot-finned, 76 
Uhler’s, 75 

Williams, Harrison, 5 
Wood, Commander V., 3 
Wrasse, 20, 200-207 
bicolored, 205 
coral, 204-205 
pink-finned, 203 
pur pie- tailed, 202 
shining, 205-206 
tall-finned pygmy, 206-207 
variegated, 203-204 

Xenopterygii, 14, 251-252 

Yellow-tail, 152-153 




ZOOLOGICA 


SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



VOLUME XI 

DECEMBER 5, 1928-1933 MARCH 18 

Part I : Numbers 1-5 Inclusive 
Part II: 


PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 
THE ZOOLOGICAL PARK, NEW YORK 



Nero fnrk Znolngtral Sronetg 

General Office: 101 Park Avenue, New Work City 


Officers 

President, Madison Grant 
Honorary President, Henry Fairfield Osborn 
Vice-Presidents, W. Redmond Cross and Kermit Roosevelt 
Chairman, Executive Committee, Madison Grant 
Treasurer, Cornelius R. Agnew 
Secretary , Henry Fairfield Osborn, Jr. 

Poarb of fEruetfees 

Class of 1936 

Madison Grant, Lewis R. Morris, Archer M. Huntington, George D. 
Pratt,* Cornelius R. Agnew, Harrison Williams, Marshall 
Field, Ogden L. Mills, Vincent Astor, C. Suydam 
Cutting, Childs Frick, Alfred Ely 

Class of 1937 

George Bird Grinnell, Frederic C. Walcott, George C. Clark, 

W. Redmond Cross, Henry Fairfield Osborn, Jr., George 
Gordon Battle, Bayard Dominick, Anson W. Hard, 

Robert Gordon McKay, Kermit Roosevelt, 

Grafton H. Pyne, John M. Schiff 

Class of 1938 

Henry Fairfield Osborn, Robert S. Brewster, Edward S. Harkness, 
Edwin Thorne, Irving K. Taylor, Harry Payne Bingham, 
Landon K. Thorne, J. Watson Webb, Oliver D. 

Filley, De Forest Grant, H. de B. 

Parsons,* George F. Baker 

Scientific Staff 

W. Reid Blair, Director of the Zoological Park 
William T. Hornaday, Director Emeritus 
Charles H. Townsend, Director of the Aquarium 
C. M. Breder, Jr., Assistant Director, Aquarium 
Raymond L. Ditmars, Curator of Mammals and Reptiles 
William Beebe, Honorary Curator of Birds and Director of Department of 

Tropical Research 

Lee S. Crandall, Curator of Birds 
H. C. Raven, Prosector 
Charles V. Noback, Veterinarian 

Claude W. Leister, Ass’t to the Director and Curator, Educational Activities 
Edward R. Osterndorff, Photographer 
William Bridges, Editor and Curator of Publications 

Cbitorial Committee 

Madison Grant, Chairman 

W. Reid Blair Charles H. Townsend 

William Beebe George Bird Grinnell 


♦Deceased 


William Bridges 


Zooloyica, Volume XI, Numbers 1-8 


TITLES OF PAPERS 


PART I 

PAGE 

1 — Haematology of the Camelidae Ponder, Yeager, Charipper 1 

2 — Haematology of the Primates Ponder, Yeager, Charipper 9 

3 — Direct Bone Formation in the Antler Tines of Two of the American Cer- 

vidae, Virginia Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) and Wapiti ( Cervus 
canadensis ) Noback, Modell 19 

4 — A List of Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians Barbour 61 

5 — Digital Epiphyses and Carpal Bones in the Growing Infant Female 

Gorilla Noback 117 

PART II 

6 — The Great Smoky Mountains with Preliminary Notes on the Salaman- 


ders of Mt. Leconte and Leconte Creek McClure 53 

7 — Notes on Certain Birds of Paradise Crandall 77 

8 — Observations on the Life History of the Marbled Salamander, Arnby- 

stoma opacum Gravenhorst Noble, Brady 89 


iii 










Zoologica, Volume XI, Numbers 1-8 


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 


DIRECT BONE FORMATION IN THE ANTLER TINES OF THE 
AMERICAN CERVIDAE 


Fig. 

1 . 

Fig. 

2. 

Fig. 

3. 

Fig. 

4. 

Fig. 

5. 

Fig. 

6. 

Fig. 

7. 

Fig. 

8. 

Fig. 

9. 

Fig. 

10. 

Fig. 

11. 

Fig. 

12. 

Fig. 

13. 

Fig. 

14. 

Fig. 

15. 

Fig. 

16. 

Fig. 

17. 

Fig. 

18. 

Fig. 

19. 

Fig. 

20. 

Fig. 

21. 

Fig. 

22. 

Fig. 

23. 

Fig. 

24. 


Figures 1 to 56 inclusive 

PART I 

PAGE 


The matured antlers of the wapiti are usually shed in March. 
Exposed surface of the pedicle is shown after one antler is 

dropped 31 

Exposed pedicle tips after both antlers are shed 31 

Antlers budding from pedicle 32 

The new antlers are beginning to show the branch-like form ... 32 

The rapidity of growth is shown by the appearance of the antlers 33 
The branching of the antlers indicates their future pattern ..... 33 

The growing antler structure shows increased division, and the 

old hair is shedding out 34 

Antlers approach normal size, become a prominent feature of the 

male wapiti 34 

During period of development, the wapiti exercises greatest care 

in avoiding hard objects 35 

The velvet masks the trim osseous structure of the antler 35 

Antlers approaching final stages of development 36 

Antlers have attained their greatest length 36 

Antler growth has ceased and final stages of hardening are taking 

place 37 

Antler completely hardened, the velvet dries out and peels from 

the bony structure 37 

During the early stages of antler development the animal is most 

docile 38 

When the velvet is shed and his old vigor returns, he then becomes 

very pugnacious 38 

Cross section of wapiti antler 39 

Cross section of velvet showing fibrous structure of its corium. . . 39 

Cross section of velvet 40 

Cross section of antler showing the merging of the undifferentiated 

connective tissue with the fibrous layer of the velvet 40 

Cross section of antler showing fibrous layer and corium of the 

velvet 41 

Tip of pedicle of a Virginia deer two weeks after the antler had 

been shed 42 

A longitudinal section through the pedicle of Fig. 22 (Virginia 

deer) 42 

Longitudinal section of a two months’ old Virginia deer antler 

showing its gross internal structure 43 


VI 


Illustrations 


PAGE 

Fig. 25. Cross section of the two months’ old antler of Fig. 24 43 

Fig. 26. Longitudinal section of a four months’ old antler. 44 

Fig. 27. Completely ossified tip of mature antler 45 

Fig. 28. Longitudinal section of mature antler and pedicle (six months old) 45 

Fig. 29. External view of the tip of an elk antler 75 days old 46 

Fig. 30. Internal view of the antler of Fig. 29 on longitudinal section ... 47 

Fig. 31. Cross section 3.5 cm. from tip, ossification beginning peripherally 48 
Fig. 32. Cross section 4.5 cm. from tip, showing pronounced peripheral 

ossification 48 

Fig. 33. Section through undifferentiated connective tissue showing typi- 
cal spindle-shaped fibroblastic cells 49 

Fig. 34. Typical fibroblastic cells of the cap under oil immersion 49 

Fig. 35. Longitudinal section 1.5 cm. from tip, showing evolving fibro- 
blasts, endothelial cells and beginning blood channels 50 

Fig. 36. Longitudinal section 1.5 cm. from tip,, showing evolving fibro- 
blasts, endothelial cells and beginning blood channels 50 

Fig. 37. Longitudinal section 2.0 cm. from tip, showing evolving fibro- 
blasts and open blood channels 51 

Fig. 38. Longitudinal section 2.5 cm. from tip, showing maturing fibro- 
blasts, open blood channels and slight centers of ossification 51 

Fig. 39. Typical fibroblastic cells 1.5 cm. from tip 52 

Fig. 40. Cells 2.5 cm. from tip, showing maturing fibroblasts and endo- 
thelial cells 52 

Fig. 41. Cells 2.5 cm. from tip, showing- matured fibroblasts and endo- 
thelial cells 53 

Fig. 42. Cells 3.0 cm. from tip, showing matured fibroblasts a few of which 

have atrophied 53 

Fig. 43. Cells 3.5 cm. from tip, showing marked atrophy of some fibro- 
blasts and separation of the cells 54 

Fig. 44. Cross section 2.5 cm. from tip. Osteoblasts proliferating from 

periphery to centers of ossification 54 

Fig. 45. Cross section 3.0 cm. from tip. Osteoblasts proliferating from 

periphery to centers of ossification 55 

Fig. 46. Section 3.0 cm. from tip. Peripherally derived osteoblasts 

around center of ossification . 55 

Fig. 47. Cross section 3.5 cm. from tip. Osteoblasts proliferating from 

periphery to centers of ossification 56 

Fig. 48. Longitudinal section 4 cm. from tip, showing proliferation of 
peripherally derived osteoblasts and lacunae in centers of 

ossification 56 

Fig. 49. Longitudinal section 5.0 cm. from tip, showing proliferation of 

peripherally derived osteoblasts 57 

Fig. 50. Cross section 5.0 cm. from tip, showing proliferation of osteo- 
blasts and mature osteoblasts between blood channels and 

trabeculae 57 

Fig. 51. Showing fibrillar structure of cap continuous with fibers of velvet 58 
Fig. 52. Showing fibrillar ground-work 2.0 cm. from tip and longitudinal 

fibrillae of blood channels 58 


Illustrations vii 

PAGE 

Fig. 53. Fibrillar network 3.0 cm. from tip 59 

Fig. 54. Fibrillar network 4.0 cm. from tip. Note blood in blood channels 59 

Fig. 55. Cross section 3.5 cm. from tip, showing atrophy of fibroblasts 

derived from the cap and slight centers of ossification 60 

Fig. 56. Cross section 5.0 cm. from tip, showing definite osteoblasts 

evolved from peripheral undifferentiated connective tissue 60 

DIGITAL EPHIPHYSES AND CARPAL BONES IN THE GROWING 
INFANT FEMALE GORILLA 

Figures 57 to 72 inclusive 

Fig. 57. Left hand of gorilla. Dorsal aspect. Age 9 to 12 months 134 

Fig. 58. Right hand of gorilla. Dorsal aspect. Age 9 to 12 months. . . . 135 

Fig. 59. Left hand of gorilla. Volar aspect. Age 14 to 16 months 136 

Fig. 60. Right hand of gorilla. Volar aspect. Age 14 to 16 months. . . . 137 

Fig. 61. Left hand of gorilla. Dorsal aspect. Age 16 to 18 months. . . . 138 

Fig. 62. Right hand of gorilla. Dorsal aspect. Age 16 to 18 months. . . 139 

Fig. 63. Right hand of gorilla. Dorsal aspect. Age 18 to 20 months. . . 140 

Fig. 64. Right hand. Dorsal aspect. Age 18 to 20 months 141 

Fig. 65. Left hand. Dorsal aspect. Age 24 to 26 months 142 

Fig. 66. Outlines of bones of hand 143 

Fig. 67. Left hand of gorilla. Dorsal aspect. Age 24 to 30 months. . . . 144 

Fig. 68. Right hand of gorilla. Dorsal aspect. Age 24 to 30 months. . . 145 
Fig. 69. Left hand of gorilla. Dorsal aspect. Age 34 to 38 months. . . . 146 
Fig. 70. Right hand of gorilla. Dorsal aspect. Age 34 to 38 months. . . 147 

Fig. 71. Left hand of gorilla. Dorsal aspect. Age 40 to 42 months. . . . 148 

Fig. 72. Right hand of gorilla. Dorsal aspect. Age 40 to 42 months. . . 149 

PART II 

THE GREAT SMOKY MOUNTAINS 
Figures 73 to 82 inclusive 

Fig. 73. The proposed Great Smoky Mountains National Park includes 

more than 450,000 acres of virgin forest 59, 60 

Fig. 74. Altitude and magnetic bearing map of LeConte Creek along the 

LeConte trail 61 

Fig. 75. Outline map of Smoky Mountains National Park 62 

Fig. 76. The old grist-mill in Cherokee Orchard 63 

Fig. 77. Water-falls forming whirlpools and eddys where salamander 
larvae abound under decaying leaves near the water’s edge. 

A scene in the Chestnut Zone 64 

Fig. 78. Rainbow Falls marks the end of the Transitional Zone, and is the 

only natural barrier in the entire stream 65 

Fig. 79. Giant ferns and birch trees cover the side of Gregory Bald 66 

Fig. 80. The LeConte Lodge is located on the summit of Mt. LeConte 73, 74 


Illustrations 


viii 

PAGE 

Fig. 81. Dense growth of balsam shadows the ground where fern-moss forms 

a carpet more than a foot thick 73, 74 

Fig. 82. Tall trees crowd the forest to the water’s edge high in the Balsam 

Zone of the*Great Smoky Mountains 76 

OBSERVATIONS OF THE LIFE HISTORY OF THE MARBLED 
SALAMANDER, AMBYSTOMA OPACUM GRAVENHORST 

Figures 83 to 93 inclusive 

Fig. 83. Marbled salamander brooding her eggs 90 

Fig. 84. Two pairs of Ambystoma opacum collected on Long Island, show- 
ing extremes of variation in color pattern 95 

Fig. 85. A series of brooding Ambystoma opacum collected in the vicinity 
of Washington, D. C., illustrating the wide range of color 

pattern variation found in the adult female 96 

Fig. 86. Courtship of the marbled salamander 100 

Fig. 87. “The waltz” in the courtship of the marbled salamander 100 

Fig. 88. The deposition of the spermatophore 102 

Fig. 89. Spermatophores of the marbled salamander 103 

Fig. 90. Vertical section of the spermatophore head of the marbled sala- 
mander 105 

Fig. 91. Spermatozoon of Ambystoma opacum 109 • 

Fig. 92. Larvae of Ambystoma opacum at the time of hatching 119 

Fig. 93. Vertical section of the integument of the head of a larval Amby- 
stoma opacum immediately before hatching 126 


ZOOLOGICA 

SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



VOLUME XI. NUMBER 1 


HAEMATOLOGY OF THE CAMELIDAE 

By Eric Ponder, J. Franklin Yeager 
and 

Harry A. Charipper 

Department of Biology, New York University 


PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 
THE ZOOLOGICAL PARK, NEW YORK 



December 5, 1928 


New fork Zaalagiral Satiety 

General Office: 101 Park Avenue , New York City 


GDfltors 

President, Madison Grant; 

Honorary President, Henry Fairfield Osborn; 

Vice-Presidents, Frank K. Sturgis; and Henry D. Whiton; 
Chairman, Executive Committee, Madison Grant; 

Treasurer, Cornelius R. Agnew 
Secretary, William White Niles 

loarii of JRattagTrH 
Class of 1929 

Henry Fairfield Osborn, George F. Baker, Robert S. Brewster, Ed- 

WARD S. HARKNESS, WILLIAM B. OSGOOD FIELD, EDWIN THORNE, 

Irving K. Taylor, Harry Payne Bingham, Landon 
K. Thorne, J. Watson Webb, Oliver D. 

Filley, De Forest Grant 

Class of 1930 

Madison Grant, Wm. White Niles, Frank K. Sturgis, Ogden Mills, 
Lewis R. Morris, Archer M. Huntington, George D. Pratt, 

T. Coleman du Pont, Henry D. Whiton, Cornelius R. 

Agnew, Harrison Williams, Marshall Field 

Class; of 1931 

Percy R. Pyne, George Bird Grinnell, Anthony R. Kuser, Mortimer L. 
Schiff, Frederic C. Walcott, George C. Clark, Jr., W. Red- 
mond Cross, George Gordon Battle, Henry Fair- 
field Osborn, Jr., Bayard Dominick, Anson 
W. Hard, Robert Gordon McKay 

W. Reid Blair, Director of the Zoological Park ; 

Charles H. Townsend, Director of the Aquarium; 

Raymond L. Ditmars, Curator of Mammals and Reptiles; 

William Beebe, Honorary Curator of Birds and Director of Department of 

Tropical Research ; 

Lee S. Crandall, Curator of Birds; 

H. C. Raven, Prosector; 

Charles V. Noback, Veterinarian; 

Elwin R. Sanborn, Editor. 

lEMturial (Eammitt** 

Madison Grant, Chairman; 

Charles H. Townsend 
George Bird Grinnell 
Elwin R. Sanborn, Secretary. 


W. Reid Blair 
William Beebe 


Zoologica Vol XI, No. 1. 


HAEMATOLOGY OF THE CAMELIDAE 

By Eric Ponder, J. Franklin Yeager and Harry A. Charipper 

Department of Biology, New York University and the New York 
Zoological Society * 

Aside from the common misinformation that the red cell of the 
camel is oval and nucleated, there is surprisingly little known 
concerning the haematology of the Camelidae. Gulliver (1875) 
gives the diameter of their dried red cells. Bottcher (1877) describes 
the erythrocytes as being nucleated. Ponder (1924) lists red cell 
counts and measurements for various species, and also points out 
that there is no evidence for Bottcher’s statement that the camel 
red cells are nucleated. Concerning the white cells there is no 
reliable information available. 

The purpose of this study is to give concisely and yet with 
sufficient detail the haematology of the Camelidae (which includes 
the camels and “cameloids”). In all cases the blood was taken 
into oxalate from a neck vein of healthy animals kept under the 
ordinary conditions of captivity. The examination of the cells was 
commenced within one hour from the time of withdrawing the 
blood. 

Unless otherwise stated, the following descriptions and differ- 
ential counts are based on blood films prepared by the smear method 
stained with Wright’s blood-stain. The red cell counts were made 
in the usual way, using Hayem’s solution. Triplicate counts were 
made and the average result per cubic millimetre is given. The 
white cell counts were obtained in a similar way, using a solution 
of acetic acid for dilution. The haemoglobin was estimated as 
carboxy-haemoglobin by Palmer’s colorimetric method, with the 
blood of one of us (H. A. C.) as a standard (100 per cent). These 
readings were made in triplicate and the average determined. The 
polynuclear counts were made in the manner described by Cooke 
(1914), and on 100 cells. The stain employed was iron haematoxy- 
lin, but counts can also be made on films stained with Wright’s 
or Giemsa’s stain. The method used for determining the resistance 

* The first of a series of researches undertaken by a cooperative arrangement between 
the Department of Biology of New York University and the New York Zoological Society. 

1 


2 


Zoological N. Y. Zoological Society 


[XI; 1 


of the red cells to haemolysins has been adequately described by 
Ponder (1927) and Yeager (1928), while the technique for studying 
the dimensions of the red cells has also been given in full by Ponder 
and Millar (1924). 

I. Llama glama 

a — The red cells, when seen in the fresh state in plasma, have the appear- 
ance of flattened ellipsoids, with a perfectly regular outline and homogeneous 
structure. The erythrocytes do not form typical rouleaux, but remain in 
contact with one another so as to form ‘chains,’ one end of one cell overlapping 
the end of the cell next to it, and so on. 

In stained films the red cells appear smaller than in the fresh state, but 
retain their shape remarkably well. Measurements of the length and breadth 
of these cells in the fresh and dried preparations show a definite change in 
size on drying. 

Fresh red cells in plasma — Length 7.8 /x. Breadth 4.3 Y- 
Red cells in dried films — Length 7.2 /x. Breadth 3.9 /x. 

When the erythrocytes are fixed in methyl alcohol, the haemoglobin is 
especially deposited in the central parts of the cell, and as a result the central 
area takes on a deeper stain than the peripheral region. This appearance may 
possibly be responsible for the erroneous statement which has sometimes been 
made that the cells are nucleated. 

b — The average haemoglobin percentage ■ is 89 per cent. 

c — Red cell count (cells per cubic millimetre) — 11,300,000. 

d — White cell count (cells per cubic millimetre) — 10,300. 

e — The morphology of the white cells of a young specimen shows no 
outstanding difference as compared to that of the adult. It may be noted, 
however, that the blood of young animal stains more rapidly and gives a better 
differentiation than that of the adult. 

1 — The polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leucocytes (P. M. N.) are approxi- 
mately circular and range in size from 10 to 12 /x. The nucleus is quite irregular 
in form, showing the familiar lobations of polymorphs in general. The cyto- 
plasm is slightly acidophilic in reaction and studded with many fine granules 
which are neutrophilic and which stain a lilac color in some cells and pink in 
others. 

2— The polymorphonuclear eosinophiles (P. M. E.) are circular or slightly 
oval in shape and fairly constant in size, 10 fx. Their nucleus is similar to that 
of the neutrophile just described, but stains less intensely. The cytoplasm, 
which stains a very light blue and is hardly distinguishable, is practically filled 
with coarse bright red granules. 

3 — The polymorphonuclear basophilic leucocytes (P. M. B.) are fairly 
circular in outline, and are the smallest of the polymorphonuclear leucocytes, 
8 ix. The nucleus which occupies the greater part of the cell is difficult to 
differentiate since it is basophilic in staining quality and takes a blue-purple 
color slightly less intense than that of the coarse granules which fill the cyto- 
plasm. 


1928 ] 


Ponder, Yeager, Charipper: Haematology 


3 


4 — The lymphocytes (L.) are more circular than any of the other blood 
elements and range in size from 8 to 10 /x. The nucleus is circular or slightly 
ovoid in outline, stains a deep blue, and fairly fills the cell, leaving a variable 
margin of faint sky-blue tinted cytoplasm. Occasionally a few scattered azure 
granules of variable size may be seen. 

5— The large mononuclear leukocytes (L. M.) are variable. in outline from 
perfect circles to irregular ovals. They average approximately 12 /x in size. 
The eccentrically-placed nucleus stains deep blue, yet several shades lighter 
than that of the lymphocytes, and presents a slight indentation on the side 
toward the larger area of cytoplasm. The cytoplasm which stains a light 
blue similar to that of the lymphocytes invariably contains a goodly number of 
coarse, azure granules. 

6 — The transitional leukocytes (T.) are large ovoid cells ranging from 10 
to 12 fx in size. The nucleus appears eccentrically placed and deeeply notched, 
and stains similar to that of the polymorphocuclear leukocyte. The cytoplasm 
stains a light blue and contains a large number of neutrophilic granules which 
tend to be concentrated and more deeply stained in the notch of the nucleus. 
It is difficult to distinguish these cells from the Class I polynuclear neutrophilic 
leucocytes. 

f — The differential count as determined by classifying the cells according 


to the description just given is: 
P. M. N. 

63 

L. 

11 

P. M. E. 

10 

L. M. 

4 

P. M. B. 

10 

T. 

2 


g — The polynuclear count for this animal is very much the same as in 
man and rabbit. 

I II III IV V 
L. glama 14 29 40 13 4 

h — Resistance of red cells to haemolysins. 

1 — The resistance to saponin was found to be 0.75 times as great as in man. 

2 — The resistance to sodium taurocholate is 1.20 times as great as in man. 

3 — The red cells were found to be resistant to 0.28 per cent saline which 
is a decidedly greater resistance than is shown by human erythrocytes which 
haemolyze at 0.32 per cent saline. 

II. Llama pocas 

a — The general morphology of the red cells of Llama pocas is essentially 
the same as that of Llama glama. The measurements are slightly different, 
and are given merely as a matter of record. 

Fresh red cells in plasma — Length 8.0 /x. Breadth 4.3 /x. 

Red cells in dried film — Length 7.6 /x. Breadth 4.1 fx. 
b — Haemoglobin, 106 per cent, 
c — Red cell count, 19,400,000. 
d — White cell count, 12,100. 

e — The general morphology of the blood elements are so much alike that 
for the sake of brevity the description given for Llama glama is adequate for 


4 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [XI; 1 

Llama pocas. The following brief note on each type of cell will therefore be 
limited to those differences deemed of note. 

1 — The polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (P. M. N.) vary in 
size from 8 to 10 n. The neutrophilic granules are regularly placed and some- 
what coarser than ordinarily. Both the granules and cytoplasm stain poorly 
and in a large number of cells are decidedly chromophobic. 

2 — The polymorphonuclear eosinophilic leukocytes (P. M. E.) are approxi- 
mately 8 to 9 ijl in diameter, irregularly oval in outline and heavily studded with 
large bright red granules. 

3 — The polymorphonuclear basophilic leukocytes (P. M. B.) are surpris- 
ingly frequent in occurrence. They are approximately circular in outline and 
4 to 5 ju in diameter. It is impossible to differentiate the nucleus which is 
practically lost in the heavy deeply staining basophilic granules which fill the 
cytoplasm. 

4 — The lymphocytes (L.) are definitely circular in outline and 6 to 8 ^ in 
diameter. The nucleus is centrally located, leaving a narrow border of clear 
blue cytoplasm. No azure granules were observed. 

5 — The large nomonuclear leukocytes (L. M.) average 10 n in diameter. 
The eccentrically placed, notched nucleus stains the same as that of the lym- 
phocytes. 

6 — The transitional leukocytes (T.) range from 10 to 12 ^ in size. The 
neutrophilic granules of the cytoplasm, as well as the cytoplasm itself, stains 
well, and therefore can be used as a differential for distinguishing between 
this type of cell and a Class I polynuclear neutrophilic leukocyte. 


f — Differential Count: — 


P. M. N. 

51 

L. 

4 

P. M. E. 

5 

L. 

M. 2 

P. M. B. 

37 

T. 

1 

g — Polynuclear Count: — 

I II 

III 


IV V 

Llama pocas 22 31 

37 


8 2 


h — Resistance to haemolysins: — 

1 — The resistance to saponin was found to be 1.00 times as great as in man. 

2 — The resistance to sodium taurocholate is 1.90 times as great as in man. 

3 — The red cells were found to be resistant to 0.28 per cent saline which 
is a decidedly greater resistance than is shown by human erythrocytes which 
just haemolyze at 0.32 per cent saline. 

III. Camelus dromedarius 

a — With the exception of the slight difference in size the red cells of this 
animal are very similar to those of L. glama and need no further description. 

Red cells sizes: — 

Fresh red cells in plasma — Length 8.0 /i. Breadth 4.6 m- 
Red cells in dried film — Length 7.1 n. Breadth 4.1 n. 

b — Haemoglobin, 96 per cent. 


1928 ] 


Ponder, Yeager, Charipper: Haematology 


5 


c — Red cell count, 10,800,000 per c. mm. 

d — White cell count, 12,000 per c. mm. 

e — With the exception of the differences in size the cells of this animal are 
so similar to those of Llama glama that the morphological description given in 
part one can be applied to the various cellular elements of this blood. 

1 — The polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (P. M. N.) are fairly 
constant in size, 13 ix. 

2 — The polymorphonuclear eosinophilic leukocytes (P. M. E.) are 
comparatively numerous. The coarse granules which fill the cytoplasm stain 
a deep pink rather than the characteristic bright red, and the cell shows an 
irregular ragged outline. Their size is roughly 11 /x .' 

3 — The polymorphonuclear basophilic leukocytes (P. M. B.) are 10 /x in 
diameter. The coarse granules which fill the cytoplasm seem to stain more 
intensely at the periphery of the cytoplasm where they appear almost blue 
black in contrast to the definite deep purple of the other granules closer to the 
nucleus. 

4 — The lymphocytes, (L.) which are approximately 8 /x in diameter, have 
a very thin cytoplasmic rim which stains the usual sky-blue. In some cases 
the deep blue nucleus appears to fill the cell completely and no cytoplasmic 
rim can be differentiated. 

5— The. arge mononuclear leukocytes (L. M.) average about 13 /x in size 
and show light blue staining granules in the cytoplasm rather than the azure 
granules as usually described. 

6 — The transitional leukocytes (T.) are easily recognized because of their 
size, 15 At. The eccentrically placed indented nucleus, however, is not pro- 
portionately as large and as a result there is a good deal of cytoplasm to be 
seen. The fine neutrophilic granules are sparsely scattered throughout the 
cell. 

f — Differential Count: — 


P. M. N. 

55 

L. 

8 

P. M. E. 

27 

L. M. 

6 

P. M. B. 

3 

T. 

1 

-Polynuclear Count: — 

I II 

III 

IV 

V 

dromedarius 24 35 

32 

7 

2 


h — Resistance to haemolysins: — 

1 — The resistance to saponin was found to be 1.03 times as great as in man. 

2 — The resistance to sodium taurocholate is 1.72 times as great as in man. 

3 — The red cells were found to be resistant to 0.28 per cent saline which 
is a decidedly greater resistance than is shown by human erythrocytes which 
just haemolyze at 0.32 per cent, saline. 

IV. Camelus batriens 

a — The red cells of this species are sufficiently similar to those of L. glama 
as to warrant no descriptions other than a notation of their sizes. 


6 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[XI; 1 


Fresh red cells in plasma — Length 8.1 /x. Breadth 4.5 /x. 

Red cells in dried film— Length 7.5 /x. Breadth 3.6 jx. 

b — Haemoglobin, 87 per cent. 

c — Red cell count, 10,450,000. 

d — White cell count, 10,800. 

e — There is no marked difference in the staining quality or morphology of 
the blood elements of the young animal as compared to that of the adult. 
The leukocytes of this species of camel are larger and better differentiated than 
those of the other species studied in this group. 

1 — The polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (P. M. N.) are irregular 
in outline tending more toward the circular than the oval in shape. Their 
approximate mean diameter is fairly constant, measuring approximately 16 m- 
The nucleus which is typically polymorphous stains a light reddish purple. 
The cytoplasm which is clear and very slightly tinted a light blue contains 
various sized evenly stained neutrophilic granules. 

2 — The polymorphonuclear eosinophilic leukocytes (P. M. E.) are typical. 
They measure approximately 12 to 14 /x in diameter. 

3 — The polymorphonuclear basophilic leukocytes (P. M. B.) are circular 
in outline with an irregular incompletely lobed nucleus which stains a reddish 
purple, making it easily distinguishable from the light blue cytoplasm thickly 
packed with coarse deep blue or purple stained granules. These cells measure 
about 8 to 10 ii. 

4 — The lymphocytes (L.) vary in size from 12 to 16 n and contain a large 
deep blue staining nucleus which is slightly eccentric in position. The irregular 
rim of cytoplasm stains the typical sky-blue. 

5 — The large mononuclear leukocytes (L. M.) are irregularly circular in 
outline. The nucleus which is large and deeply indented stains a reddish purple. 
The sky-blue cytoplasm contains many azure granules clumped, as usual, 
in the indentation of the nucleus. These cells are rather constant in size, 
measuring about 22 /x. 

6 — The transitional leukocytes (T.) contain a deep blue staining nucleus 
in a pink colored cytoplasm which is filled with typical neutrophilic granules. 
These cells are very large, averaging approximately 30 /x in diameter. 

f — Differential Count: — 


Adult P. M. N. 

P. M. E. 
P. M. B. 


67 L. 11 

15 L. M. 3 

2 T. 2 


g — Polynuclear Count: — 

I II III IV V 
C. batriens 23 36 34 6 1 


h — Resistance to haemolysins: — 

1 — The resistance to saponin was found to be 0.96 times as great as in man. 

2 — The resistance to sodium taurocholate is 1.42 times as great as in man. 

3 — The red cells were found to be resistant to 0.26 per cent NaCl, which 


1928 ] 


Ponder, Yeager, Charipper: Haematology 


7 


is a decidedly greater resistance than is shown by human erythrocytes which 
haemolyze at 0.32 per cent saline. 

It cannot be expected, of course, that the examination of the necessarily 
few specimens of each species will provide us with perfectly trustworthy infor- 
mation, for allowance has to be made for individual variations; we believe, 
however, that the data presented is both more representative and more trust- 
worthy than any at present existing. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bottcher, Arthur 

1877. Ueber die feineren Strukturverhaltnisse der rothen Blutkorpercher, 
Arch. f. mikr. Anat. Bd. XIV. S. 73-93. 

Cooke, W. E. 

1914. The Arneth Count. Glasgow. 

Gulliver. 

1875. Proc. Zool. Soc. (cited after Ponder ’24.) 

Ponder, E. 

1924. The erythrocyte and the action of simple haemolysins. London. 

1927. Studies on the kinetics of haemolytic systems. 

II The series of Ryvosh; Biochem. Jour. V 21 p. 56. 

Ponder, E., and Millar, W. G. 

1924. The measurement of the diameter of erythrocytes. I The mean 
diameter in man. Quart. Jour. Exp. Phys. V 14 p. 67. 

Yeager, J. F. 

1928. Haemolysis by saponin and sodium tauracholate with special 
reference to the series of Ryvosh, Jour. Gen. Phys. VII, pp. 779-787. 

(A fuller account of these investigations will be found in the following 
paper: — - 

Studies in Comparative Haematology. I. Camelidae. Quarterly 
Journal of Experimental Physiology, vol. xix.) 





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VOLUME XI. NUMBER 2 


HAEMATOLOGY OF THE PRIMATES 

By Eric Ponder, J. Franklin Yeager 
and 

Harry A. Charipper 

Department of Biology, New York University 


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Zoologica Vol. XI, No. 2. 


HAEMATOLOGY OF THE PRIMATES 

Eric Ponder, J. Franklin Yeager and H. A. Charipper 

Department of Biology, New York University and the New York 
Zoological Society* 

While occasional references may be found regarding the red 
cell counts and the differential counts of certain primates, these 
are usually secondary matters arising in connection with some 
research problem. Aside from the work of Gulliver (1875), which 
concerns itself with the red cell sizes alone, there is no single investi- 
gation dealing primarily with the haematology of the primates. 
The present study has been undertaken with a view to fulfilling 
the need for this particular investigation. 

The blood of the monkeys is best obtained from a marginal 
ear vein. The ear is first shaved and rubbed with ether or benzene; 
a prominent vein near the margin of the ear is then opened with a 
single cut with a razor blade. Much of the difficulty which may 
be experienced in controlling adult specimens of the larger primates 
may be avoided by using young animals, but the difficulty is not 
as a rule great if the animal is held by a keeper with whom it is 
familiar. 

With the exception of the blood of the spider monkeys, the 
dilutions for the red blood cell count, white blood cell count, haemo- 
globin determination, and occasionally for the suspensions for 
haemolysis, were made from fresh unoxalated blood. The smears 
for the differential counts and polynuclear counts were obtained 
at the same time. The blood of the spider monkeys was collected 
into oxalate in the usual proportions. Owing to the difficulty 
which we have experienced in obtaining more than quite small 
quantities of blood from many of the monkeys, a modification has 
been introduced in the method of preparing the films of cells for 
measurement. A small volume of blood is drawn into a capillary 
pipette, which is then sealed at both ends. When the preparation 
of red cells is made for photography, the seals are removed and the 
contents of the tube, consisting of serum and clot, expelled on to 
the surface of a slide. The clot is removed with a pair of fine 
forceps, and the remaining serum covered with a coverslip. The 

* The second of a series of researches undertaken by a cooperative arrangement between 
the Department of Biology of New York University and the New York Zoological Society. 

9 


10 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[XI; 2 


serum always contains a considerable number of cells, which can be 
photographed and measured in the usual manner. Under these 
conditions the cells are measured in serum instead of in oxalated 
plasma, but this does not affect their mean diameter. 

Except where otherwise stated, the technique employed is 
identical with that described in the first paper of this series (Haema- 
tology of the Camelidae). It should also be mentioned that the 
general morphology of the leucocytes of the primates examined 
in this investigation is so much like that of the leucocytes of man 
that differences alone are described. 

I. Gorilla gorilla 

a — The red cells are typical biconcave discs similar to the red cells of man. 
Their mean diameter, however, is slightly smaller. Cells in plasma have a 
mean diameter of 7.7 n , while cells in dried films have a diameter of 7.3 /x. 

b — The average haemoglobin percentage is 83 per cent. 

c — Red cell count per cubic millimetre, 6,250,000. 

d — White cell count per cubic millimetre, 6,800. 

e — The morphology of the cells presents several points of interest. 

1 — The polymorphonuclear neutrophiles (P. M. N.) are circular in outline 
and range in size from 9 to 12 /x. There appears to be a predominance of bilobed 
cells. The cytoplasm, granules, and nucleus are typical. 

2 — The polymorphonuclear eosinophiles (P. M. E.) measure approxi- 
mately 11 ix. The deep red granules are evenly distributed throughout the 
light blue cytoplasm. The nucleus stains less intensely than that of the neu- 
trophiles. 

3 — The polymorphonuclear basophiles (P. M. B.) are circular and measure 
about 10 ix. The nucleus is obscured by the coarse basophilic granules. The 
cell has the appearance of a compact mass of chromatin with. minute chro- 
mophobic areas. 

4 — The lymphocytes (L) are the smallest of the white cells, and measure 
only 8 ix. The nucleus is irregular and practically fills the cell. 

5 — The large mononuclears (L. M.) are variable in outline from perfect 
circles to irregular ovals. They measure about 16 ix. The eccentrically 
placed nucleus stains a deep blue. There are a very few coarse azure granules 
scattered throughout the cytoplasm. 

6 — The transitional leucocytes (T) closely resemble the class I polymorphs 
in size and shape. The granules in the cytoplasm are coarser and are con- 
centrated about the nucleus. 

f — The differential count is as follows: 

P. M. N. 63 L. 23 

P. M. E. 5 L. M. 4 

P. M. B. 3 T. 2 

g — The polynuclear count is similar to that of man, and is as follows: 
17 : 28 : 39 : 14 : 2. 


1929 ] 


Ponder, Yeager, Charipper: Haematology 


11 


II. Pan calvus (Chimpanzee) 

a — The red cell size alone is worthy of record. The cells in plasma measure 
7.8 fj., while dry cells measure 7.4 \x . 
b — Haemoglobin, 89 per cent, 
c — Red cell count, 7,300,000. 
d — White cell count, 10,400. 

e — The leucocytes of this animal show no variations worthy of note, 
except that the lymphocytes have an extremely thin layer of light blue cyto- 
plasm about a large irregular nucleus. Small dark granules can be seen scattered 
at random in the scanty cytoplasm. The measurements of the white cells are: 


P. M. N. 

8-10 fi. L. 

7 

P. M. E. 

9 L. M. 

11 

P. M. B. 

5-10 fj-- T. 

(none found 

differential count 

is as follows: 


P. M. N. 

58 L. 

16 

P. M. E. 

5 L. M. 

1 

P. M. B. 

20 T. 

— 


g — The polynuclear count is 3 : 12 : 45 : 32 : 8. 

h — The resistance of the red cells to haemolysins is as follows: 

1 —The resistance to saponin is 1.7 times that of the cells of man. 

2 — The resistance to taurocholate is 2.7 times that of human cells. 

3 — The red cells are resistant to 0.28 per cent NaCl, a resistance con- 
siderably greater than that of human erythrocytes. 

III. Pongo pygmseus (Orang-utan) 

a — The red cells in plasma measure 7.8 n, while dried cells measure only 
7.4 /x. 

b — Haemoglobin, 80 per cent. 

c — Red cell count, 6,880,000. 

d — White cell count 9,400. 

e — The morphology of the leucocytes presents a few interesting features. 

1 — The polymorphs have an uneven outline which can be considered as 
roughly circular. They measure 10 n in diameter. The nucleus is multi- 
lobed and uneven; the cytoplasm shows a variable staining reaction owing to 
the fact that it is studded with a mixture of eosinophile and basophile granules. 

2 — The eosinophiles are almost circular in outline, and measure 7 p in 
diameter. The nucleus stains a light purple and is set in a poorly staining 
cytoplasm with coarse eosinophile granules. 

3 — The basophiles resemble small lymphocytes with coarse basophilic 
granules. The nucleus is fairly regular, but its outline is difficult to trace 
owing to the number of the cytoplasmic granules. The cytoplasm seen between 
the granules is light blue. The size varies from 5 to 8 /*. 

4 — The lymphocytes are about 5 n in diameter. The time required for 
staining the smears of this blood is quite different from that ordinarily used. 
The initial staining proceeds rapidly (15 to 25 seconds), while the differentiation 
requires a full two minutes. 


12 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[XI; 2 


f — The differential count is: 


p. 

M. N. 

55 

L. 

24 

p. 

M. E. 

4 

L. M. 

2 

p. 

M. B. 

15 

T. 

— 


g — The polynuclear count is 3 : 12 : 40 : 28 : 17. 

IV. Papio cynocephalus (Yellow Baboon) 

a — Red cells in plasma measure 7.7 p, while dried cells measure 7.3 p. 
b — Haemoglobin, 87 per cent, 
c — Red cell count, 6,970,000. 
d — White cell count, 10,400. 

e — With the exception of the size of the eosinophiles, which measure 17 p, 
the white cells of this monkey show few differences from those of man. The 
transitional leucocytes are rather small, measuring only about 11 m as opposed 
to the 20 p measurement for the same cells in man. The sizes of the other 
white cells are given below: 


P. M. N. 

12 p 

L. 

8 p 

P. M.B. 

f — The differential count is: 

10 p 

L. M. 

19 p 

P. M. N. 

65 

L 

29 

P. M.E. 

2 

L. M. 

2 

P. M.B. 

1 

T. 

1 

g — The polynuclear count is 10 

: 25 : 40 

: 20 : 5. 



h — The resistance to saponin is 0.57 times that of human cells, and the 
resistance to taurocholate 0.42 times as great. The cells resist 0.18 per cent 
NaCl; this is a very great resistance indeed. 

V. Lasiopyga griseoviridis (Green Monkey) 

a — Cells in plasma measure 7.8 p, while dried cells measure 7.4 p. 
b — Haemoglobin, 87 per cent, 
c — Red cell count, 6,400,000. 
d — White cell count, 12,600. 

e — The staining properties and morphology of the cells require no descrip- 


. The cells sizes are: — 
P. M.N. 

10 p 

L. 

8 p 

P. M.E. 

7 p 

L. M. 

12 p 

P. M. B. 

10 p 

T. 

— 

f — The differential count is:- 
P. M.N. 

58 

*L 

31 

P. M. E. 

7 

L. M. 

3 

P. M.B. 

1 

T. 

none 

g — The polynuclear count is 8 : 

: 20 : 38 

: 22 : 12. 



h — The resistance to saponin is 0.9 times that of the cells of man; to 
taurocholate the resistance is 0.40. The cells are less resistant to NaCl than 
are the cells of man, haemolysing at 0.43 per cent. 


1929 ] 


Ponder, Yeager, Charipper: Haematology 


13 


VII. Magus maurus (Celebes Macaque) 

a — Red cells in serum, 7.9 m; in the dried state, 7.2 m- 
b — Haemoglobin, 88 per cent, 
c — Red cell count, 5,000,000. 
d — White cell count, 7,600. 

e — The transitional leucocytes contain a mixture of basophilic and eosino- 
philic granules in addition to the typical lilac colored granules. Otherwise 
there is no noteworthy difference from the cells of man. The cell sizes are: — 


P. M.N. 

10 m L. 

23 m 

P. M.E. 

9 m L. M. 

14 m 

P. M. B. 

8 m T. 

19 m 

f — The differential count is: 
P. M.N. 

69 L. 

23 

P. M.E. 

2 L. M. 

1 

P. M.B. 

4 T. 

1 

g — The polynuclear count is 32 : 32 : 31 : 5 : 0. 

h — The resistance to saponin is 1.55 times as great as in man, while the 

resistance to taurocholate is 0.55 times as great. 1 

The cells resist 0.22 per cent 


NaCl. 

VI. Pithecus rhesus (Rhesus Monkey) 

a — Red cells in plasma measure 8.0 m, while dried cells measure 7.3 m- 
b — Haemoglobin 77 per cent, 
c — Red cell count, 5,000,000. 
d — White cell count, 10,400. 

e — The blood elements of this form are decidedly chromophilic, for they 
stain easily and differentiate rapidly. The lymphocytes especially show a 
marked differential staining. Their cytoplasm stains a beautiful blue, while 
the azure granules stand out in bold relief. The cell sizes are: — 

P. M.N. 5 n L. 5 m 

P. M.E. 6 m L. M. 12 m 

P. M.B. 7 m T. — 

These cells are all rather small in size, the largest being no bigger than a poly- 


morph of human blood. 




f— The differential count is: — 




P. M.N. 73 

L 

18 

P. M.E. 

3 

L. M. 

2 

P. M.B. 

1 

T. 

none 

g — The polynuclear count is 12 

: 32 

: 40 : 14 : 2. 



h — The resistance to saponin is 0.73 times that of human cells, while to 
taurocholate it is approximately the same. The cells resist 0.27 per cent 
NaCl, and are therefore more resistant than the cells of man. 

VIII . Pithecus irus (Common Macaque) 

a — Red cells in serum, 8.0 n: in dried films, 7.1 m. 
b — Haemoglobin, 90 per cent. 


14 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[XI; 2 


c — Red cell count, 6,432,000. 
d — White cell count, 7,200. 

e — The polymorphs are typical, and measure 10 m in diameter. The 
eosinophiles occur in quite large numbers, and measure 8 ^ in diameter; their 
granules are large and uniform, and stain an intense red. The nucleus is less 
lobated than usual. The basophiles are also numerous, and measure 7-12 m- 


The lymphocytes measure 10 /x, the mononuclears 
11 /X. 

f — The differential count is: — 

15 /x, and the transitionals 

P. M.N. 37 

L. 

18 

P. M. E. 19 

L. M. 

1 

P. M.B. 24 

T. 

1 


g — The polynuclear count is 18 : 37 : 39 : 6 : 0. 

h — The resistance of the red cells is given by the following figures: saponin, 
1.0, taurocholate, 0.49, hypotonic saline, 0.16 per cent NaCl. This latter is 
the greatest resistance yet recorded. 

IX. Cebus fatuellus (Sapajou) 

a — Red cells in plasma, 7.8 m ; in dried films, 6.8 m- 
b — Haemoglobin, 90 per cent, 
c— Red cell count, 5,100,000. 
d — White cell count, 10,400. 

e — The polymorphs are difficult to stain properly, and the nucleus is 
obscured by the eosinophilic and basophilic granules which fill the cytoplasm. 
There are some neutrophile granules present. The size of these cells is 13 /x. 
The lymphocytes are peculiar in that they contain an irregular nucleus with 
slightly scalloped margins. The cell sizes are: — - 


P. M.N. 

13 m 

L. 

8 m 

P. M.E. 

10 m 

L. M. 

11m 

P. M.B. 
differential count 

7m 

is: — 

T. 

11m 

P. M.N. 

68 

L. 

21 

P. M.E. 

5 

L. M. 

2 

P. M. B. 

3 

T. 

1 


g — The polynuclear count is 10 : 22 : 42 : 18 : 8. 

h — The resistance to haemolysins is shown by the following figures: 
saponin, 1.42, taurocholate, 1.12, hypotonic saline, 0.38 per cent NaCI. 

X. Ateleus ater (Black Spider Monkey) 

a — Red cells in plasma, 9.1 mJ in dried films, 7.7 m- 
b— Haemoglobin, 76 per cent, 
c — Red cell count, 5,760,000. 
d — White cell count, 10,000. 

e — The eosinophiles are peculiar in that areas of the cytoplasm do not 
contain granules of any kind. The large bright red granules are concentrated 
on one side of the nucleus, leaving the remaining part of the clear light blue 


1929] 


Ponder , Yeager, Charipper: Haematology 


15 


cytoplasm devoid of granules. No large mononuclears or transitional cells 
appear to be present. The sizes of the cells are: — 


P. M. N. 13-17 M 

L. 

10 n 

P. M. E. 12 n 

L. M. 

— 

P. M. B. 8 m 

T. 

— 

f — Differential count:— 



P. M.N. 69 

L. 

18 

P. M. E. 12 

L. M. 

none 

P. M.B. 1 

T. 

none 

g — Polynuclear count: — 3 : 6 : 5 : 10 : 

: 10 : 10 : 

: 14 : 42. 


This is a most 

remarkable count, for not only are there eight classes, but as many as 42 cells 
show eight nuclear lobes. 

h — Resistance to haemolysins: — saponin, 1.24, taurocholate, 1.63, hy- 
potonic saline, 0.28 per cent NaCl. 


XI. Ateleus geoffroyi (Gray Spider Monkey) 

a — Red cells in plasma, 8.8 ju.; in dried films, 7.9 m- 
b — Haemoglobin, 80 per cent, 
c — Red cell count, 3,840,000. 
d — White cell count, 7,000. 

e — The polymorphs are approximately 10 m in diameter, and contain 
extremely lightly staining cytoplasm filled with fine neutrophile granules. 
The basophiles appear to be composed almost entirely of nuclear material, 
only a few basophilic granules being resolvable at the edge of the cell. The 
lymphocytes also have very little cytoplasm, and contain a few azure granules. 
The large mononuclears have a clear sky blue cytoplasm which contains no 


granules at all. The cell sizes 
P. M.N. 

are: — 
10 M 

L. 

8 m 

P. M.E. 

11m 

L. M. 

13 m 

P. M.B. 

6-8 m 

T. 

— 

f — Differential count: — 
P. M.N. 

73 

L. 

15 

P. M. E. 

8 

L. M. 

1 

P. M. B. 

3 

T. 

none 


g — Polynuclear count: — 8 : 18 : 21 : 29 : 19 : 4 : 1. Like the count of 
xlteles ater, the count is very right handed. 

h — Resistance to haemolysins: — saponin, 1.28, taurocholate, 1.46, hypo- 
tonic saline 0.28 per cent NaCl. 


XII. Saimiri sciureus (Squirrel Monkey) 
a — Red cells in serum, 6.4 m; in dried films, 6.1 m- 
b — Haemoglobin, 84 per cent, 
c — Red cell count, 7,416,000. 
d — White cell count, 11,000. 

e — The lymphocytes can properly be divided into small and large, for 
they show a wide variation in size (5-14 mV The other cells are typical. The 
sizes are: — 


16 


Zoologica : N. Y. Zoological Society 


[XI; 2 


P. M.N. 

10 M 

L. 

5-14 m 

P. M.E. 

8 m 

L. M. 

12 m 

P. M.B. 

f— Differential count: — 

8 m 

T. 

— 

P. M.N. 

65 

L. 

26 

P. M.E. 

6 

L. M. 

1 

P. M.B. 

2 

T. 

none 

g — Polynuclear count: — 8 : 

: 15: 30: 22: 

15 : 10. 



h — Resistance to haemolysins: — saponin, 0.90, taurocholate, 0.95, hypo- 
tonic saline, 0.27 per cent NaCl. 

XIII. Aotus trivirgatus (Owl Monkey) 

a — Red cells in serum, 7.1 m; in dried films, 6.7 m- 
b — Haemoglobin, 71 per cent, 
c — Red cell count, 4,664,000. 
d — White cell count, 8,200. 

e — The films are exceedingly difficult to stain, owing to the serum taking 
on a grayish-blue color which obscures the cell outline. Direct fixation with 
methyl alcohol before staining seems to help, but no satisfactory technique has 
been developed for dealing with the blood films of this animal. Except that 
there are no large mononuclears or transitional cells, all the leucocytes observed 


were found to be typical. 

The cells 

sizes are: — 


P. M.N. 

7 M 

P. M.B. 

8 M 

P. M.E. 

f — Differential count: 

10 m 

L. 

9-10 m 

P. M.N. 

79 

P. M.B. 

1 

P. M.E. 

8 

L. 

12 


g — Polynuclear count: — 6 : 20 : 34 : 16 : 4. 


XIV. Callithrix jacchus (Marmoset) 
a — Red cells in serum, 7.7 m; in dried films, 7.0 m- 
b — Haemoglobin, 67 per cent, 
c — Red cell count, 6,624,000. 
d — White cell count, 7,800. 

e — The mononuclears are atypical in that the cytoplasm stains a light blue 


and is filled with fine purple 

granules which are 

evenly distributed. The 

nucleus is approximately central. The cell 

sizes are: — 

P. M. N. 10 

-11 m 

L. 

5-9 m 

P. M. E. 

11 M 

L. M. 

16 M 

P. M. B. 

8m 

T. 

— 

f — Differential count: — 




P. M. N. 

72 

L. 

19 

P. M. E. 

2 

L. M. 

3 

P. M. B. 

4 

T. 

none 


g — Polynuclear count: — 35 : 32 : 28 : 5 : 0. This count is a little left handed, 
h — Resistance to haemolysins: — saponin, 0.57, taurocholate, 0.71, hy- 
potonic saline, 0.40 per cent NaCl. 


1929] 


Ponder, Yeager, Charipper: Haematology 


17 


XV. Lemur catta (Ring-tailed Lemur) 

a — Red cells in plasma, 6.8 /x ; in dried films, 6.3 /x. 
b — Haemoglobin, 87 per cent, 
c — Red cell count, 7,936,000. 
d — White cell count, 16,400. 

e — The polymorphs are typical except that they contain some rather 
coarse neutrophile granules. The eosinophiles contain peculiar red granules, 
characterized by their hyaline appearance. The lymphocytes contain an 
exceedingly small amount of cytoplasm. The sizes are: — 


P. M. N. 

10 ix 

L. 

6-8 ix 

P. M. E. 

10 ix 

L. M. 

12 tx 

P. M. B. 

Differential count:— 

9 p 

T. 

13 ix 

P. M. N. 

66 

L. 

23 

P. M. E. 

7 

L. M. 

1 

P. M.B. 

2 

T. 

1 


g — Polynuclear count: — 5 :25 :38 :25 : 7. 

h — Resistance to haemolysins: — saponin, 0.64, taurocholate, 1.0, hypo- 
tonic saline 0.42. This latter figure is greater than that for the cells of man. 

XVI. Lemur mongos (Brown Lemur) 

a — Red cells in plasma, 6.7 [x; in dried films, 6.3 /x. 
b — -Haemoglobin, 75 per cent, 
c — Red cell count, 10,304,000. 
d — White cell count, 15,400. 

e — No transitional or mononuclear cells could be found. The eosinophiles 
contain only a few red staining granules. The basophiles also contain few 


granules. The sizes are: — 

P. M. N. 

10 ix 

P. M. B. 

6-8 ix 

P. M. E. 

.11 M 

L. 

9-12 ix 

f — Differential counts: — 

P. M. N. 

69 

L. 

27 

P. M. E. 

1 

L. M. 

none 

P. M. B. 

3 

T. 

none 


g — Polynuclear count: — 5: 18 : 40 : 25 : 10 : 2. 


~ Atypical leucocytes 

While examining the stained smears of the bipod of the sapajou, gorilla, 
and squirrel monkey, a large polymorphonuclear leucocyte was encountered, 
. which measured from 18-23 ix in diameter. The nucleus is typically poly- 
morphic, stains a deep purple, and has at least four lobes. The cytoplasm is 
clear, stains light pink, and contains no granules. It occurs approximately 
once in every 200 cells. 


18 Zoologica : N. Y. Zoological Society [XI; 2 

Summary 

Except for small differences of size the red cells of the Primates 
resemble those of man. The largest cells are those of the spider 
monkeys while the smallest are those of the lemurs. The red cell 
counts vary from 5,000,000 to 7,000,000 and the haemoglobin 
content from 75 to 90 per cent. The erythrocytes offer consider- 
able variations in their resistance to haemolysis by simple haemoly- 
sins, but are in general considerably more resistant to hypotonic 
saline haemolysis than are human cells. The morphology of the 
white cells is very similar to that found in man, minor differences 
only being found, and the differential counts present no unusual 
features. The total white cell count varies from 7,000 to 16,000. 
For most genera of monkeys the polynuclear count is more right- 
handed than the count for man and in the case of Ateles ater as 
many as 40 per cent of the polymorphs may be cells containing 
7 nuclear lobes. 


A fuller account of the haematology of the Primates will be 
found in the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology, vol. 
xix. 




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ZOOLOGICA 

SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



VOLUME XL NUMBER 3 


DIRECT BONE FORMATION IN THE ANTLER 
TINES OF TWO OF THE AMERICAN CERVIDAE, 
VIRGINIA DEER ( ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS ) 
AND WAPITI ( CERVUS CANADENSIS ) 

WITH AN INTRODUCTION ON THE GROSS STRUCTURE 

OF ANTLERS 

By Charles V. Noback, PhD., and Walter Modell, B.S. 

Zoological Park 

PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 
THE ZOOLOGICAL PARK, NEW YORK 



February 15, 1930 


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Zoologica, Vol. XI, No. 3. 


DIRECT BONE FORMATION IN THE ANTLER 
TINES OF TWO OF THE AMERICAN CERVIDAE, 
VIRGINIA DEER ( Odocoileus virginianus) AND 
WAPITI ( Cervus canadensis) 

WITH AN INTRODUCTION ON THE GROSS STRUCTURE 

OF ANTLERS 

By Charles V. Noback, Ph.D., and Walter Modell, B.S.* 

New York Zoological Park 

Illustrations from photographs made in the Zoological Park 

Introduction 

(Figs. 1 to 56 inch) 

This paper is the report of a study of the gross and micro- 
scopic structure of growing antler tines in Virginia deer ( Odocoileus 
virginianus ) and the wapiti or American elk ( Cervus canadensis). 
The major portion of the histological work was confined to a study of 
the tip of a growing wapiti antler. A similar histological study of 
the tip of a growing antler in the Virginia deer indicated that essen- 
tially the same process of growth is present in the growing antler tines 
of both of these American Cervidae. It is not our purpose to con- 
sider the general external structure such as the size and pattern of 
antlers, as this subject has been treated in works on natural history 
[Hornaday (18)]. 

A striking and impressive feature of antler-bearing Cervidae is 
that these large osseous structures are shed and renewed annually. 
One is impressed by the size and strength of these very rapidly grow- 
ing osseous structures, which present perhaps the most rapid growth 
of membranous bone found in mammals. 

Numerous descriptions are given of the number of tines or 
branches that antlers possess, and such terms as brow, bez, trez, royal, 
sur-royal and crown tines are frequently used in general descriptions 
of antlers. Aristotle (1) (384 to 322 B. C.) considered them as 
secondary sexual characters and noted that they were shed annually. 
“If stags are castrated before they are old enough to have horns 
[antlers], these never appear; but if castrated after they have horns 
[antlers], their size never varies, nor are they subject to their annual 
change.” Redi in 1657 quoted by Owen (2) expresses the same 

* Scientific Assistant at the Zoological Park during the summer of 1929. 

19 


20 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[XI; 3 


opinion as Aristotle but gives no experimental data to support his 
views. In 1766 Buff on et Daubeton (3) in their “Histoire naturelle 
general” make the same statement regarding antlers and castration. 

Prior to the nineteenth century, writers seem to have confined 
their records to descriptions of the general antler pattern, shedding, 
and the effects of castration. Since this paper will not deal with cast- 
ration effects we will proceed to note some of the views that have been 
held on the structure and composition of antlers. 

As late as 1758 Buff on (4) expressed the opinion that antlers were 
composed of wood, growing in a manner similar to the growth of the 
branches of a tree. Barr's (5) translation of Buff on's Works in 1807 
contains the following reference on a red deer antler. “ Its substance 
is perhaps more of the nature of wood than bone; it is, as it were, a 
vegetable grafted upon the animal. '' The velvet was designated as 
ecorce (bark). “Bois” is frequently used by the French to designate 
an antler. 

The earliest references on the actual composition of antlers which 
we were able to find were those of Chevrueil (6) (1818) and Georges 
Cuvier (7) (1817). These writers were apparently the first to recog- 
nize and record the fact that the cervine antler is composed of bone. 
The former states that the antler of ruminants consists of bone and 
that on boiling, the organic matter is converted into gelatine, and 
that no fat is present. Cuvier (7) in an article under Cerf states, 
“antlers are composed of bone. " 

Johannes Muller (8) (1825) believed that the bony core of the 
ruminant horn and the antler are similar in structure, and considers 
the tubercle of the budding antler to consist of cartilage which ossifies 
in a manner similar to bones of the foetal skeleton. Gegenbaur (9) 
(1867) describes the ossification of the antler as an exceptional kind of 
cartilage metaplasia and agrees with Lieberkuhn (10) (1864), who also 
believed that the antler was preformed in cartilage. 

Landois (11) (1865) observed and recorded that the antler was 
not preformed in cartilage but in reality was a form of membranous 
bone. It remained for Robin et Herrmann (12) (1882) to confirm 
this finding and to present clear histological evidence as to the actual 
character and composition of the osseous structure of antlers. They 
gave a detailed description of the process of ossification and growth 
of the Roebuck ( Cervus capreolus) antler from an undifferentiated 
connective tissue through a preosseous stage to membranous bone, 


1930] Noback and Modell: Direct Bone Formation in Antler Tines 21 

together with a description of the phases of osteoblastic development. 
They use the term preosseous substance (substance preosseous, or 
substance fondamental de 1 ’os de Muller) to describe the clear amor- 
phous material containing osteogenic fibrillae which surrounds the 
osteoblasts. 

Gadow (13) (1902) in a paper on “The Evolution of Horns and 
Antlers” emphatically denies direct bone formation in the antler and 
describes the presence (page 210) of “a dense layer of hyaline carti- 
lage which together with the rapidly proliferating connective tissue. 
. . . forms the growing point of the future pricket. ” He presents no 
original work in support of this statement. In reply to Durst (14) 
(1902), who states that the bone of the antler is not formed by the 
intervention of cartilage, Gadow (13) states (page 222), “He [Durst] 
and others will have to accustom themselves to the existence of cart- 
ilage in places where textbooks carefully abstain from mentioning it. ” 

Fambach (15) (1909) in a critical review and by original work 
confirms the observations of Landois, Robin et Herrmann and Durst 
on the structure of antlers. 

Macewen (16) (1920) page xi, states, “The inquiry into the 
phenomena connected with the growth and shedding of the deciduous 
antler of the deer is undertaken to determine the data of a very inter- 
esting phase of nature which had not already been investigated, was 
imperfectly understood and which on its own merits, was of intrinsic 
value.” Without referring to any previous work on the histogenesis 
of the bone in the antler he concludes from original work that (page 
49). “The antlers showed a vigorous formation of bone through 
cartilage of the main stem and the basal portions of the tines, while 
the terminal parts of the same tines developed through direct bone 
formation.” 

Before going into a detailed account on the structure of antlers 
we feel it advisable to review the gross characteristics which different- 
iate the antler from the hollow horn of ruminants. The cervine 
antler is a deciduous bony protuberance arising from the pedicle of 
the frontal bone, covered with a true skin, the velvet, during its 
period of growth. This velvet is shed after ossification has been 
completed. Horns may be considered as the permanent kerato- 
genous sheaths of ectodermal origin which enclose an osseous core 
arising from the frontal bone of the hollow-horned ruminants. Horns 
are present in both sexes, and except in the prong-horned antelope, 


22 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [XI; 3 

are never shed. The prong-horned antelope sheds its horns each 
year. 

The males of all Cervidae with the exception of the Chinese 
water deer ( Hydropotes inermis ) are antler-bearing, while in the cari- 
bou ( Rangifer caribou) and reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus ) both sexes 
bear deciduous antlers. 

As the antlers of American deer are in process of growth from 
April to October, it will be realized that it is very difficult to obtain 
material for study without injury to the animal. The specimens 
used in this investigation were obtained from accidentally broken 
antlers. 

Gross External Antler Structure 

At birth the antler-bearing young present no external indication 
of an ensuing antler. Several months after birth small paired bulges 
of the frontal bone, covered with the skin of the head, begin to appear 
anteriorly and laterally on the frontal bone. These bulges grow 
with marked rapidity to form the pedicle. The first antler grows 
from the tip of this pedicle when the deer is about eighteen months 
old. Ossification of the antler begins at the base and keeps pace with 
the growing tip, so that a section at any level is harder than that 
above it and less ossified than that below. Growth continues until 
the pattern of the species and individual is completed, ossification 
continuing until the tip has become ossified, after which the velvet is 
shed. The antler does not increase in diameter as it grows in length 
[Caton (17)] except at the corona around the base, which is the only 
region showing an increase in diameter. The external appearance of 
the annually recurring cycle of successive changes of the wapiti 
antler is illustrated in the accompanying series of photographs by 
Sanborn (20) (Figs. 1-16) and also described by Hornaday (18). 

The Velvet 

The velvet which envelops the growing antler is an extension 
from the skin of the head (Fig. 23). After the antler has been shed 
it regenerates and grows from the adjacent cutaneous border to cover 
the tip of the pedicle. It is noteworthy that the velvet does not in 
any way resemble scar tissue but contains all the elements of cervine 
skin. 

The velvet may be separated into three layers — an innermost 


1930] Noback and Modell: Direct Bone Formation in Antler Tines 23 

fibrous layer, the corium, and a peripheral epidermal layer (Figs. 17, 
18 and 19). The fibrous layer, consisting of coarse collagen fibers 
arranged longitudinally, is quite vascular and gradually merges with 
the deeper undifferentiated connective tissue layer (Fig. 20). A few 
capillaries may be seen to pass from the fibrous layer of the velvet and 
to enter the layer of undifferentiated connective tissue in the region 
of the growing tip. 

The corium (Figs. 17, 18 and 19) lies peripheral to the fibrous 
layer, containing hair follicles and sebaceous glands together with 
many fibrillae arranged in various directions, but most of the fibrillae 
are at right angles to the epidermal layer (Fig. 18). The hair follicles 
with the ducts of their sebaceous glands pierce the epidermis (Figs. 17 
and 19). Paccinian corpuscles, Meissner’s corpuscles, nerves and 
free nerve endings have not been demonstrated with hematoxylin and 
Orange G or Del Rio Hortega’s silver carbonate method. The 
epidermal layer forms the outer coat of the velvet (Figs. 17, 18 and 
19) and corresponds to the ectoderm (keratogenous layer) of skin. 

Gross Internal Antler Structure 

Figures 22 to 28 illustrate the gross internal structure of Virginia 
deer antlers in successive stages of seasonal growth. Fig. 29 illustrates 
the gross external appearance and Fig. 30 the gross internal appear- 
ance of the tip of the growing wapiti antler. (Old antler shed April 
18, 1929; specimen obtained through accident July 2, 1929.) 

The following description of the gross internal structure of the 
deer antler is primarily based upon a study [Noback (19)] of three 
antlers from the Virginia deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) and the 
head of a Columbia black-tailed deer ( Virginianus columbianus ) . 
These specimens were obtained at the New York Zoological Park 
during the summer of 1928. The first, an antler in early velvet, repre- 
senting about two months’ growth, was obtained on June 1, 1928. 
The second antler, representing a growth of about four months, came 
from a buck which died on July 25, 1928. The third, representing 
about six months’ growth, was secured on October 4, 1928. The 
head of the Columbia black- tailed deer came from an old buck which 
died on January 28, 1929, four weeks after shedding its antlers. 

In the latitude of New York, during late winter or early spring 
of each year, the mature antler is shed, after which a new one grows 
from the tip of the pedicle. The exposed surface of the osseous pedi- 


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cle (Figs. 22 and 23) is bare at the time of shedding. The marginal 
border of skin is the source of a cutaneous structure, the velvet, which 
soon envelops the free surface. While the velvet is developing, a 
mass of undifferentiated connective tissue, embryonic in character, is 
beginning to form. The growth of modified skin, the velvet, which 
later becomes covered with fine short hair, protects the connective 
tissue cap. 

It may be noted that the pedicle is a cylindrical outgrowth from 
and a part of the frontal bone of the skull. The relation of the frontal 
bone to the pedicle is shown in Fig. 28. The blood supply of the 
pedicle is derived from the internal vascular system of the frontal 
bone. 

A gross examination of the tine of a growing antler reveals that 
it is elastic in consistency while its cut surface presents a glistening 
bluish-white appearance which grossly resembles cartilage. Micro- 
scopic examination, however, reveals that the tip of the growing 
antler consists of a mass of newly formed undifferentiated connective 
tissue. 

Growth of the antler seems to take place somewhat as follows: 
The cap of undifferentiated connective tissue “grows out” while the 
tissue at the base ossifies. Bone formation is more intense within the 
wall of the antler so that on examination we find that the wall of the 
cylindrical antler shaft is very compact in comparison with the interi- 
or. The interior of the antler is filled with a mass of soft bone tissue, 
a veritable network of fine blood channels which serve to supply the 
growing tip with an adequate amount of blood from the Haversian 
systems of the pedicle and frontal bone. The growing tip is primari- 
ly dependent for its nourishment upon blood received from the frontal 
bone through the pedicle and partly from the blood vessels of the 
velvet. 

The gross internal structure of the tines of a young growing 
antler is illustrated in the accompanying photograph (Fig. 24) of a 
longitudinal section through a two months’ growth of antler in velvet. 
The photographed specimen was secured on June 1, 1928 as the result 
of an accident. All the stages of growth in a growing antler tine may 
be seen in this photograph. A good view of the velvet and its hair 
may be seen in Fig. 25, a cross section from the beam of the antler 
where blood vessels in the velvet are plainly visible. The gross 
structure of the growing shaft is seen to consist of spongy bone richly 


1930] Noback and Modell: Direct Bone Formation in Antler Tines 25 

supplied with blood, while the wall consists of compact bone where 
calcification is more complete. The growing bone imperceptibly 
merges with the undifferentiated connective tissue. 

A later stage illustrating the internal structure of a four months 
old antler is shown in Fig. 26. It will be seen that the clear tip has 
been practically replaced by new bone. It may be seen that the 
velvet covering the tip of the antler has begun to degenerate, as in- 
dicated by its darkening and drying out. 

Figure 28 shows the internal structure of the mature antler, 
pedicle and frontal bone obtained by a longitudinal section. This 
antler is bare, free of velvet, and is composed solely of bone. The 
wall of the mature antler is seen to consist of hard compact bone while 
the interior still contains spongy, vascularized bone. The base of the 
antler is firm and compact, with a ring of bone overflowing the base to 
form the corona or burr. The line of demarcation between antler and 
pedicle is clear and distinct. It is along this line that separation from 
the pedicle takes place when the antler is shed and it is from this area 
on the pedicle that a new antler will grow. Complete ossification of 
a mature antler tip can be seen in Fig. 27. 

Sections for microscopic study were obtained from the growing 
tip of a 75-day old wapiti antler. A close view of the exterior of the 
wapiti antler tine is illustrated in Fig. 29, showing the hair of the 
velvet very distinctly. The external appearance of an antler of 
essentially the same age can be seen on the wapiti in Fig. 12. A 
longitudinal section showing the gross internal structure of this antler 
tine can be seen in Fig. 30. 

From within, the following three layers in the antler tine may be 
identified — a core of preosseous tissue in the process of ossification 
(Fig. 30), a layer of undifferentiated connective tissue, and the 
velvet. The layer of undifferentiated connective tissue is very thick 
at the tip where it forms a cap. It continues down the sides of the 
antler, gradually becoming narrower until it finally becomes imper- 
ceptible. 

Microscopic Structure of Growing Antler Tine 

The growing tines of a 75-day old wapiti antler and a two 
months’ old antler from a Virginia deer were used to study the process 
of ossification in the tip of a growing antler. Del Rio Hortega’s 
silver carbonate method was used as a general staining procedure to 


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demonstrate cellular as well as fibrillar structure. A modification 
of this method was used to demonstrate the fibrillar network. 

Del Rio Hortega Silver Carbonate Method 

1. Fix the tissue in a ten per cent. (10%) neutral formalin solution (excess of 
magnesium carbonate in formalin). 

2. Cut sections, with a freezing microtome, 15 to 20 microns thick. 

3. Wash the sections thoroughly in distilled water. A few drops of ammo- 
nium hydroxide should be added to the first wash water. 

4. Sections are stained in the silver carbonate solution, which solution is pre- 
pared as follows: 

Five (5) c. c. of a ten per cent. (10%) aqueous solution of silver nitrate (Ag 
N03) [Merck] are added to twenty (20) c. c. of a five per cent. (5%) solution of 
sodium carbonate (Na2 C03) [Merck]. Without separating the precipitate add 
ammonia drop by drop until the precipitate is dissolved. Shake the beaker while 
adding the ammonia and be careful not to add too much. Finally add fifty (50) 
c.c. of distilled water and keep the solution in a dark brown bottle where it 
should keep well for several weeks. 

The method of staining follows: 

Wash the sections in a small Stender, then place them in ten (10) to fifteen (15) 
c. c. of the silver carbonate solution. Heat gently until a temperature of fifty 
(50) degrees Centigrade is attained or until the sections become yellowish brown. 
Discard the silver solution. 

5. Before the silver solution cools, transfer the sections to distilled water and 
wash for from one-half (3^) to one (1) minute. 

6. Reduce the silver in a solution of fifteen (15) per cent, neutral formalin. 

7. Wash thoroughly in distilled water. Examine under the microscope. If 
too pale place in silver carbonate solution again and repeat the whole procedure. 

8. Tone with a two-tenths (0.2) per cent, aqueous gold chloride solution until 
grayish purple (five to ten minutes). 

9. Wash in distilled water. 

10. Fix with a five per cent. (5%) aqueous solution of sodium hyposulphite 
(sodium thiosulphite) for one to two minutes. 

11. Wash very thoroughly in distilled water. 

12. Run through alcohols 80%, 90% and absolute. 

13. Clear in following solution: 

Carbolic Acid crystals 5 grams 

Creosote 50 c.c. 

Xylol 45 c.c. 

14. Mount in Dammar or Balsam. 

The Modification which brings out the fibrillar structure consists of: 

1. Fixation in neutral formalin (excess of magnesium carbonate in formalin) 
for at least a week. 

2. Place in following solution for three days: 

94 c.c. of a ten per cent. (10%) neutral formalin solution. 

6 c.c. of concentrated Nitric acid. 


1930] Noback and Modell : Direct Bone Formation in Aniler Tines 27 

3. Add two drops of concentrated ammonia to wash water. 

4. The procedure given above is then followed. 

Microscopic examination reveals an imperceptible merging of 
the fibrous layer of the velvet with the contiguous layer of undifferen- 
tiated connective tissue (Fig. 20). A definite line of demarcation 
between the undifferentiated connective tissue and the region of 
active ossification is present only where ossification is pronounced 
(Figs. 17, 31 and 32). A periosteum, as found in long bones, con- 
sisting of an outer fibrous restraining membrane with an inner osteo- 
genic layer, is not present in the growing antler. 

The undifferentiated connective tissue is composed of many 
layers of fusiform cells. These cells, with large dark, ovoid nuclei 
(Figs. 33 and 34), resemble those found in mysenchyma. For the 
most part, they are arranged parallel to the curvature of the cap. A 
delicate fibrillar network can be seen throughout this layer (Fig. 51), 
apparently continuous with the somewhat heavier fibers of the velvet. 
In lower sections along the sides of the ossifying core where ossifi- 
cation is distinct (Fig. 17), it is possible to measure the thickness of 
the undifferentiated connective tissue layer. In a cross section 3.0 
cm. from the tip of the antler the undifferentiated connective tissue 
layer is 1.1mm. thick; at 4.0 cm. it is 1.0 mm.; at 5.0 cm. it is 0.9 mm.; 
at 5.5 it is 0.75 mm. in thickness. These measurements indicate the 
gradual narrowing of this layer. 

The presence of fusiform cells, with large, dark, ovoid nuclei, in 
the cap has been noted above (Figs. 33 and 34). Following a longi- 
tudinal section proximally, the aspect of these cells greatly changes 
(Fig. 43). They become larger, rounder and more granular, grad- 
ually losing their processes. Their nuclei which also become larger 
and rounder eventually assume an eccentric position in the cell. 
Longitudinal series of thin elongated cells with long darkly staining 
nuclei and lightly staining cytoplasm occasionally break through the 
layers of undifferentiated connective tissue cells just below the tip of 
the cap (Figs. 34 to 42). This series of cells seems to represent the 
evolution of the undifferentiated cell into an endothelial cell. The re- 
maining cells are grouped around the evolving endothelial cells, so 
that in cross section 0.5 cm. to 1.5 cm. from the tip of the antler the 
appearance is presented of small masses of thin cells with lightly 
staining cytoplasm surrounded by the larger slightly basophilic cells. 
These actively proliferating basophilic cells derived from the undiffer- 


28 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [XI; 3 

entiated connective tissue of the cap possess fibroblastic character- 
istics. 

In the lower sections these fibroblastic cells, enmeshed in a net- 
work of compacted fibrils, are more mature (Figs. 52, 53 and 54). 
Still lower (below 3.0 cm.) they show a clearing of cytoplasmic 
granules and signs of beginning atrophy (Figs. 43 and 55). 

No spaces have been observed, in the masses of cells destined to 
form the endothelial lining of the blood channels, within two centi- 
metres of the tip of the antler (Fig. 40). Below this level the develop- 
ing endothelial cells gradualy form the lining of the blood channels 
(Figs. 35, 36 and 42) which are continuous with the wider channels 
below, bringing blood from the vessels of the diploe of the frontal 
bone. 

Two centimetres below the tip, cells from the periphery prolif- 
erate toward the newly forming centres of ossification (Figs. 44 to 50). 
The type of cell from which they originate is apparently of the same 
morphological character as those found in the cap. Their evolution 
seems to be more rapid, i. e., the series of cells representing the phases 
of the osteoblastic development is shorter than the series in the de- 
velopment of the fibroblastic cells originating from the cap. 

Differing slightly in shape, the cell derived from the periphery 
has the definitive form of the osteoblasts (Figs. 46, 50 and 56). It is 
smaller, more basophilic, and more polygonal than the cell from the 
cap. The fibroblastic cells from the cap seem to lay down the fibrillar 
framework which later becomes ossified, while osteoblasts from the 
periphery apparently pass to the newly formed centres of ossification. 
Mitotic figures are present in the cells of the undifferentiated connec- 
tive tissue and rare in the region of the matured osteoblasts. 

A s mentioned above, the tip of the cap shows a delicate fibrillar 
network (Fig. 51) . As the developing fibroblasts increase in size they 
separate, while the fibrillar network spreads out to enclose them with- 
in its meshes, the fibrils coalesce to form a coarser network (Figs. 52, 
53 and 54). Centres destined to become blood channels are devoid 
of the fibrillar network but contain a few delicate longitudinal fibrils 
(Figs. 51 and 52). 

As the fibrillar network becomes coarser, the enmeshed cells at 
first show slight and later marked atrophy, together with a gradual 
disappearance of cytoplasmic granules (Figs. 43 and 55). Slight but 
definite centres of ossification first appear two centimetres below the 


1930] Noback and Modell: Direct Bone Formation in Antler Tines 29 

tip of the antler, immediately deep to the peripheral undifferentiated 
connective tissue. In this region of ossification the fibrils, becoming 
heavier, coalesce, the enclosed cells apparently atrophying from 
pressure. An occasional enclosed osteoblast does not atrophy and 
becomes an osteocyte of the mature antler bone. The trabecular 
framework is apparently formed by coalescence of fibrils (Fig. 54), 
beginning just under the peripheral undifferentiated connective tis- 
sue gradually extending distally and centrally. 

Osteoblasts seem to migrate from the periphery to the spaces be- 
tween the endothelium of the blood channels and the surrounding 
preosseous ring (Figs. 50 and 56). The migration of the osteoblasts 
from the periphery to the centre is made possible by a continuity of 
these spaces. The osteoblastic migration through these spaces seems 
to be the mechanism by which central ossification takes place. The 
process of ossification continues peripherally so that the wall of the 
antler finally consists of compact bone while the central portion re- 
mains spongy. 

The vascular system of the growing antler consists of simple 
blood channels which are not surrounded by concentric lamellae 
which characterize the Haversian systems of skeletal bone. This 
sharply differentiates the bone of the antler from that of the pedicle. 

The content of the blood channels in the antler apparently con- 
sists solely of blood. We have not been able to demonstrate the 
presence of fat or hematopoeitic elements found in the marrow of the 
diploe of the membranous bones of the cranial vault. 

Fibroblasts from the undifferentiated connective tissue cap lay 
down the ossifiable fibrillar framework while the osteoblasts from the 
periphery seem to complete the process of ossification. 

The presence of fibrils in the matrix surrounding the fibroblasts 
and absence of cartilage during the entire process of growth leads us 
to conclude that the antler is a form of membranous bone. 


REFERENCES 

(1) Aristotle. 

History of Animals. Trans. Richard Cresswell. George Beal 
& Sons, London, 1902. Book II, chap. 2, p. 28; Book IX, p. 278. 

(2) Owen, Richard. 

1868 Anatomy of Vertebrates. Longmans, Green & Co., London. 
Vol. Ill, p. 631. 

(3) Buffon et Daubeton. 

1766 Histoire naturelle general et particuliere. Vol. VI, p. 81. 


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[XI; 3 


(4) Buffon. 

1758 Histoire naturelle. Paris. Edit. 1, Tome VI, Du Cerf, p. 84. 

(5) Buffon. 

1807 Natural History. Trans. Barr, London. Vol. VI, pp. 27, 46-47. 

(6) Chevreuil. 

1818 Dictionaire d ’histoire naturelle. Paris. Art. ‘Carne,’ Tome X, 
p. 460. 

(7) Cuvier, Georges. 

1817 Dictionaire d ’histoire naturelle. Paris. Tome V, p. 37. 

(8) Muller, Johannes. 

1825 Physiologie. Trans, into French edit. 1854. Tome I, p. 326. 

(9) Gegenbaur, C. 

1867 Ueber die Bildung des Knochengewebes. Jena. Zeitschr. pp. 
206-246. 

(10) LlEBERKtlHN, N. 

1865 Ueber Wachstum des Stirnzapfens der Geweihe. Arch. f. Anat. 
u. Phy., pp. 404-407. 

(11) Landois, L. 

1865 Ueber die Ossification der Geweihe. Centralbl. Medizin. Wiss. 
No. 16, pp. 241-243. 

(12) Robin et Hermann. 

1882 Memoire sur la generation et la regeneration de l’os des carnes 
caduques et persistentes des ruminants. Jour. d’Anat. et de 
Physiol, pp. 205-265. 

(13) Gadow, Hans. 

1902 The Evolution of Horns and Antlers. P. Z. S., London. Vol. 
I, pp. 206-222. 

(14) Durst, J. Ulrich. 

1902 Versuch einer Entwicklungsgeschichte der Hoerner der Cavi- 
cornia nach Untersuchungen am Hausrinde. Frannfeld. 

(15) Fambach. 

1909 Geweihe und Gehorne. (Ein kritisches Referat). Zeitschr. f. 
Naturwiss. 81, 19, pp. 225-264. 

(16) Macewen, W. 

1920 The growth and Shedding of the Antler of the Deer. Glasgow, 
pp. 1-105. 

(17) Caton, John D. v 

1877 The Antelope and Deer of America. New York. pp. 169-233. 

(18) Hornaday, W. T. 

1904 The American Natural History. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New 
York. pp. 122-123. 

(19) Noback, Charles V. 

1929 The Internal Structure and Seasonal Growth Changes of Deer 
Antlers. Bull. N. Y. Zool. Soc., Vol. XXXII, pp. 34-40. 

(20) Sanborn, Elwin R. 

1929 The Growth of a Wapiti Antler. Bull. N. Y. Zool. Soc., Vol. 
XXXII, pp. 25-33. 


1930 ] Noback and Modell: Direct Bone Formation in Antler Tines 31 



Fig. 1. Upper. The matured antlers of the wapiti are usually shed in March, 
occasionally in February. The exposed surface of the pedicle is shown after one antler 
had been dropped. Fig. 2. Lower. The appearance of the exposed pedicle tips after 
both antlers had been shed. Figs. 2, 9, 15 and 16 are used here for demonstration. 
The other figures are from the same animal. 


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Fig. 3. Upper. Antlers budding from the pedicle, April 26. 

Fig. 4. Lower The new antlers are beginning to show the branch-like form. 



1930 ] Noback and Modell: Direct Bone Formation in Antler Tines 33 



Fig. 5. Upper. The rapidity of growth is shown by the appearance of the ant- 
lers about the 5th of May. Fig. 6. Lower. The branching of the antlers indicates 
their future pattern ; May 9. 



34 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [XI; 3 


Fig. 7. Upper. The growing antler structure shows increased division on May 
16, and the rough coat of old hair is shedding out. Fig. 8. Lower. As the antlers 
approach their normal size, they become a prominent and striking feature of the male 
wapiti. 



1930 ] Noback and Modell: Direct Bone Formation in Antler Tines 35 



Fig. 9. Upper. During the period of development, while the antlers are in the 
velvet stage, the wapiti exercises the greatest care in avoiding hard objects. Fig. 10. 
Lower. The velvet masks the trim osseous structure of the antler. 



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Fig. 11 Upper. On July 6, the antlers are approaching tbe final stages of de- 
velopment. There is a noticeable shrinking of the velvet especially at the tips. Fig. 1 2. 
Lower. In midsummer, July 12, the antlers have attained their greatest length. 


1930 ] Noback and Modell: Direct Bone Formation in Antler Tines 37 



Fig. 13. Upper. The antler pattern is usually completed in August, and at this 
time growth has ceased and the final stages of hardening are taking place. 

Fig. 14. Lower. When the antler has become completely hardened the velvet 
dries out and peels from the bony structure in long, thin ribbon-like strands. 


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Fig. 15. Upper. During the early stages of antler development the animal is 
most docile. Fig. 16. Lower. When the velvet is shed and his old vigor returns, he 
then becomes very pugnacious and charges violently against any barrier. 


1930 ] Noback and Modell: Direct Bone Formation in Antler Tines 39 



i 

Fig. 17. Cross section of Wapiti antler, 5.0 cm. below tip. 1. Velvet; a. Epidermal 
layer; b. Corium with sebaceous glands; c. Coarse fibrous layer. 2. Undifferentiated 
connective tissue layer. The open space in center is a capillary. 3. Ossifying core. 
Obj. 48 mm. Ocular 8X comp. 



Fig. 18. Cross section of velvet showing fibrous structure of its corium. Obj. 32 
mm Ocular 8X comp. 


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Fig. 19 Cross section of velvet. Ob j. 32 mm. Ocular 8X comp. 



Fig 20. Cross section of antler showing the merging of the undifferentiated con- 
nective tissue with the fibrous layer of the velvet on the right. Obj. 16 mm. Ocular 
8X comp. 


1930 ] Noback and Modell: Direct Bone Formation in Antler Tines 41 



Fig. 21. Cross section of antler showing fibrous layer and corium of the velvet. 
Obj. 16 mm. Ocular 8X comp. 


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Fig. 22. Tip of pedicle of a Virginia deer two weeks after the antler had been shed. 
1. A thin layer of dried blood, scab, covering the antler tip. Undifferentiated con- 
nective tissue, embryonic in character, is forming beneath the scab. 2. Edge of the 
pedicle skin surrounding the pedicle tip. The velvet, a form of skin, will evolve from 
this border to protect the delicate tip of the new antler. 



1. Frontal bone, from which the new antler will derive most of its blood supply. 2. 
The pedicle, a cylindrical growth of bone from and a part of the frontal bone; 3. A layer 
of dried blood covering the tip of the pedicle two weeks after antler had been shed. 


1930 ] Noback and Modell: Direct Bone Formation in Antler Tines 43 



Fig. 24. Longitudinal section of a two months’ old Virginia deer antler showing 
its gross internal structure. 1. The ossifying core of undifferentiated connective tissue, 
richly supplied with blood and containing areas in process of direct ossification together 
with spicules of newly formed bone; 2. Rapidly proliferating undifferentiated connec- 
tive tissue, embryonic character, forming the growing tip of the antler; 3. Proliferating 
undifferentiated connective tissue continuing down the side of the antler tip; 4. The 
comparatively thick white border enveloping the antler is the velvet. The thin dark 
border of the velvet is the pigmented layer just beneath the hair. 



Fig. 25. Cross section of the two months’ old antler of Fig. 24; 1. The velvet, a 
thick cutaneous structure; 2. A blood vessel within the velvet; 3. The ossifying core of 
undifferentiated connective tissue. 



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Fig 26. Longitudinal section of a four months’ old antler. The undifferentiated 
connective tissue tip has been replaced by new directly formed bone; 1. Body or core 
of new directly formed compact bone; 2. Complete hardening and ossification of un- 
differentiated connective tissue tip; 3. Velvet of tip is dark, shriveled and dead. This 
is a point at which shedding of velvet begins; 4. Living velvet below the tip. 


1930 ] Noback and Modell: Direct Bone Formation in Antler Tines 


45 



Fig. 27. Completely ossified tip of mature antler; 1. Spongy area of interior; 2. 
Completely ossified tip. 



Fig. 28. Longitudinal section of mature antler and pedicle. (Six months’ old); 
1 Frontal bone; 2. Pedicle; 3. Burr or corona; 4. Compact bone wall and base of mature 
antler; no velvet is present; 5. Spongy porous character of interior of antler. 




46 


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[XI; 3 



Fig. 29. External view of the tip of an elk antler 75 days old. Note the hair of 
the velvet. 


1930 ] NobacJc and Modell: Direct Bone Formation in Antler Tines 47 



Fig. 30. Internal view of the antler of figure 29 on longitudinal section; 1. The 
ossifying core of undifferentiated connective tissue, richly supplied with blood and con- 
taining areas in process of direct ossification together with small areas of new formed 
bone; 2. Rapidly proliferating undifferentiated connective tissue, embryonic in charac- 
ter, forming the growing tip of the antler; 3. Proliferating undifferentiated connective 
tissue continuing down the side of the antler tip; 4. The layer of velvet enveloping the 
antler. 


48 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[XI; 3 




Fig. 32. Cross section 4.5 cm. from tip showing pronounced peripheral ossifica- 
tion. Obj. 16 mm. apochro. Ocular 8 X comp. 


Fig. 31. Cross section 3.5 cm. from tip, ossification beginning peripherally. Obj. 
16 mm. apochro. Ocular 8X comp. 


1930] NobacJc and Modell: Direct Bone Formation in Antler Tines 49 



Fig. 33. Section through undifferentiated connective tissue showing typical 
spindle-shaped fibroblastic cells. Obj. 4 mm. Ocular 8X comp. 



Fig. 34. Typical fibroblastic cells of the cap under oil immersion. Obj. 2 mm. 
(oil imm.). Ocular 8X comp. 


50 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[XI; 3 



Fig 35. Longitudinal section 1.5 cm. from tip showing evolving fibroblasts, en- 
dothelial cells and beginning blood channels. Obj. 32 mm. Ocular 8X comp. 



Fig. 36. Longitudinal section 1.5 cm. from tip showing evolving fibroblast 
endothelial cells and beginning blood channels. Obj. 16 mm. Ocular 8X comp. 


1930 ] Noback and Modell: Direct Bone Formation in Antler Tines 51 




Fig. 37. Longitudinal section 2.0 cm, from tip showing evolving fibroblasts and 
open blood channels. Obj. 32 mm. Ocular 8X comp. 


Fig. 38. Longitudinal section 2.5 cm. from tip showing maturing fibroblasts, open 
blood channels and slight centres of ossification. Obj. 32 mm. Ocular 8X comp. 



52 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[XI; 3 




Fig. 39. Typical fibroblastic cells 1.5 cm. from tip. Obj. 4 mm. Ocular 8X 
comp. 


Fig. 40. Cells 2.5 cm. from tip showing maturing fibroblasts and endothelial cells. 
Obj. 16 mm. Ocular 8X comp. 


1930 ] Noback and Modell: Direct Bone Formation in Antler Tines 53 



Fig. 41. Cells 2.5. cm. from tip showing matured fibroblasts and endothelial 
cells. Obj. 16 mm. Ocular 8X comp. 



Fig. 42. Cells 3.0 cm. from tip showing matured fibroblasts, a few of which have 
have atrophied. Obj. 16 mm. Ocular 8X comp. 



Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[XI; 3 


Fig. 43. Cells 3.5 cm. from tip showing marked atrophy of some fibroblasts and 
separation of the cells. Obj. 4 mm. Ocular 8 X comp. 



Fig. 44. Cross section 2.5 cm. from tip. Osteoblasts proliferating from peri- 
phery to centres of ossification. Obj. 16 mm. Ocular 8X comp. 




1930 ] Noback and Modell: Direct Bone Formation in Antler Tines 55 



Fig. 45. Cross section 3 cm. from tip Osteoblasts proliferating from periphery 
to centres of ossification. Obj. 16 mm. Ocular 8X comp. 


Fig. 46. Section 3.0 cm. from tip. Peripherally derived osteoblasts around 
centre of ossification. Obj. 4 mm. Ocular 8 X comp. 



56 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[XI; 3 




Fig. 48. Longitudinal section 4 cm. from tip showing proliferation of peripher- 
ally derived osteoblasts and lacunae in centres of ossification. Obj. 16 mm. Ocular 
8X comp. 


Fig. 47. Cross section 3.5 cm. from tip. Osteoblasts proliferating from peri- 
phery to centres of ossification. Obj. 16 mm. Ocular 8X comp. 


1930 ] Noback and Modell: Direct Bone Formation in Antler Tines 57 




Fig. 49. Longitudinal section 5 cm. from tip showing proliferation of peripher- 
ally derived osteoblasts. Obj. 16 mm. Ocular 8X comp. 


Fig. 50. Cross section 5.0 cm. from tip showing proliferation of osteoblasts and 
mature osteoblasts between blood channels and trabeculae. Obj. 16 mm. Ocular 8X 
comp. 


58 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[XI; 3 



Fig. 51. Showing fibrillar structure of cap continuous with fibers of velvet. Obj. 
16 mm. Ocular 8X comp. Stain: Modified Del Rio Hortega’s Silver Carbonate 
Method. 



Fig. 52. Showing fibrillar ground-work 2.0 cm. from tip and longitudinal fibrillae 
of blood channels. Obj. 4 mm. Ocular 8X comp. Stain: Modified Del Rio Hortega’s 
Silver Carbonate Method. 


1930 ] Noback and Modell: Direct Bone Formation in Antler Tines 59 



Fig. 53. Fibrillar network 3 cm. from tip. Obj. 4 mm. Ocular 8X comp. 
Stain : Modified Del Rio Hortega ’s Silver Carbonate Method. 



Fig. 54. Fibrillar network 4 cm. from tip. Note blood in blood channels Obj. 
4 mm. Ocular 8 X comp. Stain • Modified Del Rio Hortega’s Silver Carbonate Method. 


60 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 


[XI; 3 



Fig. 55. Cross section 3.5 cm. from tip showing atrophy of fibroblasts derived 
from the cap and slight centres of ossification. 



Fig. 56. Cross section 5.0 cm from tip showing definitive osteoblasts evolved 
from peripheral undifferentiated connective tissue. Obj. 4 mm. Ocular 8X comp. 






Jleto |9orfe Zoological g>ocietp 

OBJECTS OF THE SOCIETY 

A Public Zoological Park. A Public Aquarium. The Preservation of our 
Native Animals. The Promotion of Zoology. 


ZOOLOGICA VOL. I 

Paper Cloth 

Parts 1-20 Not bound 3.85 

Parts 1-20 Bound 6.00 

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Parts 1-18 Not bound 4.30 

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Postage weight , 4 pounds 

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All other volumes of Zoologica listed are not completed. 


ZOOLOGICA VOL. VII 

Paper Cloth 


1 — Three-Toed Sloth (Beebe) 60 

2 — Development of Soldier Termites (Emerson) 25 

3 — A New Polychaetous Annelid (Treadwell) . . . . 10 

4 — A River Dolphin from Kartabo (Williams) 30 

ZOOLOGICA VOL. VIII 

1 — The Arcturus Expedition (Beebe) 50 

2 — Arcturus: Equipment and Operation (Tee-Van). . ...... .60 


Cloth 


Paper 

3 — Brotulid Fishes ( Trotter ) 20 

4 — Galapagos Brachyura {Boone) 1.40 

5 — Embryology of American Eel {Fish) .30 

6 — Studies on Body-Forms of Fishes {Gregory) 75 

7 — Annotated List of Synentogathi {Nichols-Breder) 45 

8 — Polychaetous Annelids {Treadwell) 30 

9 — Sea Stars from the Arcturus Expedition {Fisher) 15 

10 — Scyphomedusae {Bigelow) 25 

ZOOLOGICA VOL. IX 

1 — Marine Fishes — New York and So. New England ( Nichols - 

Breder) . . 1.40 

2 — Inquilinism {Gudger) 15 

3 — Frog Tagging {Breder-Redmond) 30 

4 — Turtle Trailing {Ruth Breder ) . . 25 

5 — Functions and Morphology {Parr) 25 

6 — Uruguayan Fur-Seal Islands {Smith) 25 

7 — Field Observations on Flying Fishes {Breder) 15 

8 — Charles Island Tortoises {Broom) 25 

9 — Color Changes of Fishes {Townsend) 1.85 

10 — The Blue Spotted Sunfish {Breder-Redmond) .25 

ZOOLOGICA VOL. X 

1 — The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti {Beebe-Tee-V an). 1.90 

ZOOLOGICA VOL. XI 

1 — Haematology to the Camelidae {Ponder-Y eager-Charipper) .15 

2 — Haematology of the Primates {Ponder-Y eager-Charipper) .15 

3 — Direct Bone Formation in Antler Tines ( Noback-Modell ) 

ZOOLOGICA VOL. XII 

1 — Deep-sea Fish; Hudson Gorge {Beebe) 50 

2 — Haplophryne hudsonius {Beebe) 50 


ZOOPATHOLOGICA VOL. I 

Parts 1-8 Not bound 2.05 

ZOOPATHOLOGICA VOL. II 

1 — The Treatment of Fish Diseases {Mellen) 50 

A completely classified list of the subjects included in each of the finished 
volumes of Zoologica, and all other publications of the New York Zoological 
Society will be furnished on application. Address H. R. Mitchell, Chief Clerk, 
Zoological Park, 185th St. & Southern Boulevard, New York City. 


ZOOLOGICA 

SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



A LIST OF 

ANTILLEAN REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS 

By Thomas Barbour 


PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 
THE ZOOLOGICAL PARK, NEW YORK 


December 4, 1930 


N?m fork Xxifllngtral Swtetg 

General Office: 101 Park Avenue, New York City 


Officers 

President, Madi^oN Grant; 

Honorary President, Henry Fairfield Osborn; 

Vice-Presidents, *F rank K. Sturgis; and Henry D. Whiton; 

Chairman, Executive Committee, Madison Grant; 

Treasurer, Cornelius R. Agnew; 

Secretary, William White Niles 

ptiartrot trustees 

Class of 1931 

George Bird Grinnell, Mortimer L. Schiff,^ Frederic C. Walcott, 
George C. Clark, W. Redmond Cross,' Henry Fairfield 
Osborn, Jr., George Gordon Battle,. Bayard Dominick, 

Anson W. Hard, Robert Gordon McKay, Kermit 
Roosevelt, Grafton H. Pynio 
Class oi 1932 

Henry Fairfield Osborn, George F ; Baker, Robert S. Brewster, Ed- 
ward S. Harkness, Edwin Thorne' Irving K. Taylor, Harry 
Payne Bingham, Landon K. Thorne, J. Watson 
Webb, Oliver D. Filley, De Forest 
Grant, H. de B. Parsons 
Class of 1933 

Madison Grant, Wm. White Niles, Frank K. Sturgis, Lewis R. Morris, 
Archer M. Huntington, George D. Pratt, T. Coleman du Pont, 

Henry D. Whiton, Cornelius R. Agnew, Harrison 
Williams, Marshall Field, Ogden L. Mills 

Scientific Staff 

' , • 1 W. Reid Blair, Director, of The Zoological Park; 

William T. Horn ap ay, Director Emeritus; 

Charles H. Townsend, Director of the Aquarium ; 

C. M. Breder, Jr., Research Associate, Aquarium; 

Raymond L. Ditmars, Curator of Mammals and Reptiles; 

William Beebe, Honorary Curator of Birds and Director of Department of 

Tropical Research; 

Lee S. Crandall, Curator of Birds; 

H\ C. Raven, Prosector; 

Charles V. Noback, Veterinarian; 

Elwin R. Sanborn, Editor. 

(^tutorial Committee 

Madison Grant, Chairman; 

W. Reid Blair Charles H. Townsend 

William Beebe George Bird Grinnell 

Elwin R. Sanborn, Secretary. 


Zoologlca , Vol. XI, No. 4. 


A LIST OF 

ANTILLEAN REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS 

By Thomas Barbour 
Introduction 

Census makers are abroad in the world, far and wide, and this 
year, 1930 is a fitting time to list the species of West Indian Reptiles 
and Amphibians which I, for one, believe to be valid. This is a point 
on which no two persons are at present ready to agree but workers 
are nearer unanimity today than ever before. I have made this 
little list as concise as possible. I have avoided synonymys and 
citations and have not quoted authorities. I simply give a list of the 
species which at this moment I believe to be worthy of recognition 
and a list which I believe to be complete. For errors I am, therefore, 
wholly to blame and no doubt a number will be found. 

There are some exquisite and precious zoologists who do not 
deign to recognize in the check-list anything but the most plebeian 
form of zoological choremanship. This, indeed, may be true. Never- 
theless even those of the 61ite, 61 atpsTot or 61 aXi-Kopisvot as earlier 
colleagues would perchance have called them, admit the usefulness 
of such lists. Generally speaking utility is the poorest touchstone to 
apply to research, but it is the only test to determine the worthwhile- 
ness of compilations. 

The few short remarks which I have added beneath each name 
may aid some future workers who become inquisitive concerning the 
status of species, as of today. 

I published, not long ago, a little paper showing what the mon- 
goose has accomplished in the way of reptile extirpation since its 
introduction. (Proc. N. Eng. Zool. Club, vol. 11, p. 73-85, 1930). 

I have not included the fauna of Trinidad or Tobago in this list 
except as they support species which occur on the true Antillean 
islands. Nor do I include the islands off the South or Central Ameri- 
can coast. 


61 


62 Zoologica: N. Y . Zoological Society [XI; 4 

I have arranged the species in series endeavoring more or less 
to keep allied forms together. Everyone, however, knows that a 
linear list cannot be expected to express relationships beyond a 
certain point. 

I have included introduced forms near their nearest native allies. 
I may not have the number of these by any means complete but they 
are uninteresting waifs at best in most cases. Many obviously er- 
roneous records have been ignored. 


1930 ] Barbour: Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 63 

SYSTEMATIC TABLE OF CONTENTS 
A. Class— AMPHIBIA 

Order —SALIENTIA 

Family— HYLIDAE 

Hyla septentrionalis Boulenger 73 

Hyla brunnea Gosse 73 

Hyla dominicensis (Tschudi) 73 

Hyla vasta Cope 73 

Hyla lichenata (Go-se) 73 

Hyla pulchrilineat a Cope 73 

Hyla wilderi Dunn 73 

Hyla marianae Dunn 74 

Hyla heilprini Noble 74 

Hyla squirrella Latreille 74 

Hyla rubra Daudin 74 

Family— BUFONIDAE 

Bufo longinasus Stejneger. 74 

Bufo dunni Barbour 74 

Bufo ramsdeni Barbo. r 74 

Bufo peltacephalus Tschudi 74 

Bufo empusus (Cope) 75 

Bufo gutturosus Latreille 75 

Bufo lemur Cope 75 

Bufo turpis Barbour 75 

Bufo marinis (Linne) * 75 

Family— LEPTODACTYLIDAE 

Eleutherodactylus sonans Dunn 75 

Eleutherodactylus portoricensis Schmidt 75 

Eleutherodactylus auriculatus (Cope) 75 

Eleutherodactylus auriculatoides Noble 75 

Eleutherodactylus jamaicensis Barbour 76 

Eleutherodactylus weinlandi Barbour 76 

Eleutherodactylus richmondi Stejneger 76 

Eleutherodactylus lentus Cope 76 

Eleutherodactylus schmidti Noble 76 

Eleutherodactylus inoptatus (Barbour) 76 

Eleutherodactylus ruthae Noble 76 

Eleutherodactylus martinicensis (Tschudi) 76 

Eleutherodactylus johnstonei Barbour 77 

Eleutherodactylus brittoni Schmidt 77 

Eleutherodactylus abbotti Cochran 77 

Eleutherodactylus montanus Schmidt 77 

Eleutherodactylus minutus Noble 77 


64 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [XI; 4 

Eleutherodactylus orcutti Dunn 77 

Eleutherodactylus cunctator Dunn 77 

Eleutherodactylus nubicola Dunn 77 

Eleutherodactylus luteolus (Gosse) 77 

Eleutherodactylus gossei Dunn 78 

Eleutherodactylus pantoni Dunn 78 

Eleutherodactylus junori Dunn 78 

Eleutherodactylus cundalli Dunn 78 

Eleutherodactylus grabbami Dunn 78 

Eleutherodactylus varleyi Dunn 78 

Eleutherodactylus atkinsi Dunn 78 

Eleutherodactylus varians (Gundlach & Peters) 78 

Eleutherodactylus eileenae Dunn 78 

Eleutherodactylus dimidiatus (Cope) 78 

Eleutherodactylus emiliae Dunn 78 

Eleutherodactylus pinarensis Dunn 79 

Eleutherodactylus greyi Dunn 79 

Eleutherodactylus brevipalmatus Schmidt 79 

Eleutherodactylus sierrae-maestrae Schmidt 79 

Eleutherodactylus ricordii (Dumeril & Bibron) 79 

Eleutherodactylus cuneatus (Cope) 79 

Eleutherodactylus gundlachii Schmidt 79 

Eleutherodactylus casparii Dunn 79 

Eleutherodactylus gryllus Schmidt 79 

Eleutherodactylus locustus Schmidt 79 

Eleutherodactylus cramptoni Schmidt 80 

Eleutherodactylus antillensis (Reinhardt & Liitken) 80 

Eleutherodactylus wrightmanae Schmidt 80 

Eleutherodactylus unicolor Stejneger 80 

Eleutherodactylus monensis (Meerwarth) 80 

Eleutherodactylus flavescens Noble 80 

Leptodactylus fallax Muller 80 

Leptodactylus dominicensis Cochran 80 

Leptodactylus albilabris (Gunther) 80 

Leptodactylus validus Garman 80 

Family— BRACHYCEPHALIDAE 

Phyllobates limbatus (Cope) 81 

Class REPTILIA 

Order SQUAMATA 
Suborder — SA XJRIA 
Family— GE KKONIDAE 

Gymnodactylus fasciatus Dum4ril & Bibron 81 

Gonatodes albogularis (DumSril & Bibron) 81 

Gonatodes notatus (Reinhardt & Liitken) 81 


1930] Barbour: Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 65 

Gonatodes fuscus (Hallowell) 81 

Phyllodactylus spatulatus Cope 82 

Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnes) 82 

Hemidactylus brookii Gray 82 

Thecadactylus rapicaudus (Houttuyn) 82 

Aristelliger praesignis (Hallowell) 82 

Aristelliger lar Cope 82 

Tarentola cubana Gundlach & Peters 82 

Sphaerodactylus decoratus Garman 82 

Sphaerodactylus gibbus Barbour 83 

Sphaerodactylus torrei Barbour 83 

Sphaerodactylus cinereus Wagler 83 

Sphaerodactylus oxyrrhinus Gosse 83 

Sphaerodactylus difhcilis Barbour 83 

Sphaerodactylus notatus Baird 83 

Sphaerodactylus macrolepis Gunther 83 

Sphaerodactylus richardsoni Gray 83 

Sphaerodactylus becki Schmidt 83 

Shpaerodactylus gilvitorques Cope 84 

Sphaerodactylus nigropunctatus Gray 84 

Sphaerodactylus corticolus Garman 84 

Sphaerodactylus festus Barbour 84 

Sphaerodactylus goniorhynchus Cope 84 

Sphaerodactylus argus Gosse 84 

Sphaerodactylus argivus Garman 84 

Sphaerodactylus anthracinus Cope . 84 

Sphaerodactylus copei Steindachner 84 

Sphaerodactylus scaber Barbour & Ramsden. 84 

Sphaerodactylus fantasticus Dumeril & Bibron 85 

Sphaerodactylus pictus Garman 85 

Sphaerodactylus sputator (Sparrman) 85 

Sphaerodactylus elegantulus Barbour 85 

Sphaerodactylus microlepis Reinhardt & Liitken 85 

Sphaerodactylus vincenti Boulenger 85 

Sphaerodactylus monilifer Barbour 85 

Family— IGUANIDAE 

Iguana rhinolopha Wiegmann 85 

Iguana delicatissuma Laurenti 85 

Chamaeleolis chamaeleontides (Dumeril & Bibron) 86 

Xiphocercus valenciennesii (Dumeril & Bibron) 86 

Chamaelinorops barbouri Schmidt 86 

Chamaelinorops wetmorei Cochran 86 

Deiroptyx vermiculata (Dumeril & Bibron) ... 86 

Deiroptyx bartschi Cochran 86 

Anolis equestris Merrem. 86 

Anolis curvieri Merrem . . 86 


66 Zoologica : N. Y. Zoological Society [XI; 4 

Anolis ricordii Dumeril & Bibron 87 

Anolis garmani Stejneger 87 

Anolis porcatus Gray 87 

Anolis maynardi Garman 87 

Anolis brunneus Cope 87 

Anolis longiceps Schmidt 87 

Anolis chloro-cyanus Dum6ril & Bibron 87 

Anolis mestrei Barbour & Ramsden. 87 

Anolis allogus Barbour & Ramsden . 87 

Anolis ahli Barbour 88 

Anolis abatus Ahl 88 

Anolis bimaculatus Sparrman 88 

Anolis newtonii Gunther 88 

Anolis evermanni Stejneger 88 

Anolis krugi Peters 88 

Anolis acutus Hallowell 88 

Anolis gundlachi Peters 88 

Anolis gingivinus Cope 89 

Anolis sabanus Garman 89 

Anolis antiquae Barbour 89 

Anolis li vidus Garman 89 

Anolis barbudensis Barbour 89 

Anolis asper Garman 89 

Anolis leachii Dumerill & Bibron 89 

Anolis terrae-altae Barbour 89 

Anolis alliaceus Cope 89 

Anolis nubilus Garman 90 

Anolis griseus Garman 90 

Anolis richardii Dumeril & Bibron 90 

Anolis rubribarbus Barbour & Ramsden 90 

Anolis quadriocellifer Barbour & Ramsden 90 

Anolis patricius Barbour 90 

Anolis cristatellus Dumeril & Bibron . 90 

Anolis monensis Stejneger 90 

Anolis alutaceus Cope 90 

Anolis spectrum Peters 91 

Anolis cyanopleurus Cope 91 

Anolis semilineatus Cope 91 

Anolis olssoni Schmidt 91 

Anolis hendersoni Cochran 91 

Anolis pulchellus Dumeril & Bibron 91 

Anolis poncensis Stejneger 91 

Anolis latirostris Schmidt 91 

Anolis stratulus Cope. 91 

Anolis coelestinus Cope 92 

Anolis dominicensis Reinhardt & Lutken 92 

Anolis distichus Cope 92 


1930] Barbour : Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 67 

Anolis distichoides Rosen 92 

Anolis sagrei Dumeril & Bibron 92 

Anolis ordinatus Cope 92 

Anolis luteosignif er Garman 92 

Anolis longi tibialis Noble : 92 

Anolis lineatopus Grey 92 

Anolis homolechis Boulenger 93 

Anolis greyi Barbour 93 

Anolis doris Barbour 93 

Anolis cybotes Cope 93 

Anolis angusticeps Hallowell 93 

Anolis oligaspis Cope 93 

Anolis isolepis Cope 93 

Anolis lucius Dumeril & Bibron 93 

Anolis argenteolus Cope 93 

Anolis argillaceus Cope 94 

Anolis bremeri Barbour 94 

Anolis loysiana Cocteau 94 

Anolis leucophaeus Garman 94 

Anolis wattsi Boulenger 94 

Anolis forresti Barbour 94 

Anolis speciosus Garman 94 

Anolis marmoratus Dumeril & Bibron 94 

Anolis roquet Lacepede 94 

Anolis luciae Garman 94 

Anolis vincentii Garman 95 

Anolis gentilis Garman 95 

Anolis opalinus Gosse 95 

Anolis iodurus Gosse 95 

Anolis grahami Gray 95 

Anolis conspersus Garman 95 

Norops ophiolepis (Cope) 95 

Cyclura cristata Schmidt 95 

Cyclura figginsi Barbour 95 

Cyclura portoricensis Barbour 95 

Cyclura mattea Miller 96 

Cyclura pinguis Barbour 96 

Cyclura stejnegeri Barbour & Noble 96 

Cyclura nigerrima Cope. 96 

Cyclura cornuta (Bonnaterre) 96 

Cyclura collei Gray 96 

Cyclura carinata Harlan .... .... 96 

Cyclura nuchalis Barbour & Noble 96 

Cyclura rileyi Stejneger 96 

Cyclura inornata Barbour & Noble 96 

Cyclura baeolopha Cope . 97 

Cyclura caymanensis Barbour & Noble 97 


68 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [XI; 4 

Cyclura macleayi Gray 97 

Cyclura ricordii (Dumeril & Bibron) 97 

Leiocephalus carinatus Gray. .......... 97 

Leiocephalus melanochlorus Cope 97 

Leiocephalus schreibersii (Gravenhorst) 97 

Leiocephalus personatus Cope. 97 

Leiocephalus eremitus Cope 98 

Leiocephalus cubensis Gray 98 

Leiocephalus psammodromus Barbour 98 

Leiocephalus varius Garman 98 

Leiocephalus virescens Stejneger 98 

Leiocephalus raviceps Cope 98 

Leiocephalus loxogrammus Cope 98 

Leiocephalus macropus Cope 98 

Leiocephalus semilineatus Dunn 99 

Leiocephalus barahonensis Schmidt 99 

Leiocephalus beatanus Noble. 99 

Leiocephalus vinculum Cochrane 99 

Hispaniolus pratensis Cochran. 99 

Family— ANGUIDAE 

Celestus de la sagra (Cocteau) 99 

Celestus rugosus Cope 99 

Celestus costatus (Cope) 99 

Celestus badius Cope 99 

Celestus maculatus (Garman) 100 

Celestus occiduus (Shaw) 100 

Celestus impressus Cope 100 

Celestus pleii (Dumeril & Bibron) 100 

Sauresia sepoides Gray. ....................................... 100 

Wetmorena haetiana Cochran 100 

Family— XANTUSIIDAE 

Cricolepis typica (Gundlach & Peters). 100 

Family — TEIIDAE 

Kentropyx intermedius Gray. ................................. 100 

Ameiva aquilina Garman. ..................................... 101 

Ameiva fuscata Garman 101 

Ameiva cineracea Barbour & Noble 101 

Ameiva atrata Garman 101 

Ameiva pluvianotata Garman 101 

Ameiva erythrops Cope 101 

Ameiva griswoldi Barbour 101 

Ameiva erythrocephala (Daudin) 101 

Ameiva garmani Barbour 101 

Ameiva pleii Dumeril & Bibron 102 


1930 ] Barbour: Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 69 

Ameiva corvina Cope 102 

Ameiva polops Cope 102 

Ameiva wetmorei Stejneger 102 

Ameiva maynardi Garman 102 

Ameiva alboguttata Boulenger. 102 

Ameiva exsul Cope 102 

Ameiva vittipunctata Cope 102 

Ameiva taeniura Cope 102 

Ameiva lineolata Dumeril & Bibron 103 

Ameiva chrysolaema Cope 103 

Ameiva thoracica Cope 103 

Ameiva dorsalis Gray 103 

Ameiva auberi Cocteau 103 

Ameiva barbouri Cochran 103 

Ameiva beatensis Noble 103 

Ameiva abbotti Noble 103 

Ameiva navassae Schmidt 103 

Scolecosaurus alleni Barbour ................................. 103 

Gymnophthalmus pleei Bocourt ........ 104 

Family— AMPHISBAENIDAE 

Cadea palirostrata Dickerson 104 

Cadea blanoides Stejneger 104 

Amphisbaena fenestrata Cope. ................................ 104 

Amphisbaena bakeri Stejneger. 104 

Amphisbaena caeca Cuvier. 104 

Amphisbaena manni Barbour 104 

Amphisbaena innocens Weinland ................ 104 

Amphisbaena cubana Peters 104 

Amphisbaena caudalis Cochran 105 

Family— SCINCIDAE 

Mabuya aenea Gray. ... 105 

Mabuya luciae Garman ....... 105 

Mabuya dominicana Garman ............. ................ 105 

Mabuya lanceolata Cope ........... ....................... 105 

Mabuya sp. indet 105 

Mabuya mabouia (Dumeril & Bibron) 105 

Mabuya spilonota Wiegmann 105 

Mabuya sloanii (Daudin) 105 

Suborder — OPHIDIA 

Family— TYPHLOPIDAE 

Typhlops tenuis Salvin. .......................... ...... 106 

Typhlops rostellatus Stejneger ....... .......... 106 

Typhlops pusillus Barbour . 106 


70 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [XI; 4 

Typhlops dominicana Stejneger . . . 106 

Typhlops sulcatus Cope 106 

Typhlops jamaicensis (Shaw) 106 

Typhlops monensis Schmidt 106 

Typhlops lumbricalis (Linne) 107 

Family— LEPTOTYPHLOPIDAE 

Leptotyphlops albifrons (Wagler). 107 

Leptotyphlops bilineata (Schlegel) 107 

Family — BOIDAE 

Epicrates angulifer Bibron. . 107 

Epicrates subflavus Stejneger 107 

Epicrates striatus (Fischer) 107 

Epicrates monensis Zenneck 107 

Epicrates gracilis (Fischer) 108 

Epicrates fordii (Gunther) 108 

Epicrates chrysogaster (Cope) 108 

Epicrates inornatus (Reinhardt) 108 

Boa grenadensis Barbour 108 

Boa hortulana Linne 108 

Constrictor orophias (Linne). 108 

Tropidophis maculatus (Bibron) 10.) 

Tropidophis maculatus jamaicensis Stull 103 

Tropidophis maculatus haetianus (Cope) 109 

Tropidophis pardalis pardalis (Gundlach) 109 

Tropidophis pardalis canus (Cope) 109 

Tropidophis pardalis curtus (Garman) 109 

Tropidophis pardalis androsi Stull 109 

Tropidophis pardalis bucculentus (Cope) 109 

Tropidophis wrighti Stull 109 

Tropidophis melanurus (Schlegel) 110 

Tropidophis semicinctus (Gundlach & Peters) . 110 

Family— COLUBRIDAE 

Natrix compressidauda Kennicott 110 

Tretanorhinus variabilis Dumeril & Bibron 110 

Tretanorhinus insulae -pinorum Barbour. 110 

Drymobius boddaerti (Sentzen) 110 

Uromacer oxyrhynchus Dumeril & Bibron. 110 

Uromacer frenatus (Gunther) Ill 

Uromacer catesbyi (Schlegel) Ill 

Uromacer scandax Dunn Ill 

Uromacer dorsalis Dunn Ill 

Hypsirhynchus ferox Gunther Ill 

Alsophis anomalus (Peters) Ill 


1930] Barbour: Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 71 

Alsophis sanctorum Barbour 111 

Alsophis sibonius Cope .. Ill 

Alsophis leucomelas (Dumeril & Bibron) . Ill 

Alsophis sanctae-crucis Cope 112 

Alsophis melanichnus Cope 112 

Alsophis rijgersmaei Cope 112 

Alspohis cinereus Garman 112 

Alsophis variegatus (Schmidt) 112 

Alsophis portoricensis (Reinhardt & Liitken) 112 

Alsophis anegadae Barbour. 112 

Alsophis antillensis (Schlegel) 112 

Alsophis rufiventris (Dumeril & Bibron) 112 

Alsophis vudii Cope 112 

Alsophis fuscicauda Garman 113 

Alsophis caymanus Garman 113 

Alsophis angulifer Bibron 113 

Dromicus andreae Reinhardt & Liitken 113 

Dromicus nebulatus (Barbour) 113 

Dromicus callilaemus Gosse 113 

Dromicus ater Gosse 113 

Dromicus juliae Cope 113 

Dromicus melanotus (Shaw) 113 

Dromicus perfuscus Cope 114 

Dromicus mariae (Barbour) . 114 

Dromicus boulengeri (Barbour) 114 

Dromicus cursor (Lacepeie) 114 

Dromicus anegadae Barbour 114 

Dromicus exiguus Cope 114 

Dromicus stahli (Stejneger) 114 

Dromicus tortuganus (Dunn) 114 

Dromicus alleni (Dunn) 114 

Dromicus parvifrons niger (Dunn) 114 

Dromicus parvifrons protenus (Jan) 114 

Dromicus parvifrons parvifrons (Cope) 115 

Arrhyton taeniatum Gunther. 115 

Arrhyton vittatum (Gundlach & Peters) 115 

Clelia cloelia (Daudin) 115 

Pseudoboa neuweidii (Dumeril & Bibron) 115 

Xaltris dorsalis (Gunther). ...... 115 

Family — CRO TALI DAE 

Bothrops atrox (Linne) 115 

Order —CHELONIA 

Family— TESTUDINIDAE 

Pseudemys rugosa (Stahl) .... 116 


72 


Zoologica: N. Y, Zoological Society 


[XI; 4 


Order — LORI C A TA 

Family— CROCODYL1DAE 

Crocodylus rhombifer Cuvier. .... 116 

Crocodylus acutus Cuvier. 116 

Crocodylus intermedius Graves 116 


1930] 


Barbour: Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 


73 


Class AMPHIBIA 
Order SALIENTIA 
Family HYLIDAE 

Hyla septentrionalis Boulenger 

Cuba; also (perhaps accidentally) the Cayman Islands and Northern Bahamas. 
A common species. 


Hyla dominicensis (Tschudi) 


Hispaniola. 

A common ally of Hyla septentrionalis. 


Hyla brunnea Gosse 

Jamaica. 

The common vicarious representative of H. dominicensis and H. sep~. 
ientrionalis. 


Hyla vasta Cope 

Hispaniola. 

Formerly little known, now well studied by Noble. Not uncommon in 
some wet mountainous ravines in San Domingo. 


Hyla lichenata (Gosse) 

Jamaica. 

Probably of the stock of Hyla vasta but well differentiated. This species 
has been studied by Dunn who finds that it lives in hollow limbs of trees. Its 
head is modified to close the opening. 

Cf . Bufo empusus and the discussion of phragmotic modifications in amphib- 
ians and reptiles. Barbour, Reptiles and Amphibians, Boston, Houghton 
Mifflin & Co., 1926, p. 73 et seg. 

Hyla pulchrilineata Cope 

Hispaniola. 

Formerly considered to be related to the Hyla arborea series, but erroneously. 
It may have Jamaican affinity with Hyla wilderi or it may be anthocthonously 
developed from Hyla dominicensis as Dunn suspects. 

Hyla wilderi Dunn 

Jamaica. 

I collected this species commonly in 1909 but did not realize that the 
specimens were adults of a new species, not young of the common Hyla brunnea. 
It is found in the “wild pines,” epiphytic bromeliads. 


74 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 
Hyla marianae Dunn 


[XI; 4 


Jamaica. 

Apparently not common anywhere and found in the highlands only. 

Hyla heilprini Noble 

Hispaniola. 

Found by Noble in 1922, among stones in the ravines of mountain torrents 
in Pacificador Province, San Domingo. 

Hyla squirrella Latreille 

Southeastern United States; Stranger’s Cay, Northern Bahamas. 

Found in the Bahamas in 1903 by Allen, Bryant and Barbour. Accidental, 
no doubt. 

Hyla rubra Daudin 
South America and St. Lucia. 

Reported years ago, 1891, from St. Lucia where it was doubtless accidentally 
introduced. We have no recent information as to its persistence. 

Family BUFONIDAE 
Bufo longinasus Stejneger 

Western Cuba. 

Known from the type only, taken during the summer of 1900 on the bank of 
a stream in the lowlands near El Guamd, a ranch near Pinar del Rio city. This 
species and the two following vicarious forms are not closely related to any exist- 
ing toad. Many characters, however, suggest an affinity with Bufo quercicus. 
It is possible that all may have descended from some common ancestral type 
which occurred in what is now Central America. 

Bufo dunni Barbour 

Central Cuba. 

Found abundantly after heavy rains in the mountains between Trinidad 
and Cienfuegos. 

Bufo ramsdeni Barbour 

Eastern Cuba. 

Found by C. T. Ramsden only. Taken after heavy rains in isolated local- 
ities in the mountains about the Guantanamo basin. 

Bufo peltacephalus Tschudi 

Cuba. 

Generally distributed but nowhere abundant. I believe that this species 
may be a surviving representative of the same stock from which Bufo punctatus 
Baird & Girard is descended. 


1930 ] 


Barbour: Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 

Bufo empusus (Cope) 


75 


Cuba. 

This is the Cuban representative of the Bufo lemur series. It occurs in 
widely scattered colonies of burrows. I have described its mode of occurrence at 
some length elsewhere. (Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. 44, 1914, p. 242). 


Bufo gutturosus Latreille 


Hispaniola. 

A much more common species than its Porto Rican ally. 


Bufo lemur Cope 

Porto Rico. 

For forty years after its description but six of these toads were found. 
Modern collectors have recently secured a larger number. The four toads of 
this series may be allied to Bufo canaliferus Cope of the mainland of Central 
America. 


Bufo turpis Barbour 

Virgin Gorda. 

The type is still unique. No other toad has ever been found in the Virgin 
Islands. It is very closely allied to Bufo lemur of Porto Rico. 


Bufo marinis (Linne) 

Jamaica, Bermuda, Barbados, St. Lucia, St. Kitts, Martinique, Nevis and 
Montserrat, introduced. Native of South and lower Central America. 

A favorite species for haphazard introduction. 


Family LEPTODACTYLIDAE 


Eleutherodactylus auriculatus (Cope) 


Cuba. 

Dunn believes that this form is confined to the Guantanamo region. 


Eleutherodactylus sonans Dunn 


Cuba. 

An arboreal form of Central Cuba allied to E. auriculatus of Eastern Cuba. 


Eleutherodactylus portoricensis Schmidt 


Porto Rico. 

The representative of E. auriculatoides and E. auriculatus. 


Eleutherodactylus auriculatoides Noble 

Hispaniola. 

Found by Noble in bromeliads along the Constanza-Jarabacoa trail, Paso 
Bajito, Santo Domingo. 


76 


Zoologica : N. Y. Zoological Society 

Eleutherodactylus jamaicensis Barbour 


[XI; 4 


Jamaica. 

Taken at Mandeville in 1908, it has since been found in many other parts 
of the Island. 

Eleutherodactylus weinlandi Barbour 

Hispaniola. 

A lowland species widely distributed in the eastern areas. 

Eleutherodactylus richmondi Stejneger 

Porto Rico. 

A virgin forest form allied to E. weinlandi of Hispaniola and E . lentus 
of St. Thomas. 


Eleutherodactylus lentus Cope 
St. Thomas and St. Croix. 

This still seems to be a common species. Its subterranean habits protect 
it against capture by the mongoose. 

Eleutherodactylus schmidti Noble 

Hispaniola. 

Another of Noble’s interesting discoveries at Paso Bajito. He says it 
is allied to E. weinlandi of the Dominican Republic and to E. richmondi of Porto 
Rico and so on to E. lentus of the Virgin Island. 

Eleutherodactylus inoptatus (Barbour) 

Hispaniola. 

A large species which barks when handled and which is found in both 
Haiti and San Domingo. This by far the largest and finest species of the genus 
was discovered by Dr. W. M. Mann at Diquini, Haiti. It resembles superficially 
E. insignitus from the Sta. Marta Mts. of Colombia. This may be a good case 
of convergence. 

Eleutherodactylus ruthae Noble 

Hispaniola. 

Noble described this species from Samana, R. D., and he considers it allied 
to E. inoptatus. 

Eleutherodactylus martinicensis (Tschudi) 

Saba, Montserrat, St. Kitts, St. Eustatius, St. Martins, Martinique, Guadeloupe, 
Jamaica (introduced near Kingston about 1890). 

This little frog is so easily carried about that its true original distribution 
will never be known. 


1930] 


77 


Barbour: Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 

Eleutherodactylus johnstonei Barbour 

Grenada; ? St. Vincent (? extinct). 

Said to have been brought to Grenada from Barbados about 1885. It has 
recently appeared in Bermuda. 

All that can be said is that this frog from the south end of the Antillean chain 
is different from that found in the north and middle portions. Doubt will always 
exist as to the true original ranges of these two species. They have been carried 
far and wide with plants and have from time to time appeared in hot houses 
in Europe and North America. 


Eleutherodactylus brittoni Schmidt 


Porto Rico. 

Another from the forest on El Yunque. 


Eleutherodactylus abbotti Cochran 


Hispaniola. 

Said to be a very common species throughout San Domingo. 


Eleutherodactylus montanus Schmidt 


Hispaniola. 

A species from the Cibao Mountains. 


Eleutherodactylus minutus Noble 


Hispaniola. 

On ferns in palm thickets on trail near Paso Bajito, San Domingo; fide Noble. 


Eleutherodactylus orcutti Dunn 

Jamaica. 

Another of the recently found and apparently very local forms; from Arn- 
tully in St. Thomas Parish. 


Eleutherodactylus eunctator Dunn 


Jamaica. 

Known only from Arntully in St. Thomas Parish. 


Eleutherodactylus nubicola Dunn 

Jamaica. 

Found high in the Blue Mountains, 3000-5100 feet. 

Eleutherodactylus luteolus (Gosse) 

Jamaica. 

Common and widely distributed; from Port Antonio to Montego Bay. 


78 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 

Eleutherodactylus gossei Dunn 


[XI; 4 


Jamaica. 

Widespread at altitudes of about 1000 feet. 


Eleutherodactylus pantoni Dunn 


Jamaica. 

The largest Jamaican species. 




Eleutherodactylus junori Dhnn 


Jamaica. 

Known only from Spaldings, Clarendon Parish, altitude 2900 feet. 


Eleutherodactylus cundalli Dunn 


Jamaica. 

A woodland species, as yet but little known. 


Eleutherodactylus grabhami Dunn 


Jamaica. 

A small species with a wide range, as to both area and altitude. 


Eleutherodactylus varleyi Dunn 

Cuba. 

Known from Central and Eastern Cuba and said by Dunn to be allied to 
E. minutus and E. abbotti of San Domingo. 


Eleutherodactylus atkinsi Dunn 


Cuba. 

A handsome species found throughout the Island. 


Eleutherodactylus varians (Gundlach & Peters) 


Cuba. 

Known definitely only from Soledad, near Cienfuegos. 


Eleutherodactylus eileenae Dunn 


Cuba. 

The “Kolin” of western and central Cuba. 


Eleutherodactylus dimidiatus (Cope) 


Cuba. 

A widespread species. 


Eleutherodactylus emiliae Dunn . 

Cuba. 

Known only from the Mina Carlota, in the mountains not far from Cuman- 
ayagua, Sta. Clara Province. 


1930 ] 


Barbour: Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 


79 


Eleutherodactylus pinarensis Dunn 

Cuba and Isle of Pines. 

Known in Cuba from the Province of Pinar del Rio only. 

Eleutherodactylus greyi Dunn 

Cuba. 

The largest Cuban species, so far known only from the mountains between 
Cienfuegos and Trinidad. 


Eleutherodactylus brevipalmatus Schmidt 


Cuba. 

A form from the mountains of the Province of Oriente. 


Eleutherodactylus sierrae-maestrae Schmidt 

Cuba. 

Another mountain species from eastern Cuba. 

Eleutherodactylus ricordii (DumSril & Bibron) 

Cuba and Bahama Islands; S. Florida. 

Found in all parts of Cuba and on New Providence, Abaco and Andros 
Island. It is now extending its range in Florida as I reported some years ago. 
It has now reached Gainesville. (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 23, 1910, p. 100.) 


Eleutherodactylus cuneatus (Cope) 

Cuba and Isle of Pines. 

Common in western and central Cuba. 


Eleutherodactylus gundlachii Schmidt 

Cuba. 

An eastern mountain form. I originally described this species but used 
the specific name plicatus, which proved to be preoccupied. 

Eleutherodactylus casparii Dunn 

Cuba. 

Another species of the Trinidad Mountains. 

Eleutherodactylus gryllus Schmidt 

Porto Rico. 

A minute, highland species. 

Eleutherodactylus locustus Schmidt 

Porto Rico. 

Another species from El Yunque forest. 


80 


Zoologica: N. Y . Zoological Society 
Eleutherodactylus cramptoni Schmidt 


[XI; 4 


Porto Rico. 

A rare species from the mountain forest on El Yunque Peak. 

Eleutherodactylus antillensis (Reinhardt & Liitken) 

Porto Rico, St. Thomas, Tortola, Vieques. 

A widespread and common species. 

Eleutherodactylus wrightmanae Schmidt 

Porto Rico. 

A form “probably confined to the coffee belt and the wet forest above it.” 

Eleutherodactylus unicolor Stejneger 

Porto Rico. 

From El Yunque. 

Eleutherodactylus monensis (Meerwarth) 

Mona Island. 

Eleutherodactylus flavescens Noble 

Hispaniola. 

From bushes along streams near La Bracita, found by Noble in 1922. 

Leptodactylus fallax Muller 
Dominica, St. Kitts, Guadeloupe, St. Lucia. 

The giant “crapaud” has been recently separated specifically from the 
mainland L. pentadactylus. Now to be found on Dominica only. Elsewhere 
it has been exterminated by the mongoose. It may have occurred upon other 
islands even, than those recorded above. I am not convinced that it is really 
very distinct from the mainland “species”. 

Leptodactylus dominicensis Cochran 

Hispaniola. 

The San Domingan representative of L. albilabris of Porto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands. 

Leptodactylus albilabris (Gunther) 

St. Thomas, St. Croix, Tortola, Anegada, Just van Dyke, Porto Rico, Vieques, 
Culebra. 

This common form no doubt occurs on other islets in this general area. 

Leptodactylus validus Garman 

St. Vincent, Grenada, Venezuela. 

There is a great question whether this form is distinct or identical with 
L. caliginosus from Brazil and just what the relationship may be with L. labi - 
alis or L. melanonotus from Central America. 


1930] Barbour: Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 81 

Family BRACH Y CEPHALIDAE 

Phyllobates Iimbatus (Cope) 

Cuba. 

Locally abundant. This species has been separated from the mainland 
species of this genus, as Sminthillus, on a trivial skeletal character of divergence. 
It is, however, I now believe essentially a Phyllobates in all important respects 
except perhaps in life history. The species of “Sminthillus” described from 
Peru is quite certainly wholly unrelated to the Cuban form. I believe that 
we may generally agree that Sminthillus (type Iimbatus) is a straight synonym 
of Phyllobates. The Peruvian species in any case requires a new name, and 
may be called Noblella, type N. peruviana (Noble). 

Class REPTILIA 
Suborder SAURIA 
Family GEKKONIDAE 

Gymnodactylus fasciatus Dumeril & Bibron 

Martinique. 

I know nothing of this species and have often wondered what it is. The 
type in Paris was said to be from the Plee Collection and taken at Martinique. 
The Plee Collections have caused endless confusion by having so often erron- 
ious data as to locality. I suspect that I had done better to omit this species 
altogether. 

Gonatodes albogularis (Dumeril & Bibron) 

Martinique, Curasao. 

This, another Plee type from “Martinique,” may have come from almost 
anywhere in the Caribbaean basin. Many of the members of this genus are in 
confusion and await a reviser. 

Gonatodes notatus (Reinhardt & Liitken) 

Hispaniola. 

Apparently a valid species which may be confined to Haiti. It seems to be 

rare. 

Gonatodes fuscus (Hallowell) 

Cuba and Central America. 

This house lizard is known from the seaports of Santiago, Havana and 
Mariel, which is in constant schooner communication with Havana. I suspect 
the species was long since accidentally introduced into Cuba. 


82 Zoologica: N . Y . Zoological Society [XI ; 4 

Phyllodactylus spatulatus Cope 

Barbados. 

Collected years ago, about 1861 in fact, by Dr. Theodore Gill. I have 
no recent information as to its status. 

Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnes) 

Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Porto Rico, St. Thomas, St. Croix, Just van Dyke, 
Tortola, Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Barbados, Martinique, Grenada 
and the Grenadines; Northern South America. 

This lizard, one frequenting the street lamps of towns and cities, is, I 
believe, accidentally introduced. It is rare in the Greater Antilles, and in 
Cuba very local. 

Hemidactylus brookii Gray 

West Africa; Hispaniola. 

I believe this is another accidental introduction. 

Thecadactylus rapicaudus (Houttuyn) 

Saba south to Grenada, tropical South and Central America. 

Nocturnal or crepuscular. Found under bark, behind shutters and in old 
buildings, also in the forest in crevices of rocks and sometimes under decaying 
vegetable trash. It is known from almost every single island, all indeed which 
have been in any completely explored. 

Aristelliger praesignis (Hallowell) 

Jamaica, Grand Cayman and Cayman Brae. 

An abundant, if not actually common, species. 

Aristelliger lar Cope 

Hispaniola. 

Apparently rather widely distributed. It has recently been collected in 
larger numbers than the earlier investigators uncovered. 

Tarentola cubana Gundlach & Peters 

Cuba and Bahamas. 

Shy and retiring in rocky crevices this species is rarely seen. I suspect it to 
be widespread in the Bahamas though I have seen it from Andros and Exuma 
Islands only. In Cuba it is more common in the northeastern region than else- 
where. 

Sphaerodactylus decoratus Garman 

Bahama Islands. 

Common on Andros, rare on New Providence. The type came from 
Rum Cay. 


1930 ] 


Barbour: Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 


83 


Sphaerodactylus gibbus Barbour 


Bahama Islands. 

Known only from the Exuma Cays. 


Sphaerodactylus torrei Barbour 

Cuba. 

Known from the Province of Oriente only. It is not rare. 

Sphaerodactylus cinereus Wagler 

Cuba, Navassa, Hispaniola and extreme south Florida. 

A common form in houses and in woodlands. It passes through a number 
of color phases during growth and the young and half grown were once thought 
to be distinct species and bore specific names, elegans and intermedins. 


Sphaerodactylus oxyrrhinus Gosse 

Jamaica. 

A rare form but one widespread through the Island. 

Sphaerodactylus difficilis Barbour 

Hispaniola. 

Common and widely distributed. 


Sphaerodactylus notatus Baird 

Florida Keys and extreme southern Florida, Cuba, Isle of Pines and Bahama 
Islands. 

A very common house lizard. No doubt often carried about and rapidly 
extending its range. 

Sphaerodactylus macrolepis Gunther 

St. Croix, St. Thomas, Tortola, Virgin Gorda, Anegada, Porto Rico, Vieques 
and Mona. 

Widespread and common. 


Sphaerodactylus richardsoni Gray 


Jamaica. 

A fine big form but one which is distinctly rare. 


Sphaerodactylus becki Schmidt 

Navassa. 

I am not sure, judging from the second known specimen recently collected, 
that this species is really separable from S. scaber of Cuba. 


84 


Zoologica: N. Y„ Zoological Society 
Sphaerodactylus gilvitorques Cope 


[XI; 4 


Jamaica. 

I know nothing of this species. I have never found it; nor has any of our 
various collectors in Jamaica. The types were taken “during the forties” by 
Dr. Pennock of Philadelphia. 


Sphaerodactylus nigropunctatus Gray 


Cuba. 

A rare species from Eastern Cuba. 


Sphaerodactylus carticolus Garman 

Bahama Islands. 

Known from New Providence, Watlings Island and Rum Cay. No doubt 
it occurs in many other islands beside these. 


Sphaerodactylus festus Barbour 


Martinique. 

Known from but few specimens but no doubt common. 


Sphaerodactylus goniorhynchus Cope 


Jamaica. 

A very common woodland species. 


Sphaerodactylus argus Gosse 


Jamaica. 

An excessively common species both in houses and out of doors. 


Sphaerodactylus argivus Garman 

Cayman Brae. 

A derivative of S. argus of Jamaica. A fairly well defined species. It is 
apparently known from the type series only. 


Sphaerodactylus anthracinus Cope 

Bahama Islands. 

Only known from Andros Island. 


Sphaerodactylus copei Steindachner 

Hispaniola. 

A fine, big, rough scaled species which is rare and apparently confined to 
Haiti. 

Sphaerodactylus scaber Barbour & Ramsden 

Cuba. 

Found in the hills of central Cuba. 


1930] 


Barbour: Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 

Sphaerodactylus fantasticus Dumeril & Bibron 


85 


Guadeloupe. 

Very abundant. 


Sphaerodactylus pictus Garman 


St. Kitts. 

Probably abundant. 


Sphaerodactylus sputator (Sparrman) 

St. Eustatius. 

The types in Stockholm are the only specimens known. 

No Sphaerodactli are as yet known from St. Martin, Saba, Redonda and 
other small islands in this neighborhood. 


Sphaerodactylus elegantulus Barbour 

Antigua. 

An ally of pictus and sputator. Brilliantly banded when young and less 
ornamented in adult life — like so many of the curious little beasts. 

Sphaerodactylus microlepis Reinhardt & Liitken 

St. Lucia. 

I know little of the status of this and several others of the Lesser Antillean 
forms. 

Sphaerodactylus vincenti Boulenger 

St. Vincent. 

No information available. 


Sphaerodactylus monilifer Barbour 


Dominica. 

Probably abundant but I have no real information about this species. 


Family IGUANIDAE 

Iguana rhinolopha Wiegmann 

Central America and St. Thomas, Saba, St. Kitts, Dominica, St. Lucia, Grenada. 

I am not certain of some of these records. A few may apply to the follow- 
ing species. 

Iguana delicatissima Laurenti 

St. Martin, St. Barts, Nevis, Guadeloupe, Martinique, swarming on Swan 
Island, Brazil. 

Here again I am similarly uncertain. I believe both species have been 
widely carried about and introduced by the early Indians for food. They are 
well worth the trouble. 


86 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [XI; 4 

Chamaeleolis chamaeleontides (Dumeril & Bibron) 

Cuba. 

The most peculiar of all the offshoots from the Anoline stock. A rare 
species and beyond doubt a monotypic genus; in spite of several names applied 
with the idea of multiplying the forms. 

Xiphocercus valenciennesii (Dumeril & Bibron) 

Jamaica. 

Not uncommon in woods and fruit plantations. It may be related to 
Phenocosaurus of Colombia or be simply a chance offshoot from Anolis in 
Jamaica and only fortuitously similar to the South American genus. 

Chamaelinorops barbouri Schmidt 

Navassa. 

Not found during the careful exploration of Clench, Schevill and Rehder 
during January 1930. Possibly exterminated by introduced animals 

Chamaelinorops wetmorei Cochran 

Hispaniola. 

The unique type is from near Miragoane, Haiti. 

Deiroptyx vermiculata (Dumeril & Bibron) 

Cuba. 

Bank of streams of Pinar del Rio Province, taking refuge in the water and 
hiding among submerged rocks and stones when pursued. 

Deiroptyx bartschi Cochran 

Cuba. 

Long unrecognized but not rare in western Cuba. 

Anolis equestris Merrem 

Cuba and Isle of Pines. 

The finest and largest species of the genus. Rather uncommon but wide 
ranging. Less common than its allies A. garmani of Jamaica and A. ricordii 
of Hispaniola and about equally abundant with A. cuvieri of Porto Rico. These 
are the “Giant Anoles” of the Antilles and they may be related to the A. insignis 
group of Central America. 

Anolis cuvieri Merrem 

Porto Rico, Vieques and Tortola. 

A rather uncommon member of the series of “Giant Anoles. 


1930 ] Barbour: Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 87 

Anolis ricordii DumSril & Bibron 

Hispaniola. 

One of the “Giant” series. Found throughout the whole Island and 
next to A. garmani of Jamaica the most abundant of the tribe. 

Anolis garmani Stejneger 

Jamaica. 

The beautiful great green or barred “Venus Lizard ” of Jamaica. A common 
woodland form by far the most abundant of the group of the “Giant Andes.” 

Anolis porcatus Gray 

Cuba and Isle of Pines. 

A very abundant species. The “Chamaeleon” now sold iniquitously by 
thousands at “ the circus. ” It has replaced its ally, our southern “ Chamaeleon, ” 
A. carolinensis (Voight) in this hateful traffic. 

Anolis maynardi Garman 

Grand Cayman. 

This extraordinary lizard, the most extreme member of the long-headed 
A. porcatus-carolinensis series, is by no means common. 

Anolis brunneus Cope 

Bahamas. 

The most widespread Bahaman species, from Crooked Island to Abaco. 
A species of gardens and verandahs, frequenting broad leaved plants and resting 
often on the leaves. 

Anolis longiceps Schmidt 

Navassa. 

Apparently the only species at. present to be found in any number on this 
Island. 

Anolis chloro-cyanus Dumeril & Bibron 

Hispaniola. 

A widespread and not uncommon form. 

Anolis mestrei Barbour & Ramsden 

Cuba. 

A rather rare species of the higher woods in the limestone hills of western 
Cuba. It belongs with A. ahli and A. allogus. 

Anolis allogus Barbour & Ramsden 

Cuba. 

This fine form has a wide distribution in the mountains of eastern Cuba. 
Its ally in western Cuba is A. mestrei , in Central Cuba, A. ahli. 


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[XI; 4 


Anolis ahli Barbour 

Cuba. 

Confined to the mountains between Trinidad and Cienfuegos. It is related 
to A. mestrei and A. allogus. Not uncommon in high damp woods. 


Anolis abatus Ahl 

Cuba. 

This species may be valid, it is more probably a synonym of Anolis 
mestrei. 

Anolis bimaculatus Sparrman 

St. Eustatius, St. Kitts and Nevis. 

Abundant. A strictly arboreal species. 


Anolis newtonii Gunther 


St. Croix. 

I have never seen this species and know nothing about it. 


Anolis evermanni Stejneger 

Porto Rico. 

A highland species which may be related to A. leucophaeus of Inagua. 
An abundant form. 

Anolis krugi Peters 

Porto Rico. 

A little, well dispersed species belonging to what I call the rupicolous as 
against the arboreal Lesser Antillean series — viz. A. wattsi, A. sabanus , and 
allies. 

Anolis acutus Halloweli 

St. Croix. 

This is still be an abundant form. I have just received a fine series. 

Anolis wattsi Boulenger 

St. Kitts, Nevis, St. Eustatius and Antigua. 

A pretty little species found on the outcrops of igneous rock and, in so far 
as my experience goes, not in trees. It is one of the A. acutus allies. 


Anolis forresti Barbour 

Barbuda. 

Only known from the types but obviously a small rock-inhabiting species 
most nearly allied to the species standing directly before it. 


Anolis gundlachi Peters 


Porto Rico. 

Apparently an abundant species. 


1930] 


Barbour: Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 


89 


Anolis gingmnns Cope 

St. Martins, St. Barts, Anguilla and St. Eustatius. 

Common. A member of the series of small sized Lesser Antillean species. 


Anolis sabamis Carman 

Saba. 

A most remarkably differentiated form, a rock lizard, pure and simple. 
The males with fine leopard-like spotting. It is one of the A. watt si- A. acutus 
tribe but very distinct and uniquely marked. 


Anolis antiquae Barbour 


Antiqua. 

A beatiful and common arboreal species. 


Anolis lividus Carman 


Montserrat. 

All the lizards are said still to be common on this Island. 


Anolis barbudensis Barbour 

Barbuba. 

Known from the type only but no doubt common as are its relatives on 
Antigua and Nevis. 

Anolis asper Garman 

Marie Galante. 

A bizarre and gorgeous species common on the old mango trees — about 
the only trees still standing over a large part of this hurricane stricken isle. 


Anolis leachii Dum6ril & Bibron 

Guadeloupe. 

One of the large species. Found abundantly by Noble in 1914, it was 
rare after the fearful hurricane of Sept. 12, 1928. 


Anolis terrae-alta© Barbour 

Les Saintes; near Guadeloupe. 

A fine big species which Noble found abundant in 1914. 


Anolis alliaceus Cope 

Dominica. 

I was surprised in 1929 to find that this species seemed much less conspic- 
uous and common than its allies on other islands nearby. So much for what 
may have been a most erroneous conclusion drawn from the visit of a few days 
only. It is, however, by no means rare. 


90 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 

Anolis nubilus Garman 


[XI; 4 


Redonda. 

A beautiful great lizard; one of the finest in the genus. It is known only 
from the original series. 

Anolis griseus Garman 

St. Vincent. 

This lizard was formerly abundant. It is now rare. It may have been 
more or less terrestrial and hence have been a prey to the mongoose. 


Anolis richardii Dum6ril & Bibron 

Grenada and Tobago. 

A splendid great lizard; a strict tree dweller. 

Anolis rubribarbus Barbour & Ramsden 

Cuba. 

Known only from a very few specimens from Puerto Cananova on the 
north coast of the oriental province. 


Anolis quadriocellifer Barbour & Ramsden 


Cuba. 

Known only from the Cape San Antonio region of extreme western Cuba. 
Cuba. 


Anolis patricius Barbour 


Only known from a series taken by Dr. Ramsden at Mina Piloto, near 
Sagua de Tanamo, northern coast of Oriente Province. The eastern represent- 
ative of A. quadriocellifer., 

Anolis cristatellus Dum6ril & Bibron 


Porto Rico, Culebra, Vieques, St. Thomas, Anegada, Tortola, Virgin Gorda, 
Water Island and Mosquito Island. 

A common and handsome species. It has been suggested that a separate 
genus be established for the fin-tailed species, but as a matter of fact this 
character appears in various phyla and it may not always be a token of relation- 
ship. 

Anolis monensis Stejneger 

Mona. 

The local derivative of A. cristatellus . Apparently, like it, a common 

species. 

Anolis alutaceus Cope 

Cuba and Isle of Pines. 

Known from all parts of the Island but nowhere abundant. A species of 
the low scrublands. 


1930 ] 


Barbour: Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 

Anolis spectrum Peters 


91 


Cuba. 

A not uncommon lizard in woodlands during the rainy season. It dis- 
appears completely during the dry portion of the year. It ties in with one of the 
A. semilineatus, A. olsoni, A. hendersoni series of Haiti as does also, I think, A. 
alutaceus and perhaps A. cyanopleurus. 


Anolis cyanopleurus Cope 

Cuba. 

A marvelously beautiful species which Dr. Ramsden has rediscovered in 
the old type locality, the mountains about Guantanamo. I suspect from its 
habit that it may be largely terrestrial. It is said to be local and uncommon. 


Anolis semilineatus Cope 


Hispaniola. 

An abundant, cursorial grass living form. 


Anolis olssoni Schmidt 

Hispaniola. 

Apparently a not uncommon member of the group of slender terrestrial 
species long confused with A. semilineatus and allied to A. spectrum of Cuba. 

Anolis hendersoni Cochran 

Hispaniola. 

A small terrestrial species mostly, if not wholly, from the western portion 
of the Island. 

Anolis pulchellus Dumdril & Bibron 

Porto Rico, Vieques, Virgin Gorda, Tortola, Anegada, St. Thomas, St. Croix, 
Just van Dyke. 

A common ground living species. Doubtfully recorded from Haiti. 

Anolis poncensis Stejneger 

Porto Rico. 

A rare local species. One which is terrestrial and almost Norops-like in 
habit. 

Anolis latirostris Schmidt 

Navassa. 

Known from the unique type only. 

Anolis stratulus Cope 

Porto Rico, Vieques, Culebra, St. Thomas, Tortole, Just van Dyke. 

A common lowland species. 


92 


Zoologica : N. Y . Zoological Society 

Anolis coelestinus Cope 


[XI; 4 


Hispaniola. 

I have seen this form from Haiti only and have no recent information to 
offer. 

Anolis dominicensis Reinhardt & Liitken 
Hispaniola and La Gonave Island. 

This species is not uncommon in Haiti but seems to be rare on La Gonave. 
I secured a small series in 1929 — but in a very dry time. 

Anolis distichus Cope 

Bahama Islands. 

Common on the ceiba trees of New Providence Island. I think it occurs 
on other islands as well but upon trying to find why I have this impression I 
cannot lay hands on a bit of evidence. It may be confined to New Providence. 


Anolis distichoides Ros6n 


Andros Island. 

A poorly defined form replacing A. distichus. It is very abundant. 


Anolis sagrei Dum6ril & Bibron 

Cuba and Isle of Pines; probaly introduced in Jamaica and Belise. 

The commonest Anolis and, as its range is wide in Cuba, perhaps this 
form has the largest species population in the genus. The commonest fence, 
house-wall and brush lizard in Cuba, by far. 

Anolis ordinatus Cope 

Bahamas. 

Known from Turks Island to New Providence. Common everywhere. 
This is a derivative of the A. sagrei stock and only a moderately well defined 
species. It is much more distinct in life than in preserved form. 


Anolis luteosignifer Garman 


Cayman Brae. 

Probably as abundant as it ever was. 


Anolis iongitibialis Noble 

Beata Island. 

The apparently rare but quite well defined local representative of the 
A. cybotes stock. 

Anolis lineatopus Grey 

Jamaica. 

The common fence lizard of the dry Liguanea Plain about Kingston. It 
swarms here but occurs nowhere else, so far as anyone knows at present. 


1930] 


Barbour: Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 


93 


Anolis homolechis Boulenger 

Cuba and Isle of Pines. 

A widespread and not uncommon species found in wooded ravines or 
lowland woods and heavy scrub. 

Anolis greyi Barbour 

Cuba. 

Only known from a small number taken in the town of Camaguey and in 
the Cubitas range of hills not far away. 

Anolis doris Barbour 

La Gonave. 

I have only seen a very few specimens of this lizard, a contrast to its ally 
A. cybotes, which is very abundant in Haiti. 

Anolis cybotes Cope 

Hispaniola. 

Common as are the allies of A. sagrei wherever they occur. This is one of 
a series of dominant and successful species. 

Anolis angusticeps Hallowed 

Cuba and Isle of Pines. 

I consider this a really rare species in western Cuba where, however, it 
occurs quite widely. It is more abundant in the Isle of Pines. 

Anolis oligaspis Cope 

New Providence. 

A rare representative of A. angusticeps of Cuba. It may occur also upon 
other islands. Much intensive herpetological work remains to be done in the 
central and southern Bahama Islands. 

Anolis isolepis Cope 

Cuba. 

An excessively rare species. It occurs in the mountains of Oriente Province 
and apparently replaces A. angusticeps. 

Anolis lucius Dum6ril & Bibron 

Cuba. 

The abundant lizard of the limestone cliffs and open caves of central Cuba 
from Matanzas and Santa Clara Provinces, especially. 

Anolis argenteolus Cope 

Cuba. 

Found in the Province of Oriente. Far from rare, it occurs on rocks, 


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Zoologica : N, Y. Zoological Society 


[XI; 4 


cliffs and often also on building walls and fences. I have taken it on the 
trunks of the great Ficus nitida (Sp. Laur61 de la India) trees which used to 
stand in the Plaza at Santiago. 

Anolis argillaceus Cope 

Cuba. 

I have never seen this species in life. Dr. Ramsden says it is not uncommon 
in the old coffee plantations high in the mountains about Guantanamo. 


Anolis bremeri Barbour 

Cuba. 

A fine striking species, known only from the type which I took years ago at 
Herradura in Pinar del Rio Province. 

Anolis loysiana Cocteau 

Cuba. 

A rare and bizarre little lizard. It is found sparingly all over Cuba on light 
colored tree barks. It is extraordinary like rough bark in appearance. 
Some believe that the genus Acantholis proposed to contain this species is really 
valid. It becomes more common during the summer rains, than it is in the dry 
season, our winter. 

Anolis leucophaeus Garman 
Inagua, Turks and Caicos Islands. 

A common species. I have not seen it from Caicos but am told that the 
same Anolis occurs there that is so common on Grand Turk. 

Anolis speciosus Garman 

Marie Galante. 

Known from Garman’s types only. I did not find it in 1929. 


Anolis marmoratus Dumeril & Bibron 


Desirade. 

I know nothing of this form. Garman found it abundant in 1882. 


Anolis roquet (Lac6p&de) 


Martinique. 

An abundant representative of the A. vincenti-A. luciae set of allied forms. 


Anolis luciae Garman 

St. Lucia. 

Apparently like so many Antillean species whether from one reason or 
another much less common than formerly. 


1930 ] 


Barbour: Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 

Anolis vincentii Garman 


95 


St. Vincent. 

Like most of the reptiles of this Island this species is now rare. It may 
descend to the ground from time to time and so fall prey to the mongoose. 
I should have said that most of the species of this Island are extinct. 

Anolis gentilis Garman 
Grenada and the Grenadines. 

A rather small inconspicuous lizard which is still abundant. 


Anolis opalinus Gosse 


Jamaica. 

A rather rare, woodland species, most often seen in western Jamaica. 


Anolis iodurus Gosse 

Jamaica. 

A beautiful and not uncommon little woodland species. It is found 
widely distributed on the Island. 


Anolis grahami Gray 


Jamaica. 

Common in the woods of Eastern Jamaica. 


Anolis conspersus Garman 


Grand Cayman. 

A derivitive of A. grahami of Jamaica. It is probably not rare. 


Norops ophiolepis (Cope) 

Cuba and Isle of Pines. 

A common terrestrial species usually found hiding in the heavy tufts or 
bunches of pasture grasses. 


Gyclura cristata Schmidt 

White Cay, near Watlings Island. 

A small colony in danger if not already lost. 

Gyclura figginsi Barbour 

Bitter Guana Cay, near Great Guana Cay, Exuma group. 

This little colony is now, I learn, almost certainly exterminated. 

Gyclura portoricensis Barbour 

Porto Rico. 

Extinct but relatively recent bones found in several caves. 


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[XI; 4 


Cyclura mattea Miller 

St. Thomas. / 

Recently extinct, known from recent osseous remains only. 

Cyclura pinguis Barbour 

Anegada. 

Excessively rare if not now gone. 


Cyclura stejnegeri Barbour & Noble 


Mona. 


Another rare species. This may be the same as C. cornuta. 


Cyclura nigerrima Cope 

Navassa. 

Extinct. I am not sure that this was really distinct from C. cornuta , in 
fact I rather doubt it, but material is lacking to settle the question. 


Cyclura cornuta (Bonnaterre) 

Hispaniola, La Gonave, Petit Gonave and Beata Island. 

Persisting only in isolated colonies on the larger island but very common on 
Beata. 

Cyclura collei Gray 

Jamaica. 

Almost extinct. There are a few on Goat Island, off the Bushy Park 
property and a few on the Cays about Montego Bay. 


Cyclura carinata Harlan 


Turks Island. 

Abundant still on some Cays near Turks Island and in the Caicos group. 


Cyclura nuchalis Barbour & Noble 


Fortune Island. 

Said now to be extinct. 


Cyclura rileyi Stejneger 

Two small Cays in the lagoon of Watlings Island. 

A few are said to persist. 


Cyclura inornata Barbour & Noble 

U Cay in Allen’s Harbor near Highborn Cay, Bahamas. 

Once widespread, no doubt now extirpated through use by the negros for 
food. This was the only specimen which Maynard could find — a relict on a 
tiny islet. 


1930] 


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97 


Cyclura baeolopha Cope 


Andros Island. 

Reported to be considerably decreased in numbers. 


Cyclura caymanensis Barbour & Noble 

Cayman Brae and Little Cayman. 

Reported still to be not uncommon. 


Cyclura macleayi Gray 

Cuba and Isle of Pines. 

Rare. Persisting in only the wildest and most inaccessible districts. 
Cyclura ricordii (Dum6ril & Bibron) 

Hispaniola. 

Long known from the type only, until rediscovered by Dr. W. L. Abbott. 
Now known to be not uncommon in a few scattered localities in San Domingo. 

Leiocephalus carinatus Gray 

Cuba, Isle of Pines, Bahamas and Cayman Brae. 

Widespread about rocky shores, headlands and sea cliffs. So far as I am 
aware seldom or never seen inland, certainly never in Cuba. With its tail 
tightly curled over its back this lizard jumps and hops about its haunts in a 
most unreptilian-like manner. The Cayman Brae specimens may represent a 
separate form but material is too scant to be sure. 

Leiocephalus melanochlorus Cope 

Hispaniola. 

Known from Jeremie in southwest Haiti to Puerto Plata in Northern 
San Domingo. 

Leiocephalus schreibersii (Gravenhorst) 

Hispaniola and Great Inagua. 

A common species on Inagua and Haiti. We have not seen it from San 
Domingo. 

Leiocephalus personatus Cope 

Hispaniola. 

Allied to L. cubensis it is apparently common and widespread over the whole 
Island. I suspect L. Iherminieri (Dum6ril & Bibron) to be a synonym of this 
species. It was said to have come from Trinidad and Martinique, L’herminier, 
and P16e collectors, but both these gentlemen caused confusion on more than one 
occasion by either labelling their material incorrectly or else by shipping the 
results of a visit to several islands home to Paris in one lot shipment, after 
receipt of which the whole consignment was entered in the records of the Jardin 


98 Zoologica : N. Y» Zoological Society [XI; 4 

des Plantes as having been collected at the point of shipment. This sort of 
thing has caused confusion for modern workers on a host of occasions. 

Leiocephalus eremitus Cope 

Navassa. 

Not found by Beck or the Clench party last year. Cats and dogs, now 
feral, may be to blame for the disappearance of this and other species. 

Leiocephalus cubensis Gray 

Cuba and Isle of Pines. 

The common lizard of the canefields. I believe that investigation will 
show it to be very highly beneficial in controlling insects which are injurious 
to the industry. 

Leiocephalus psammodromus Barbour 

Turks Island. 

A common species and one which I at first called L. arenarius but found 
that that name had been obscurely given by Tschudi to a Peruvian species 
that apparently had escaped all notice by subsequent authors. 

Leiocephalus varius Garman 

Grand Cayman. 

When on Grand Cayman three years ago, I could not find this species but 
that may have been owing to the terrific drought, widespread that year, over 
the whole Antillean region. 

Leiocephalus virescens Stejneger 

Green Cay, Bahamas. 

Said still to be common. 

Leiocephalus raviceps Cope 

Cuba. 

I once doubted the validity of this species but it seems to be really well 
defined and confined to Eastern Cuba. 

Leiocephalus loxogrammus Cope 

Rum Cay and Watlings Island, Bahamas. 

This species will probably prove to be much more widespread than we now 
know it to be. 

Leiocephalus macropus Cope 

Cuba. 

A species found abundantly throughout the Province of Oriente but so far 
as we now know not westward, of, let us say, a vertical line drawn north and 
south and passing about through Holguin. 


1930 ] 


Barbour: Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 


99 


Leiocephalus semilineatus Dunn 


Hispaniola. 

Known only from Thomazeau, Haiti. 


Leiocephalus barahonensis Schmidt 


Hispaniola. 

Known only from the southeastern portion of San Domingo. 


Leiocephalus beatanus Noble 

Beata Island. 

Common and the only representative of the genus which either Noble or 
I were able to find on the Island. 


Leiocephalus vinculum Cochrane 

Gonave Island, Haiti. 

I visited Gonave in 1929 during a very prolonged drought and saw but one 
of this species. This does not mean that it may not be abundant. 


Hispaniola. 
Taken by 


Hispaniolus pratensis Cochran 
Milles at St. Michel, Haiti. 


Family ANGUIDAE 


Celestus de la sagra (Cocteau) 


Cuba. 

A widespread but excessively rare and perhaps disappearing species. 


Celestus ragosus Cope 

Hispaniola. 

Whether or not this species is really valid remains to be determined when 
more material comes to hand. 


Celestus costatus (Cope) 

Hispaniola. 

This species may be the same as C. occiduus of Jamaica. These species all 
change greatly during growth and are rather in confusion taxonomically. 

Celestus badius Cope 

Navassa. 

This species may still occur on Navassa. I have a specimen taken but a 
few years ago. It may be identical with C. costatus. 


100 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 
Celestus maculatus (Garman) 


[XI; 4 


Cayman Brae. 

A rather poorly defined but, I think, valid form apparently known from 
the type only. 

Celestus occiduus (Shaw) 

Jamaica. 

A form which was once common and of which old adults reached a great 
size — like Tiliqua of Australia or Corucia of the Solomon Islands. No such 
giants now occur and the species is rare. 

Celestus impressus Cope 

Jamaica. 

A smaller and commoner species than C. occiduus but still one of which we 
know very little. 

Celestus pleii (Dumdril & Bibron) 

Porto Rico. 

A species which is much like its Cuban congener but apparently even now 
rather less rare. 

Sauresia sepoides Gray 

Hispaniola. 

I once sunk this genus into Celestus but the concensus of opinion is that 
I was wrong. It seems really to be not uncommon. 

Wetmorena haetiana Cochran 

Hispaniola. 

Known from a few examples taken by Wetmore in the higher regions of the 
La Selle massif in Haiti. 


Family XANTUSIIDAE 
Crieolepis typica (Gundlach & Peters) 

Cuba. 

Confined to the area, of a few square miles at most, between Belig and Cabo 
Cruz, Oriente, Cuba. 

Family TEIIDAE 

Kentropyx intermedius Gray 

South America. Trinidad, Barbados. 

What was probably this species was formerly common on Barbados but it 
is now wholly extinct on that Island. Garman named ( K . copei) but did not 
describe this species. I have not material to settle the validity of the name. 


1930 ] 


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101 


Ameiva aquilina Garman 

St. Vincent and Grenada. 

Extinct on St. Vincent but still persisting on Grenada. 

Ameiva fuscata Garman 

Dominica. 

Owing to the absence of the mongoose this, the finest of all the Antillean 
Ameivas, is still a common species. 

Ameiva cineracea Barbour & Noble 

Guadeloupe. 

Extirpated except for a few individuals which persist on the tiny islets off 
the coast. 

Ameiva atrata Garman 

Redonda. 

A black species superficially like A. corvina and living under similar condi- 
tions. It has not been collected recently, probably only because the Island 
is now almost never visited. 


Ameiva pluvianotata Garman 


Montserrat. 

I have just learned that this species is still very common all over the Island. 


Ameiva erythrops Cope 


St. Eustatius. 

Peters found this form abundant in 1922. 


Ameiva griswoldi Barbour 

Antigua and Nevis. 

Extinct on Nevis, it is also almost gone on Antigua where it persists only 
right in the town of St. John in yards and gardens. 


Ameiva erythrocephala (Daudin) 

St. Kitts. 

Extirpated from the wilder parts of the Island; it still occurs in the gardens 
and yaids of Basseterre. Here it is safe from the mongoose. 


Ameiva garmani Barbour 


Anguilla. 

This species is still abundant. It is closely allied to A. pleii. 


* 


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[XI; 4 


Ameiva pleii Dumcril & Bibron 
St. Barts and St. Martin. 

We have again no recent information to indicate that this is not still an 
abundant species. 

Ameiva corvina Cope 

Sombrero. 

A black form which, like so many Lacertids and some species of Cnemido- 
phorus and indeed another Ameiva, has assumed this peculiar coloration as a 
result of isolation on a very small, arid, sunbaked and rocky island. 


Ameiva polops Cope 


St. Croix. 

Extinct, but very few specimens have been preserved. 


Ameiva wetmorei Stejneger 

Porto Rico. 

Rare and confined to the arid zone about Guanica. Schmidt defines its 
range as the limestone hills about Ensenada and on Caja de Muertos Island. 
This species also belongs to the lineulata, maynardi, polops stock, which thrives 
only in arid areas. 

Ameiva maynardi Carman 

Great Inagua. 

A beautiful species of the A. lineolata series. 


Ameiva alboguttata Boulenger 

Mona Island. 

According to recent accounts still abundant. Closely related to the Porto 
Rican form next following. 

Ameiva exsul Cope 

St. Thomas, Water Island, St. John, Vieques, Anguilla, St. Croix and Porto Rico. 

New exterminated on St. Thomas. I have always doubted the St. Croix 
record. It is common where it still occurs at all. 


Ameiva vittipunctata Cope 


Hispaniola. 

A very beautiful and apparently not very common form. 


Ameiva taeniura Cope 

Hispaniola. 

When Dr. Noble and I prepared our Revision of Ameiva in 1915, 1 think I 
was principally to blame for concluding that this species was the young of 
A. lineolata. Miss Cochran has shown that this is untrue and that the species 
is perfectly valid. 


1930] 


Barbour: Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 

Ameiva lineolata Dum?ril & Bibron 


103 


Hispaniola. 

Widespread and abundant. 


Ameiva chrysolaema Cope 


Hispaniola. 

A very common and widely spread species. 


Ameiva thoracica Cope 

Bahama Islands. 

Now known to be widespread in the northern and central portion of the 
Bahama archipelago. 

Ameiva dorsalis Gray 

Jamaica 

Formerly abundant,, then, after the mongoose came, pretty well reduced™ 
almost exterminated. Now recovering slightly in numbers in the cities and 
settlements where the mongoose population is kept in hand. 

Ameiva auberi Cocteau 

Cuba and Isle of Pines. 

Nowhere abundant but very widely distributed. Perhaps most frequently 
seen along railway enbankments. 

Ameiva barbouri Cochran 

La Gonave Island. 

Taken only by Eyerdam in 1927. I did not find it when on La Gonave 
in 1929. 

Ameiva beatensis Noble 

Beata Island. 

I found this species much less common that A. abbotti on a recent visit to 
Beata. 

Ameiva abbotti Noble 

Beata Island. 

Common on this beautiful but generally uninhabited Island. 


Ameiva navassae Schmidt 

Navassa. 

Known from the type only, taken by R. H. Beck in 1917. Not found by 
the last collectors in 1930. 


Scolecosaums alleni Barbour 

Grenada. 

A distinct and not uncommon species of the wet spice gardens. This 
little creature is most commonly found under heaps of half decayed cocoa pods. 


104 


[XI; 4 


Zoologica : N. 7 . Zoological Society 

Gymnophthalmus pleei Bocourt 

St. Lucia and Martinique. 

Extinct. 

Whether G. luetkenii, also of Bocourt, from “St. Lucia” is really distinct 
or whether it ever came from St. Lucia will, in part, be solved by examination 
of the type. Only pleei was found on these two islands by Garman, who took 
a good series before it was exterminated. 


Family AMPHISBAENIDAE 
Cadea palirostrata Dickerson 

Isle of Pines. 

A very distinct and abundant species. 

Cadea blanoides Stejneger 

Cuba. 

Rare and confined to Matanzas, Havana and Pinar del Rio Provinces. 

Amphisbaena fenestrata Cope 

St. Thomas, St. Croix and St. John. 

I know of no recent information on the status of this species. 


Porto Rico. 

Rare and local. 


Amphisbaena bakeri Stejneger 


Amphisbaena caeca Cuvier 


Porto Rico. 

Not very uncommon. 

Amphisbaena manni Barbour 

Hispaniola. 

This form seems to be about equally abundant with innocens. 

Amphisbaena innocens Weinland 

Hispaniola. 

Not uncommon in Haiti. 


Amphisbaena cubana Peters 

Cuba. 

Common in Central Cuba. Best found by following plows. 


1930] 


105 


Barbour: Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 


Amphisbaena caudalis Cochran 
Grande Cayemite Isl., Haiti. 

Known from but two examples taken by Eyerdam in 1927. It is allied 
to A. innocens. 


Family SCINCIDAE 
Mabuya aenea Gray 
St. Vincent, Grenada and Trinidad. 

Probably extinct on the first two and rare and disappearing in Trinidad. 


Mabuya luciae Garman 

St. Lucia. 

Extinct. 

Mabuya dominicana Garman 

Dominica. 

During a visit to Dominica during March, 1929, I saw several skincs in 
and about the Botanical Gardens at Roseau. I am told that they are not 
rare elsewhere. 


Barbados. 

Extinct. 


Mabuya lanceolata Cope 


Mabuya sp. indet. 

Skincs occurred on Guadeloupe surely and probably on several other of 
the lesser Antilles from which they have’ disappeared without being described. 
There are skincs from Guadeloupe in the Paris Museum and perhaps preserved 
elsewhere. 

Mabuya mabouia (Dumeril & Bibron) 

Martinique. 

Extinct. 


Mabuya spilonota Wiegmann 


Jamaica. 

Now excessively rare. It has lately been shown to feed on Sphaerodactyls. 


Mabuya sloanii (Daudin) 

St. Thomas, St. Croix, Porto Rico, Mona, St. John, Just van Dyke, and Culebra. 
Possibly also Hispaniola. 

Much more material is needed to settle the status of many of the Antillean 
Mabuyas. At least two species are probably included under this name. 


106 


Zoologica: N . Y. Zoological Society 


[XI; 4 


Suborder OPHIDIA 
Family TYPHLOPIDAE 

Typhlops tenuis Salvin 

Mexico, Guatemala and Andros Island. 

Ros6n got what he called this species at Mastic Point in 1910. I have 
never felt very sure that it was not an undescribed form wrongly identified. 


Typhlops rostellatus Stejneger 

Porto Rico. 

Seems to be related to T. dominicana. Perhaps other species remain to 
be uncovered in the Lesser Antilles. 


Typhlops pusillus Barbour 


Hispaniola. 

Not uncommon in Haiti. 


Typhlops dominicana Stejneger 


Dominica and Guadeloupe. 

The specimens from Martinique should belong here, one would suppose, 
rather than to T. jamaicensis. More material is highly desirable from any of the 
islands. 

Typhlops sulcatus Cope 

Navassa. 

May not really be a valid species. It has not been found by the most 
recent collectors. 

Typhlops jamaicensis (Shaw) 

Jamaica, St. Thomas, Porto Rico and Martinique. 

This is a strange and anomalous distribution. Either these species have 
been carried far and wide by chance or some future revision based on more 
material will be desirable. No reptile has this distribution naturally. With 
more material available from St. Thomas and perhaps St. Croix it is not unlikely 
that T. richardii Dum6ril & Bibron, type locality St. Thomas, may be reestab- 
lished. 

Much aid has been derived from Miss Cochran’s recent synopsis of this 
group of blind snakes. 


Typhlops monensis Schmidt 


Mona Island. 

A little known member of the T. lumbricalis series. 


The species is not 


1930] 


Barbour : Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 


107 


very sharply defined. Only two specimens are known and more material is 
desirable and no doubt still obtainable. 

Typhlops lumbricalis (Linne) 

Cuba, Hispaniola, Andros, New Providence and Abaco. 

Common everywhere and no doubt fortuitously introduced into the Bahamas. 

Family LEPTOTYPHLOPIDAE 

Leptotyphlops albifrons (Wagler) 

Watlings Island, Antigua, Grenada and with a wide range in Tropical America. 

This tiny burrowing snake has an erratic distribution and has probably 
been carried about by primitive man, being occasionally introduced with 
material intended for garden planting. 

Leptotyphlops bilineata (Schlegel) 

Martinique, St. Lucia, Guadeloupe and Barbados. 

This, another tiny species, may have a considerably wider range among 
the islands than we now know. 

Family BOIDAE 

Epicrates angulifer Bibron 

Cuba and Isle of Pines. 

Formerly common everywhere, now confined to the wilder regions although 
individuals occasionally stray into the cultivated areas. The great extension 
of cane cultivation has decimated this species. Every cane cutter carries a 
machete all the time and uses it on every snake. 

Epicrates subflavus Stejneger 

Jamaica. 

I had supposed this species gone in Jamaica itself until a recent letter 
from Mr. Frank Cundall of Kingston tells me that one from the southeast part 
of the Island was recently brought to the Institute of Jamaica alive. It persists 
on Goat Island off the south coast in small numbers. 

Epicrates striatus (Fischer) 

Hispaniola and Andros and New Providence in the Bahamas. 

This boa is rather rare in Haiti and San Domingo but quite abundant in 
the Bahamas. 

Epicrates monensis Zenneck 

Mona. 

A very little known species but one which I believe to be most closely 
allied to E. jordii. 


108 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 
Epicrates gracilis (Fischer) 


[XI; 4 


Hispaniola. 

I have never seen a specimen of this form in all the Haitian material which 
has passed through my hands. As described it has a very peculiar and unique 
color pattern but modern material would be very welcome. 

Epicrates fordii (Gunther) 

Hispaniola. 

More information concerning this species will be awaited with interest. 
Is it well differentiated from E. gracilis and E. chrysogaster ? 

Epicrates chrysogaster (Cope) 

Turks Island. 

Of this form I have no recent information. It is related to the little boas 
of Mona and Hispaniola, E. fordii or E. gracilis. 

Epicrates inornatus (Reinhardt) 

Porto Rico. 

Now a really rare species and one which is related to the large boas of 
Cuba, Jamaica and Hispaniola. 

Boa grenadensis Barbour 

Grenada. 

I may not have been justified in separating this form from B. cooikii. I am, 
however, inclined to believe that it is fairly well differentiated and stabilized. 

It is not very rare. 

Boa hortulana Linne 

St. Vincent, Grenada, The Grenadines and Trinidad, widespread on the main- 
land. 

The species still occurs on Grenada and may, being arboreal, persist on 
St. Vincent. This, however, I am inclined now to doubt. 

Constrictor orophias (Linne) 

St. Lucia, Dominica. 

The “tete chien” is rare on St. Lucia but still occurs — and even occasionally 
at least eats a mongoose. On Dominica it is less uncommon. There is a 
Zoological Park (Phila.) record for St. Kitts which I believe to be incorrect, 
captive snakes get carried far and wide and dealers convey notoriously inaccur- 
ate locality records. There are also records from Trinidad but my friend, 
Mr. Urich, a most competent resident authority, told me that the species does 
not occur in Trinidad. It is confined to two islands only. 


1930] 


Barbour : Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 


109 


Tropidophis maculatus (Bibron) 

Cuba and Isle of Pines. Found sparingly in Western Cuba and the Isle of Pines. 

I am following Miss Stull's conclusions in the taxonomy of this genus. I 
am not wholly convinced of the relationships implied but her work has been most 
painstaking and is based on all available material. 

Tropidophis maculatus jamaicensis Stull 

Jamaica. 

Excessively rare, almost extinct, since the introduction of the mongoose. 

Tropidophis maculatus haetianus (Cope) 

Hispaniola. 

Not uncommon all over the Island. 

Tropidophis pardalis pardalis (Gundlach) 

Cuba and Great Abaco Island. 

This is a most unlikely distribution. Artificial introduction is possible 
but most improbable. Convergence to identity or persistence of a type on 
Abaco, which has differentiated on other Bahama Islands from a once wide- 
spread form is a scarcely satisfactory explanation either. 

Tropidophis pardalis canus (Cope) 

Inagua and Eleuthera Islands. 

This species seems to be common where it occurs. It may also be found 
on others of the southern islands. 

Tropidophis pardalis curtus (Garinan) 

New Providence, Bahamas. 

A common form. It occurs under stones of walls and in the rocks heaped 
about the orange trees. Since it at times sallies forth after heavy rains it is 
locally called “thunder snake. ” Like all its congeners it is nocturnal. 

Tropidophis pardalis androsi Stull 

Andros Island. 

Apparently abundant but I have never happened to see a specimen. 

Tropidophis pardalis bucculentus (Cope) 

Navassa. 

Known from but three specimens, it has not been found by recent expedi- 
tions. 

Tropidophus wrighti Stull 

Cuba. 

Known, so far as I am aware, from the type only. This was taken by Charles 


110 Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [XI; 4 

Wright the’ botanist who collected for a long time in the Guantanamo Basin and, 
I think, nowhere else in Cuba. 

Tropidophis melanurus (Schlegel) 

Cuba. 

The largest member of the genus, reaching a length of nearly a yard. It is 
abundant and widespread. It feeds on frogs, lizards and birds. Although 
more inclined to be arboreal than the other species of the genus, it is equally 
nocturnal and perhaps the most abundant of them all. 

Tropidophis semicinctus (Gundlach & Peters) 

Cuba and Isle of Pines. 

Widespread but distinctly uncommon. 

Family COLUBRIDAE 

Natrix compressidauda Kennicott 

Cuba, Florida Keys, extreme southwestern Florida. 

My finding this species on the north coast of Cuba established the specific 
identity of the excessively rare Cuban Natrix and relegated several long ques- 
tioned names to a definite synonymy. 

Tretanorhinus variabilis Dumeril & Bibron 

Cuba. 

Not uncommon in fresh water ponds and rivers. A nocturnal species. Its 
mainland ally T. nigroluteus is rather partial to mangrove swamps. 

Tretanorhinus insulae-pinorum Barbour 

Isle of Pines. 

This species seems to have regularly 19 rows of scales while the Cuban 
snakes have 21. This is, at first sight, a trivial character but one which is appar- 
ently really diagnostic. 


Drymobius boddaerti (Sentzen) 

St. Vincent, Grenada and having elsewhere a vast neotropical distribution. 
Extinct on St. Vincent and very rare in Grenada. 

Uromacer oxyrhynchus Dumeril & Bibron 
Hispaniola and Isle Tortue. 

A form found all over the Island, i. e. both Haiti and San Domingo. I have 
seen it from Port au Prince and Samana. 


1930] Barbour : Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 111 

TJromacer frenatus (Gunther) 

Hispaniola and Isle Tortue. 

I have only seen specimens from Haiti and know little of the abundance 
or distribution of this species. 

Uromacer catesbyi (Schlegel) 

Hispaniola and La Gonave. 

A widespread but rather rare species. 

Uromacer scandax Dunn 

Isle Tortue, near Haiti. 

An abundant ally of U. catesbyi. 

Uromacer dorsalis Dunn 

La Gonave Island. 

Apparently a derivative of the Haitian U. frenatus. 

Hypsirhynchus ferox Gunther 

Hispaniola. 

A common widespread species, and one which is strictly nocturnal and ovi- 
parous. 

Alsophis anomalus (Peters) 

Hispaniola. 

I have but little information to give concerning this species. Dr. G. M. 
Allen took one at Port au Prince in 1919. I have received no other recent speci- 
men. 

Alsophis sanctorum Barbour 

Les Saintes Is. near Guadeloupe. 

No doubt abundant still. 

Alsophis sibonius Cope 

Dominica. 

With no mongoose on this island, the species should be abundant still. 
There are still great areas of wild land on Dominica. 

Alsophis leucomelas (Dumeril & Bibron) 

Guadeloupe and Marie Galante. 

Extinct on both islands. This may have been the species reported from 
Montserrat but it is more probable that this Island supports an undescribed 
form — if snakes are still to be found. 


112 


Zoological N . Y. Zoological Society 
Alsophis sanctae-eracis Cop© 


[XI; 4 


St. Croix. 

Extinct. 

Alsophis melanichnus Cope 

Hispaniola. 

We await more informatiom concerning this snake with great interest. Its 
rarity in the collections which have come before me is perhaps indicative that 
it is fast disappearing. 

Alsophis rijgersmaei Cope 

St. Martins. 

No herpetologist has visited St. Martins in recent years. 

Alsophis cinereus Carman 

St. Barts, and Anguilla. 

Abundant in Anguilla but of St. Barts, we have no recent news. 

Alsophis variegatus (Schmidt) 

Mona Island. 

Still probably abundant. 

Alsophis portoricensis (Reinhardt & Liitken) 

Porto Rico, Desecheo and Caja de Muertos Island. 

A distinctly rare form. 

Alsophis anegadae Barbour 

Anegada. 

I still feel that this form warrants recognition as valid. Its peculiar pattern 
is characteristic of every Anegada specimen which I have seen, even though it 
occurs very sporadically elsewhere, where other patterns are the place mode. 

Alsophis antillensis (Schlegel) 

St. Thomas, St. John, Virgin Gorda and Porto Rico. 

Extinct on St. Thomas, rare on Porto Rico, elsewhere abundant. 


Alsophis rufiventris (Dumeril & Bibron) 

Saba, St. Kitts, St. Eustatius and Nevis. 

Still abundant on Saba and St. Eustatius but extinct on the other two 
islands. This may have been the form which occurred on Antigua but which 
became extinct before any specimens were ever secured. 


Alsophis vudii Cope 


Bahama Islands . 

This racer is common on most of the middle group of Bahama Islands : — 


1930] 


Barbour : Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 


113 


New Providence, Eleuthera, Long Island, Green Cay, the Exuma Cays, and no 
doubt upon many others. 

Alsophis fuscicauda Garman 

Cayman Brae. 

I do not feel certain of the status of this species until much more material 
is secured. 

Alsophis caymanus Garman 

Grand Cayman. 

I have never seen sufficient material to decide whether this form is really 
different from that of Cuba. 


Alsophis angulifer Bibron 

Cuba and Isle of Pines. 

A very common species in all open plains, pastures and savannas. 


Dromieus andreae Reinhardt & Liitken 


Cuba. 

A common snake at pastures and open fields. 


Dromieus nefoulatus (Barbour) 

Isle of Pines. 

Another common form. It is closely related to the foregoing species, indeed 
closely similar specimens occur also in extreme eastern Cuba. We should 
probably recognize three races or abandon this name. 


Dromieus callilaemus Gosse 

Jamaica. 

Small and more retiring, this species is not so near extermination as L. ater. 
Nevertheless it is a distinctly rare snake. 


Dromieus ater Gosse 

Jamaica.. 

Very rare indeed. A species which has suffered fearful ravages from the 
mongoose. 

Dromieus juliae Cope 

Dominica. 

Probably still not uncommon. 


Dromieus melanotus (Shaw) 

Grenada, Trinidad and Venezuela. 

Extinct apparently on Grenada but common elsewhere. 


114 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society 
Dromicus perfuscus Cope 


[XI; 4 


Barbados. 

Extinct. 

Dromicus mariae (Barbour) 

Marie Galante. 

Extinct. 

Dromicus boulengeri (Barbour) 

St. Lucia. 

Extinct. 

Dromicus cursor (Lac6pede) 

Martinique. 

Extinct. 

Dromicus anegadae Barbour 

Anegada. 

We have no recent information concerning this form but no reason to 
suppose that it is not still abundant. 


Dromicus exiguus Cope 
St. Thomas, St. John and Culebra. 

Extinct on St. Thomas, it is probably not uncommon on the other islands. 


Dromicus stahli (Stejneger) 


Porto Rico. 

Still not uncommon, widely distributed and confined to this Island. 


Dromicus tortuganus (Dunn) 

Isle Tortue, near Haiti. 

Another well marked form of which, however, but two specimens have 
been taken, so far as I am aware. 

Dromicus alleni (Dunn) 

La Gonave Island. 

A distinct and striking island form. 

r 

Dromicus parvifrons niger (Dunn) 

Hispaniola. 

This form inhabits most of San Domingo and I have found it on Beata 
Island. 

Dromicus parvifrons protenus (Jan) 

Hispaniola. 

A common widespread form. Known from many localities in northern 
and central Haiti and the higher plateau of San Domingo. 


1930 ] Barbour: Antillean Reptiles and Amphibians 115 

Dromicus parvifrons parvifrons (Cope) 

Hispaniola. 

One of several races which appear to be common, reasonably well localized 
in southwest Haiti and probably valid. 

Arrhyton taeniatum Gunther 

Cuba. 

An uncommon species, like its fellow, found by day under stones or while 
plowing. At night it is sometimes met with abroad. 

Arrhyton vittatum (Gundlach & Peters) 

Cuba. 

I now consider that there are but two species of this genus peculiar to Cuba. 
Several other names have been given, as I believe to individuals variants only. 
These snakes are close allies of Contia of the mainland. 

CMia cloelia (Daudin) 

Dominica, St. Lucia, Grenada, Trinidad and tropical America generally. 

This species is surely extinct in St. Lucia, probably excessively rare on Gren- 
ada and its status on Dominica is still, no doubt, unchanged. I have never, 
however, seen or heard of recent specimens from any of the islands. Neverthe- 
less, I think the records are really based on valid wild caught specimens. 

Pseudoboa neuweidii (Dum6ril & Bibron) 

Grenada, Trinidad and with a wide range in tropical America. 

Garman took three examples on Grenada during the Blake Expedition 
about 1883. So far as I can learn it has never been taken before or since. 

laltris dorsalis (Gunther) 

Hispaniola. 

A large and uncommon species which has been found in both Haiti and San 
Domingo. It seems to have no close allies among Antillean reptiles and to be 
very rarely collected indeed. 


Family CROTALIDAE 
Bothrops atrox (Linne) 

Martinique and St. Lucia. 

What ever may be the origin of the Fer-de-lance’s appearance on these 
islands, one thing Amaral has definitely proved,— the snake is the common 
wide ranging form of tropical America. 


116 


Zoologica : N. Y. Zoological Society 


[XI; 4 


Order CHELONIA 
Family TESTUDINIDAE 
Pseudemys rugosa (Stahl) 

Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola and Porto Rico. 

I am not yet convinced that Schmidt’s P. stejnegeri is valid nor am I by any 
means sure that the many local ideas as to multiplicity of species have any 
foundation in fact but I am often too conservative and hence wrong in such mat- 
ters. Every Cuban guajiro believes that there is more than one species in Cuba. 

Order LORI CAT A 
Family CROCODYL1DAE 

Crocodylus rhombifer Cuvier 

Cuba and Isle of Pines. 

Found in the Zapata Swamp in Cuba and no doubt still also in the Cienaga 
of the Isle of Pines. Specimens over six feet long are less often seen now than a 
generation ago. 

Crocodylus acutus Cuvier 

Cuba, Jamaica and Hispaniola; as well as Florida and Central America. 

Crocodylus intermedius Graves 

Orinoco Basin. 

Accidental in Grenada, 6 Sept. 1910. 


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ZOOLOGICA 

SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



VOLUME XI. NUMBER 5 


DIGITAL EPIPHYSES AND CARPAL BONES 
IN THE GROWING INFANT FEMALE GORILLA 
WITH SITTING HEIGHT, WEIGHT 
AND ESTIMATED AGE 

By Charles V. Noback 

New York Zoological Park 


PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 
THE ZOOLOGICAL PARK, NEW YORK 


December 30, 1930 


Jleto |9otk Zoological g>ocietp 

General Office: 101 Park Avenue, New York City 


Officers 

President , Madison Grant ; 

Honorary President , Henry Fairfield Osborn ; 

Vice-President, Frank K. Sturgis; and Henry D. Whiton; 

Chairman, Executive Committee, Madison Grant; 

Treasurer, Cornelius R. Agnew; 

Secretary, William White Niles 

JBoarb .of lEcustees 

Class of 1931 

George Bird Grinnell, Mortimer L. Schiff, Frederic C. Walcott, 
George C. Clark, W. Redmond Cross, Henry Fairfield 
Osborn, Jr., George Gordon Battle, Bayard Dominick, 

Anson W. Hard, Robert Gordon McKay, Kermit 
Roosevelt, Grafton H. Pyne. 

Class of 1932 

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ward S. Harkness, Edwin Thorne, Irving K. Taylor, Harry 
Payne Bingham, Landon K. Thorne, J. Watson 
Webb, Oliver D. Filley, De Forest 
Grant, H. de B. Parsons 

Class of 1933 

Madison Grant, Wm. White Niles, Frank K. Sturgis, Lewis R. Morris, 
Archer M. Huntington, George D. Pratt, T. Coleman du Pont, 
Henry D. Whiton, Cornelius R. Agnew, Harrison 
Williams, Marshall Field, Ogden L. Mills 

W. Reid Blair, Director of the Zoological Park; 

William T. Hornaday, Director Emeritus; 

Charles H. Townsend, Director of the Aquarium; 

C. M. Breder, Jr., Research Associate, Aquarium; 

Raymond L. Ditmars, Curator of Mammals and Reptiles; 

William Beebe, Honorary Curator of Birds and Director of Department of 

Tropical Research; 

Lee S. Crandall, Curator of Birds; 

H. C. Raven, Prosector; 

Charles V. Noback, Veterinarian; 

Claude W. Leister, Ass’t. to the Director and Curator, Educational Activities; 

El win R. Sanborn, Editor 

Ctatorial Committee 

Madison Grant, Chairman; 

Charles H. Townsend 
George Bird Grinnell 

Elwin R. Sanborn, Secretary 


W. Reid Blair 
William Beebe 


Zoologica, Vol. XI, No. 5 


DIGITAL EPIPHYSES AND CARPAL BONES 
IN THE GROWING INFANT FEMALE GORILLA 

WITH SITTING HEIGHT, WEIGHT 
AND ESTIMATED AGE* 

By Charles V. Noback 

New York Zoological Park. 


(Figs. 57 to 72 incl.) 

It is the purpose of the writer to present the results of some 
observations on growth in the infant female gorilla based upon 
a study of four dead and one living specimen. Each of the speci- 
mens is apparently referrable to Gorilla gorilla. 

The observations have been confined to the growth changes 
in the bones of the hand as revealed by means of a radiographic 
examination, and to the sitting height, weight, dentition, and the 
estimated age. As the chronological age is estimated it naturally 
follows that it is subject to correction. 


The Material. 

The material observed consists of four- dead specimens and 
one living female gorilla, “Janet Penserosa. ,, Their ages range 
from about 9 to 42 months, and the sitting height (Crown-rump) 
from 37.5 to 63.5 centimeters. Janet Penserosa, the living speci- 
men, is at the New York Zoological Park and at the present time 
appears to be in good physical condition. 


Method of Presentation. 

The observations will be presented in eight arbitrary stages 
of physical growth based upon the material observed. Starting 
with the smallest and youngest, each specimen will be described 


^Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical 
Anthropologists at Cleveland, Ohio, December 30, 1930, at the 87th Meeting of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science. 

[ 117 ] 


118 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [Vol. XI; 5 


separately in the order of its sitting height and dentition. Obser- 
vations which will serve to show growth changes in the same living 
individual were made upon Penserosa at four successive periods 
of time. In conclusion a summary of the observations will be 
tabulated in a composite table. 


Specimen No. 1. 

History. 

The preserved body of this specimen (C. A. 1105) is in the 
collection of the Department of Comparative Anatomy at the 
American Museum of Natural History. 

This young gorilla was captured by natives in the Cameroon 
of West Central Africa sometime during the spring of 1928 and 
was brought to Duala on the west coast of Central Africa. It 
was purchased at this port by a sea captain and taken on board 
a freight steamer to Brooklyn, N. Y., arriving at the latter port 
about July 22, 1928. During the voyage at sea, about twelve 
weeks, its food consisted of bananas (plantain) and diluted 
condensed milk. It had apparently become infected on board 
ship, since at the time of arrival it was suffering from a “com- 
mon cold,” according to the history given by the ship’s captain. 
The captain had treated the suffering baby gorilla for a “cold” 
with home remedies and simple cough mixtures for about a week, 
after which the writer was called to examine the sick gorilla. 
On the night of July 29, 1928, an emaciated infant female gorilla 
was seen gasping for breath, with a mucopurulent discharge 
from the eyes and nostrils. Its gums were tender and swollen as 
the result of teething. The pharynx was congested and con- 
tained a mucopurulent exudate. Respiration was labored and 
painful. On auscultation increased sibilant bronchial tones were 
heard while on percussion dullness over the upper right lobe was 
present, with tenderness and pain in the lower parts of the chest 
wall. A diagnosis of broncho-pneumonia and pleurisy was made. 
Since the infant gorilla was very weak and unable to move about 
or sit up, a very unfavorable prognosis was made. It died the 
next morning, on July 30, 1928. Cause of death: Broncho- 
pneumonia and complications following a “common cold.” 

No autopsy was performed, but instead the remains were 
sent to the Department of Comparative Anatomy at the American 
Museum of Natural History in New York City, where it is now 
known as C. A. 1105. It is hoped that the viscera will be ex- 
amined for gross pathological changes whenever the specimen 
may be dissected. It is believed that this is the youngest and 


1930] Noback: Digital Epiphyses Infant Gorilla 119 

smallest specimen of an infant female gorilla in the United 
States. 

The weight of its body at the time of death was Sy 2 pounds, 
or 3.86 kg. Its sitting height was 37.5 cm. Schultz 1 has reported 
as follows on this preserved specimen: “The preserved body 

of a small gorilla at the American Museum of Natural History 
(C. A. 1105) has eight incisors and four molars and weighs 
4.5 kg. ... its sitting height measures only 368 mm. and its head 
length 115 mm. as compared with the corresponding dimensions 
of Famelart’s gorilla, etc.” The writer wishes to call attention 
to an apparent discrepancy in the weight of the specimen as 
given by Schultz, i. e., 4.5 kg. and the weight of 3.86 kg. as 
recorded in this paper. This difference in weight can readily 
be explained by stating that the weight of 3,86 kg. was made 
before the specimen had been injected and placed in preserving 
fluid. 

Since this gorilla was emaciated and evidently underweight 
as the result of disease, its weight cannot be considered as 
normal. 


Tabulation of Observations on Gorilla No. 1. 


Estimated Age 9 to 12 months. 

Sitting Height 37.5 cm. (According to Schultz, 36.8 cm.) 

Weight 3.86 kg. (SV 2 pounds.) 

Dentition 12 teeth. 4 upper and 4 lower incisors; 2 

upper and 2 lower premolars. 


Radiographic Record of the bones of the hand (Figs. 57-58). 


Radius Slight bowing. 

Ulna Relatively straight. 

Distal Epiphyses of Radius. . .Visible in right and left hand. 

Distal Epiphyses of Ulna Visible in right hand only. 

Carpal Bones Os Capitatum (Magnum) and Os Hamatum 

(Unciform) visible. 

Proximal Epiphyses of 

First Metacarpal None visible. 

Distal Epiphyses of 

Metacarpal Bones Spherical and porous in appearance, and 

present in 2-3-4. The third is the largest. 

Proximal Epiphyses 

First Phalanx 2-3-4 visible. 

Proximal Epiphyses 

Second Phalanx None visible. 

Proximal Epiphyses 

Third Phalanx None visible. 


The above observations represent the stage of growth and development 
of the parts examined at the time of this gorilla’s death. 


120 


Zoologica: N. Y. Zoological Society [Vol. XI; 5 


Specimen No. 2. 

History. 

An infant female gorilla was obtained from natives by the 
captain and steward of a freight steamer at a port on the west 
coast of Central Africa on May 28, 1930. It was a very young 
specimen, which was teething at the time of purchase and had 
been quite ill during the sea voyage. The diet consisted of 
diluted whole dried milk and bananas. During the trip it was 
kept in a hot, poorly ventilated room, with one chimpanzee as 
a companion. This specimen arrived at Brooklyn, New York, 
on the night of August 5, 1930. Mr. Ellis S. Joseph, an animal 
importer and dealer, saw the weak, ailing infant gorilla on the 
night of August 6, 1930, and received permission to take it to 
his home for medical treatment. He described it as being in 
a state of exhaustion since it was panting for air in the hot, 
stifling atmosphere of a cabin room which had been fumigated. 
A denuded area the size of a half dollar, caused by the bite 
of the chimpanzee companion, was found on the left side of the 
head over the parietal bone. 

The writer was called and saw the ailing infant gorilla, named 
“Trixie,” at ten o’clock at night. It was found lying on its back 
in a weakened condition, unable to get up except with the greatest 
difficulty, when it would attempt to sit up only to fall to one 
side from sheer weakness. It seemed to be most comfortable 
lying on its back. Respiration was irregular, at first deep and 
labored, then gradually becoming weaker and almost fading out, 
then the respiration would become deeper again. A slight 
mucopurulent discharge was present from both eyes and nostrils, 
indicating the presence of a “common cold.” Reddened tender 
gums with teeth in the process of eruption were present, indi- 
cating that the milk dentition was being completed. 

A diagnosis of myocardial degeneration resulting from ex- 
haustion and a “common cold” was made. Prognosis was very 
unfavorable as the gorilla was practically in a moribund state. 
There were several attacks of cardiac weakness during the night, 
with severe dysponea. Artificial respiration was resorted to 
twice with only sl